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Total results with these characteristics: 37

Resource type: Presentation

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Global Immunization Newsletters (GIN)

A monthly newsletter that contains updates on immunization technologies and the introduction of new vaccines, as well as information on country-specific immunization activities.

Author: World Health Organization

Guía Práctica de Enfermedades y Vacunas

This Argentinean website provides information about vaccine preventable diseases and is a professional, independent site run by Carlos Kohler. It includes international and Argentinean news and information and is the online Practical Guide to …

Author: Dr. Carlos Kohler

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Malawi

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Malawi. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Malawian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Directory of Immunization Resources

This web page provides an extensive directory of immunization resources for health care professionals, including information on particular diseases and vaccines, immunization schedules, and frequently asked questions. The resources are gathered from …

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

Edward Jenner and the Discovery of Vaccination

This online exhibition showcases rare books and historical documents dealing with immunization, with a focus on Edward Jenner's role in the discovery of vaccination. His research was based on careful case studies and clinical observation more than a …

Author: Thomas Cooper Library, University of South Carolina

Publication date: 1996

Eurosurveillance

Similar to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, these archives contain euro-specific disease surveillance information.

Author: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

PATH's Children's Vaccine Program: Increasing Immunization Coverage, Improving Immunization Safety, and Expanding Protection

This short paper highlights some of the key achievements of PATH's Children's Vaccine Program on the occasion of its sixth anniversary, with a special focus on China, India, and Indonesia. The Program's mission is to promote equal access to new …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2004

Andhra Pradesh: Building a Model Immunization System

This report discusses the work of PATH's Children's Vaccine Program and the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh to build a model immunization program, including the incorporation of hepatitis B vaccine into the childhood vaccination program.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2004

Cambodia: "Coverage Improvement Planning" Pays Off

This report discusses the work of PATH's Children's Vaccine Program and the Australian International Health Institute of the University of Melbourne to provide technical assistance with immunization programming to Cambodia, including the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2004

Senegal: Changing the Face of Immunization in West Africa

This report discusses the work of PATH's Children's Vaccine Program in conjunction with the Senegalese government, health care workers, and local communities to introduce innovative, practical technologies to improve vaccine delivery …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2004

Vietnam: Progress Beyond High Coverage

This report discusses the work of PATH's Children's Vaccine Program, in close collaboration with the Vietnamese National Expanded Program on Immunization, to increase immunization program quality, safety, and efficiency.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Tracking Progress Toward Polio Eradication — Worldwide, 2013–2014

This article, published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, presents 2013 and 2014 poliovirus surveillance data, focusing primarily on the two World Health Organization regions with endemic wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission and the 29 …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2015

Press Briefing Transcripts: Media Availability on Vaccine Safety

This web page contains the transcript of a telebriefing between media and experts at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the science of vaccines and autism.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2008

Global Immunization Vision and Strategy

The World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund jointly drafted this strategy for the years 2006–2015. It outlines goals to expand the reach of immunization to every eligible person, sustain existing levels of vaccine …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2005

Vaccines (Immunizations) Health Guide

This online health guide from the New York Times provides an overview of immunization as well as specific diseases. Also included are an expert Q&A, questions for your doctor about vaccines, and information on clincial trials.

Author: New York Times

Jordan Report: Accelerated Development of Vaccines 2012

This comprehensive report includes expert articles on a variety of vaccine-related topics and updates on vaccine research for specific infectious diseases, such as influenza, malaria, respiratory syncytial virus, and rotavirus.

Author: US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Publication date: 2012

Vaccines Today

This website is an online platform for discussing vaccines and vaccination. The portal, sponsored by the European Vaccine Manufacturers (EVM), strives to provide an interactive forum for debate as well as serving as a source of reliable information …

Author: European Vaccine Manufacturers

Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib)

This user-friendly website provides extensive information about Haemophilus influenzae disease, including Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). It includes detailed information about the disease, surveillance, and vaccination, as well as links to …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Immunization Coverage

This fact sheet provides an overview of global immunization coverage based on the latest World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund estimates. It includes data on deaths averted due to immunization in general, as well as figures …

Author: World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2017

Influences on Parental Acceptance of HPV Vaccination in Demonstration Projects in Uganda and Vietnam

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study to investigate the effect of communication strategies on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake in HPV vaccine demonstration projects in Uganda and Vietnam. The study found that exposure to …

