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Total results with these characteristics: 63

Topic: Delivery technologies

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Improving the Affordability of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccines (IPV) for Use in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Economic Analysis of Strategies to Reduce the Cost of Routine IPV Immunization

This report presents results from an economic model that calculates the costs involved in delivering IPV vaccine in Indian immunization clinics according to three strategies: (1) intradermal delivery of reduced volumes of vaccine per dose, (2) use …

Author: PATH, Working in Tandem, Ltd.

Publication date: 2010

Improving the Reach of Vaccines to Low-Resource Regions, With a Needle-Free Vaccine Delivery Device and Long-Term Thermostabilization

In this article, published in the Journal of Controlled Release, the authors describe how dry-coated microprojections, a needle-free vaccine delivery device, can deliver vaccine to abundant antigen-presenting cells in the skin and induce efficient …

Author: Chen X, Fernando GJP, Crichton ML, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Incremental Costs of Introducing Jet Injection Technology for Delivery of Routine Childhood Vaccinations: Comparative Analysis From Brazil, India, and South Africa

This article, published in Vaccine, describes a study that estimated the incremental costs of transitioning from needles and syringes to delivering childhood vaccines with disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJIs) in Brazil, India, and South Africa. …

Author: Griffiths UK, Santos AC, Nundy N, Jacoby E, Matthias D

Publication date: 2011

Intradermal Delivery for Vaccine Dose Sparing: Overview of Current Issues

Preclinical and clinical data highlight potential benefits from intradermal delivery of reduced doses of vaccines, possibly using novel delivery devices. This article, published in Vaccine, outlines evidence gaps and logistical challenges of this …

Author: Zehrung D, Jarrahian C, Wales A

Publication date: 2013

Intradermal Delivery of Vaccines: A Review of the Literature and the Potential for Development for Use in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

The purpose of this report is: (1) to summarize the clinical evidence supporting the intradermal route for vaccine administration and the devices being developed for this purpose; (2) to determine whether intradermal delivery broadly holds promise …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Intradermal Delivery of Vaccines: Potential Benefits and Current Challenges

This article, published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, explores the ways by which the delivery of vaccine antigens to the dermis and/or epidermis layers of the skin (i.e., intradermal vaccine delivery) might be more efficient than …

Author: Hickling JK, Jones KR, Friede M, Zehrung D, Chen D, Kristensen D

Publication date: 2011

Intranasal Delivery Devices

Intranasal delivery devices deliver vaccines or medications directly to the nasal cavity or lungs, where they can be absorbed directly by the appropriate tissues. This fact sheet describes PATH's work on intranasal delivery devices to administer …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2011

Landscape Analysis: Trends in Vaccine Availability and Novel Vaccine Delivery Technologies: 2008–2025

This landscape analysis identifies trends in the availability of vaccines and novel vaccine delivery technologies that are and will be of relevance to low- and middle-income countries from the present through 2025.

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Landscape for Safe Injection, Phlebotomy, and Waste Management Equipment

This report contains an assessment of the current market availability of safe injection, phlebotomy, and waste management equipment, as well as guidance on the procurement of this equipment.

Author: Making Medical Injections Safer

Publication date: 2010

Microarray Patches for Vaccine Delivery

This fact sheet highlights PATH’s work on microarray patches (also known as microneedle patches) for vaccine delivery. It explores the advantages of delivering vaccines by microarray patch, including the potential for increased thermostability, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Mucosal Immunization Technologies

PATH developed a mucosal immunization technology platform--viable in two formats--that builds on several proven formulation, adjuvant, and delivery technologies that enable the efficient sublingual administration of subunit vaccines. Part of PATH's …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Needle-Free Jet Injector Intradermal Delivery of Fractional Dose Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine: Association Between Injection Quality and Immunogenicity

The polio end-game strategy recommends the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in all countries currently using only oral poliovirus vaccine. Administration of fractional dose IPV (fIPV) by intradermal injection may reduce the costs …

Author: Resik S, Tejeda A, Mach O, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Optimal Intramuscular Needle-Penetration Depth

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has needle-length recommendations for intramuscular vaccinations in the thigh and shoulder on the basis of the age of the child. Underpenetration of the intramuscular layer with short needles …

Author: Lippert WC, Wall E

Publication date: 2008


The Op.ti.mize e-newsletter is a quarterly publication that highlights advances and innovations in health care logistics, technologies, and policy. Developed by Project Optimize, a collaboration between the World Health Organization and PATH, this …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Oral Delivery Technologies

Vaccines against some pathogens can be more efficacious when delivered by the oral route, particularly if these are the routes of infection. This fact sheet describes PATH's approach to technologies for the oral delivery of vaccines and their …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Pentavalent Vaccine in the Uniject™ Injection System: A Time and Motion Study

This report delivers the results of a time and motion study conducted in Kenya to understand the perceived benefits and challenges of a fully liquid pentavalent vaccine (which combines five antigens for protection against diphtheria, tetanus, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Pentavalent Vaccine in the Uniject™ Injection System: Health Care Waste Management Considerations

This report details the findings of a quantitative and qualitative analysis on the health care waste produced using the Uniject™ injection system compared to standard syringes with fully liquid pentavalent vaccines (targeting diphtheria, tetanus, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Perceptions About Injections and Private-Sector Injection Practices in Central Nepal

This eye-opening report documents provider injection practices and attitudes toward medical injections among providers and the general public. In spite of widespread use of disposible syringes and seemingly high awareness of the dangers of …

Author: PATH and the General Welfare Pratisthan

Publication date: 2000

Presentation Matters: Buffers, Packaging, and Delivery Devices for New, Oral Enteric Vaccines for Infants

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, highlights the importance of final vaccine presentation features in achieving optimal vaccine impact for new oral enteric vaccine candidates. Oral administration of vaccines …

Author: Lal M, Jarrahian C

Publication date: 2017

Proper Handling and Disposal of Auto-Disable Syringes and Safety Boxes

Part of the "Training Resource Series," this unique training module was specially designed to be easy to adapt for specific national programs. In addition to key technical content it includes quizzes, role plays, and creative ideas for trainers.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

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