Author: Galagan SR, Paul P, Menezes L, LaMontagne DS

Publication date: 2013

Paving the Way for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prevention: Vaccine Development Against a Widespread Cause of Respiratory Illness in Infants and Young Children

This fact sheet highlights PATH's work to develop a vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with the potential to help control RSV in the developing world through prevention.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

The Science of Immunisation: Questions and Answers

This publication aims to address confusion created by contradictory information in the public domain regarding immunization. It sets out to explain the current situation in immunization science, including where there is consensus in the scientific …

Author: Australian Academy of Science

Publication date: 2012

The Immunological Basis for Immunization Series

This web page provides links to individual disease/vaccine-specific modules that are intended to give immunization managers and vaccination professionals a brief and easy-to-understand overview of the scientific basis of vaccination, as well as the …

Author: World Health Organization

Vesikari Clinical Severity Scoring System Manual

This manual provides a suggested standardized methodology for implementing the Vesikari Clinical Severity Scoring System across rotavirus vaccine studies and provides details on scoring system parameters, identifies implementation challenges, and …

Author: Kristen Lewis

Publication date: 2011

The Initiative for Vaccine Research: Strategic Plan 2010 - 2020

This document outlines current and future plans, objectives, and milestones for the department dedicated to vaccines and immunization at the World Health Organization (WHO). This long-term strategic plan takes account of the evolving vaccine …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2010

Options for Inactivation, Adjuvant, and Route of Topical Administration of a Killed, Unencapsulated Pneumococcal Whole-Cell Vaccine

This article, published in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, describes research conducted at Children’s Hospital Boston which showed that killing cells of a noncapsulated strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae with chloroform, tricholorethylene, or …

Author: Lu Y-J, Yadav P, Clements JD, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publish Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, an excellent source for up-to-date information on disease surveillance in the United States and globally.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Shigella Isolates From the Global Enteric Multicenter Study Inform Vaccine Development

This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, reports on the Shigella serotypes identified in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study conducted in Africa and Asia in order to guide vaccine development efforts. The authors found that Shigella …

Author: Livio S, Strockbine NA, Panchalingam S, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Vaccines for Preventing Rotavirus Diarrhoea: Vaccines in Use

This review, published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, evaluates three rotavirus vaccines currently in use: Rotarix and RotaTeq, which have been evaluated in several large trials and are approved for use in many countries; and …

Author: Soares-Weiser K, MacLehose H, Ben-Aharon I, Goldberg E, Pitan F, Cunliffe N

Publication date: 2010

Vaccine

A peer reviewed journal published by Elsevier. The tables of contents and abstracts are online. Archived editions may be searched by keyword and author. Users may register at this site for free Tables of Contents to be sent via email.

Author: Elsevier

Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of Alternative Schedules of HPV Vaccine in Vietnam: A Cluster Randomized Noninferiority Trial

A potential barrier to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine introduction in low-resource countries is the three-dose schedule over a six-month period of time. This article, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, describes the …

Author: Neuzil KM, Canh DG, Thiem VD, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance

Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance is a global health partnership focused on saving children's lives and protecting people's health by increasing access to immunization in poor countries. Gavi is focused on accelerating the uptake and use of underused and …

Author: Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance

Health Systems and Immunization Financing for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Introduction in Low-Resource Settings

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study that assessed health systems and immunization financing in order to offer recommendations for appropriate and effective strategies for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine delivery in low-resource …

Author: Biellik R, Levin C, Mugisha E, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Weekly Epidemiological Record

Similar to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, these World Health Organization archives contain global disease surveillance information.

Author: World Health Organization

Immunization Surveillance, Assessment and Monitoring

This web page provides up-to-date information on regional and global incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases, as well as rates of immunization coverage. Most of the data is derived from official reports by World Health Organization (WHO) Member …

Author: World Health Organization

Childhood Immunization: What You Need to Know

Information for parents and health care workers about diseases and vaccines, extensive questions and answers, and charts comparing disease risk versus vaccine risk.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2004

Comparison of the Immunogenicity and Safety of Measles Vaccine Administered Alone or With Live, Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis SA 14-14-2 Vaccine in Philippine Infants

This article, published in the journal Vaccine, presents data generated through a PATH-supported study that demonstrated safe and immunogenic coadministration of measles vaccine and the live, attenuated japanese encephalitis vaccine. ABSTRACT …

Author: Gatchalian S, Yao Y, Zhoub B, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Fragile Lives - Immunization at Risk

Hailed as "the greatest public health success story of all time," today childhood immunization faces obstacles never seen before. While immunization still saves three million young lives each year, millions more could be saved if there were enough …

Author: PATH, Barraclough Productions

Publication date: 2004

Mercury Levels in Newborns and Infants After Receipt of Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines

This article, published in Pediatrics, reports on a study assessing blood levels and the elimination of ethyl mercury after vaccination of infants with thimerosal-containing vaccines. The authors concluded that the blood half-life of intramuscular …

Author: Pichichero ME, Gentile A, Giglio N, et al.

Publication date: 2008

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD)

The mission of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) is the prevention of disease, disability, and death through immunization and by control of respiratory and related diseases. This web page contains additional …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Progress for Children: A Report Card on Immunization

This report analyzes global immunization progress and challenges, with a focus on regional activities.

Author: UNICEF

Publication date: 2005

Vaccine Safety

This website offers an overview of vaccine safety issues, addresses common concerns, and provides links to further, more-detailed information.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Ask the Experts

This web page provides clinical experts, including experts in immunization and infectious diseases, to answer parents' questions about diseases that affect their children.

Author: Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases

Measuring Impact of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b Conjugate Vaccination

This manual describes approaches to measuring pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine impact on disease incidence and provides a framework for determining the best methodology in a specific country setting. It details a …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Immunisation

This website provides comprehensive, up-to-date, and accurate information on vaccines, disease, and immunization in the United Kingdom. The site includes frequently asked questions, general information on immunization, and specific information on …

Author: Public Health England

Immunization

This site offers information on vaccine and immunization programs at the American Academy of Pediatrics and includes video and text resources for parents. Resources include frequently asked questions for families, immunization information for …

Author: American Academy of Pediatrics

Economic Evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b Vaccination in Indonesia: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

This paper, published in the Journal of Public Health, evaluates the cost-effectiveness of introducing Hib vaccine in Indonesia as an addition to the country's current DTP–Hepatitis B vaccination program.

Author: Broughton E

Publication date: 2007

Vaccines Against Influenza, WHO Position Paper – November 2012

This updated position paper from the World Health Organization (WHO), published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, recommends that countries considering the initiation or expansion of seasonal influenza vaccination programs give the highest …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Giving Immunizations

This handout provides basic information about giving immunizations, and lists resources and organizations relevant to this topic.

Author: Optimize (PATH, World Health Organization)

Publication date: 2013

Frequently Asked Questions About Immunizations

A resource for answers to frequently asked questions that aim to establish facts and myths on immunizing your children.

Author: KidsHealth, Nemours Foundation

Publication date: 2015

Facts for Life: Immunization

These fact sheets provide information about vaccination for families and communities.

Author: United Nations Children's Fund

Vaccine Information Statements

This page contains vaccine information statements for a variety of immunizations, which are published by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This web page also includes links to translations of the statements to many languages other …

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

Unprotected People Reports

This web page contains real-life accounts of people who have suffered or died from vaccine-preventable diseases, including compelling personal testimonies, remembrances, case reports, and newspaper articles.

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

Vaccine Presentation Choices

This handout gives an overview of vaccine presentation choices, and lists resources and organizations relevant to this topic.

Author: Optimize (PATH, World Health Organization)

Publication date: 2013

Questions Parents Ask About Vaccinations for Babies

This fact sheet provides an overview of some of the most frequently asked questions from parents regarding vaccines, along with accurate and understandable answers.

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

Publication date: 2014

Immunization Schedules

This web page provides detailed information about immunization schedules geared for health care professionals and the general public. It includes links to the latest easy-to-read vaccine schedules for all age groups, as recommended by the US Centers …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Economic Case for Eradicating Polio

This report outlines the benefits of polio eradication using updated cost inputs that underlie the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 by establishing three core economic arguments for continued investment in polio eradication.

Author: Global Polio Eradication Initiative

Vaccine Education Center

Extensive information for parents and health care professionals on vaccines, including videos and information sheets.

Author: Children's Hospital Philadelphia

Vaccine Information Statements

Vaccine Information Statements (VISs) are information sheets used in the United States (US) that explain both the benefits and risks of a vaccine to vaccine recipients. US federal law requires that healthcare staff provide a VIS to a patient, …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Vaccine for Prevention of Mild and Moderate-to-Severe Influenza in Children

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, describes a multinational, Phase 3, observer-blinded study evaluating the efficacy of quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) among children three to eight years of age. From the study …

Author: Jain VK, Rivera L, Zama Khalequ, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Vaccines: Separating Fact From Fear

This 27-minute video answers questions many parents have about vaccines and provides an extensive list of responsible websites. It also includes stories of several parents whose children suffered vaccine-preventable diseases.

Author: Children's Hospital Philadelphia

Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS): A Mid-term Analysis of Progress in 50 Countries

Over 70 countries developed comprehensive Multi-Year Plans (cMYPs) for implementing the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) for the period 2006 to 2015. This paper, published in Health Policy and Planning, describes the outcomes of a …

Author: Kamara L, Lydon P, Bilous J, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Costs and Impact of Meningitis Epidemics for the Public Health System in Burkina Faso

Epidemic meningococcal meningitis remains a serious health threat in the African meningitis belt. New meningococcal conjugate vaccines are relatively costly and their efficiency will depend on cost savings realized from no longer having to respond …

Author: Colombini A, Badolo O, Gessner BD, Jaillard P, Seini E, Da Silva A

Publication date: 2011

What Would Happen if We Stopped Vaccinations?

This web page provides a summary of disease-related consequences of stopping immunizations. Vaccination programs have eliminated or significantly reduced many vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States and elsewhere. However, these diseases …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Your Child's Immunizations

This web page provides general information on childhood immunizations and includes details on specific vaccine-preventable diseases.

Author: KidsHealth, Nemours Foundation

Publication date: 2015

Addressing Parents' Concerns: Do Multiple Vaccines Overwhelm or Weaken the Infant's Immune System?

This review, published in the journal Pediatrics, examines questions about the use and impact of multiple vaccines on an infant's immune system.

Author: Offit P, Quarles J, Gerber M, et al.

Publication date: 2002

Solar Direct Drive: A Better Choice for Last-Mile Cooling

For health facilities lacking reliable access to electricity, solar direct-drive refrigerators are the most cost-effective option currently available when comparing similarly sized units. This handout provides information about using solar …

Author: Optimize (PATH, World Health Organization)

Publication date: 2013

Making Sense of Temperature Monitoring Devices

Maintaining proper temperatures for vaccine products is challenging, especially in places with extremely hot or cold climates, unreliable electricity, and weak transportation infrastructure. This banner displays devices prequalified by the World …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)

This web page provides an overview of Hib and vaccines against it. This page also provides links to World Health Organization (WHO) position papers on the disease and other related WHO resources.

Author: World Health Organization

Continuing Increases in Autism Reported to California's Developmental Services System

This study, published in the journal Archives of General Psychiatry, evaluates the rates of autism in California following the discontinued use of thimerosal in childhood vaccines.

Author: Schechter R, Grether J

Publication date: 2008

Early Thimerosal Exposure and Neuropsychological Outcome at 7 and 10 Years

Investigators assessed neurological outcomes by testing more than 1,000 children aged 7 to 10 years and determined that early exposure to mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines was not associated with deficits in neuropsychological functioning. …

Author: Thompson W, Price C, Goodson B, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Immunization Safety Review: Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autism

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US National Institutes of Health recognized the need for an independent group to carefully examine the hypothesized measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autism link and address other …

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publication date: 2001

Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism

This eighth and final report of the Immunization Safety Review Committee examines the hypothesis that vaccines, specifically the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines, are causally associated with autism.

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publication date: 2004

Thimerosal

This web page provides a US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) statement on the safety of thimerosal in vaccines and links to CDC and outside resources that provide further information on this topic.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Increasing Immunization Coverage in Uganda: The Community Problem-solving and Strategy Development Approach

This short paper describes in some detail how Ugandan communities were involved in improving immunization services. The paper includes an annex with common questions posed by community members, and suggested answers, in both English and French.

Author: BASICS II, Uganda Ministry of Health

Publication date: 2003

Persisting Consequences of Intestinal Infection

This issue of the Old Herborn University Seminar Monograph provides a summary of the discussions at an expert workshop hosted by the Old Herborn University Foundation in June 2013. The discussions were held to assess the experts' epidemiological and …

Author: Heidt PJ, Lange D, Riddle MS, Walker RI, Rusch V, eds.

Publication date: 2014

Confirmation of Japanese Encephalitis as an Endemic Human Disease Through Sentinel Surveillance in Indonesia

Japanese encephalitis (JE) results in significant mortality and disability in children in Asia. In Indonesia, despite recognition of JE virus transmission, reports of human disease have been few and from limited geographic areas. Hospital-based …

Author: Ompusunggu S, Hills S, Sembiring Maha M, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Policy Reaction to Thimerosal in Vaccines

This study compares the differences in US and European responses to concerns about mercury exposure from thimerisol in vaccines.

Author: Child Health Evaluation and Research Unit, University of Michigan Medical Center & Duke University Medical Center

Publication date: 2001

WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P) Tool User Guide

The World Health Organization has developed a generic costing and planning tool for cervical cancer prevention and control to help program planners and managers generate annual cost projections over a five-year period to scale-up human …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Essential Training Package for 2-dose Schedule HPV Vaccine Introduction

This web page provides links in both English and French to training materials related to key aspects of human papillomavirus vaccine introduction. It includes separate training modules for the Cervarix™ two dose vial vaccine and the Gardasil™ …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Talking About Vaccines: Vaccine Safety

This web page contains links a number of vaccine safety resources, including websites, journal articles, and fact sheets.

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

Architecture of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Revealed by Electron Cryotomography

This article, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, describes research to carry out an electron cryotomographic characterization of cell culture-grown human respiratory syncytial virus to …

Author: Liljeroos L, Krzyzaniak MA, Helenius A, Butcher SJ

Publication date: 2013

Immunize Canada

This partnership of nongovernmental, professional, health, consumer, government, and private-sector organizations aims to promote the understanding and use of vaccines recommended by Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization. Its goal is …

Author: Immunize Canada

Saving Children's Lives From Deadly Rotavirus Diarrhea: PATH's Comprehensive Approach to Rotavirus Vaccines

This fact sheet highlights PATH’s work to address rotavirus, the leading cause of severe diarrheal disease. It includes general information about our efforts to increase access to and effectiveness of existing vaccines, as well as to develop new …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Bridging the "Know-Do" Gap: Meeting on Knowledge Translation in Global Health

This meeting report provides guidance on knowledge translation strategies that can "harness the power of scientific evidence and leadership to inform and transform policy and practice." The report includes examples of country and regional …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2005

Helping Young People Become Youth Advocates for Immunization

Written for teachers and youth group leaders, this 24-page paper is full of practical ideas for teaching children and young adults about infectious disease, immunization, and injection safety and for encouraging them to promote immunization in their …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2000

Immunization Action Coalition

The Immunization Action Coalition (IAC) promotes physician, community, and family awareness of, and responsibility for, appropriate immunization of all children and adults against all vaccine-preventable diseases. This US-based site has a wealth of …

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

Immunization: At a Glance

This fact sheet lays out the three key reasons that immunization should be a high priority in developing countries and charts out key objectives, interventions, targeted beneficiaries, and outcome measures for successful immunization programs. …

Author: World Bank

Publication date: 2001

Making Vaccine Technologies Work for the Poor

This briefing emphasizes the impact of a community's perception of immunization and how that perception can inform interventions and advocacy efforts.

Author: Institute for Development Studies

Publication date: 2006

Realizing the Full Potential of Childhood Immunization: How Health Professionals Can Make a Difference

This eight-page paper on local advocacy was written with doctors, nurses, and health educators in mind. It contains many practical suggestions for grassroots initiatives supporting immunization. An Africa-specific version was published in the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2000

Why Invest in Communication for Immunization? Evidence and Lessons Learned

This report identifies communication challenges that affect the success of immunization services; offers evidence of the contributions of communication activities; identifies lessons learned, and suggests ways in which communication can continue to …

Author: Waisbord S and Larson H

Publication date: 2005

Clear Answers & Smart Advice About Your Baby’s Shots

Written by pediatrician and author Ari Brown, MD, this six-page handout addresses the concerns of vaccine-hesitant parents, including vaccine safety, autism, and alternative vaccination schedules.

Author: Brown A

Publication date: 2016

"A" Frame for Advocacy

A document defining key components of public policy advocacy.

Author: Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs

"An Attempt to Swindle Nature": Anti-immunization Press Reports in Australia, 1993-1997

This interesting analysis of press coverage examines the most common anti-immunization "themes" in the Australian press and suggests possible advocacy strategies for countering the negative impact of such reportage. Adapted from: …

Author: Leask J, Chapman S

Publication date: 1998

Anti-immunization Scare: The Inconvenient Facts

Dr. Steve Basser analyses the "quality of science of one particular, very public, opponent of immunisation--Dr. Vera Scheibner." Dr. Basser finds that "the gaps in her research...call into question her objectivity and cast doubts on …

Author: Basser S

Publication date: 1999

The Pink Book—Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Haemophilus influenzae type b

A chapter detailing Hib disease and vaccines from the CDC's Pink Book, a standard reference on the epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2012

Combating Antivaccination Rumors: Lessons Learned From Case Studies in East Africa

This 68-page manual examines the origin and impact of rumors on immunization programmes in Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania and provides practical advice about dealing with rumors.

Author: UNICEF

Publication date: 2001

Global Polio Eradication Initiative IMB Meeting Reports

This web page provides links to quarterly reports by the Independent Monitoring Board (IMB) of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, which provides an assessment on progress in the detection and interruption of polio transmission worldwide. They …

Author: Independent Monitoring Board of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative

Communication Handbook for Polio Eradication and Routine EPI

This comprehensive reference tool is intended to help program officers learn about, design, and implement effective research-driven communication programs.

Author: United Nations Children's Fund, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2001

Haemophilus influenzae type b Conjugate Vaccines - WHO Position Paper

Designed for use by national public health officials and immunization program managers, this position paper provides a summary of essential background information on Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease and vaccines and outlines the current …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2006

Games for Adolescent Reproductive Health: An International Handbook

The attractive, 69-page handbook includes "45 games, tips on getting started working with youth, guidance on creating your own games, ready-to-use card sets, and the research and theory behind it all." While the content focusses on …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2002

Immunization Financing Toolkit: A Resource for Policy-­Makers and Program Managers

Financing is a critical component of a sustainable immunization program. This toolkit is comprised of a series of short briefs on different options for financing national immunization programs and vaccines. It is intended to serve as a resource for …

Author: World Bank, GAVI Alliance

Publication date: 2010

How to Manage Parents Unsure About Immunization

Guidance on addressing parents' concerns and educating them on the benefits of childhood immunization. From the Canadian Journal of CME.

Author: Halperin S

Publication date: 2000

Impact of Antivaccine Movements on Pertussis Control: The Untold Story

To assess the impact of antivaccine movements that targeted pertussis whole-cell vaccines, the researchers compared pertussis incidence in countries where high coverage with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccines (DTP) was maintained with countries …

Author: Gangarosa EJ, Galazka AM, Wolfe CR, et al.

Publication date: 1998

An Introduction to Advocacy--A Training Guide

This well-written and formatted, 130-page training manual provides tools to help people engage in the advocacy process. Though written specifically for an African audience, the guide can be used anywhere. The full guide has been divided into three …

Author: US Agency for International Development

Knowledge Utilization and the Process of Policy Formation

This literature review analyzes the use of technical information for influencing policy.

Author: US Agency for International Development

Publication date: 1995

Polio Eradication Advocacy Guide

An excellent, brief guide to advocacy activities, using polio eradication as a case study.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 1999

Immunizing Children Against Haemophilus influenzae type b

Part of the "Training Resource Series," this training manual for vaccinators can be adapted for specific national programs. In addition to key technical content—including sections on using monovalent, quadrivalent, or pentavalent Hib vaccine …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Promotion of Immunization in Uganda: A Booklet for Leaders

This is an excellent example of how data can effectively be used to advocate for support of immunization programs.

Author: Uganda Ministry of Health

Publication date: 2002

Roleplay: Rumours About Vaccines

A 20-minute exercise providing practice tools for responding to rumors about vaccines from the WHO Global Training Network.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2002

Hepatitis B Information

This web page provides links to recommendations for vaccination, resources for providers and parents, specific information for different populations, and organizations working on hepatitis B.

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

Publication date: 2007

Sustaining EPI: What Can Communication Do?

This excellent, 17-page document explores ways that communication interventions can strengthen an Expanded Programme for Immunization (EPI). It also describes communication challenges common to immunization programs. Written in 1990, it is as …

Author: Rasmuson M

Publication date: 1990

Victims of Our Own Success: Will Immunization Remain the Paradigm of Effective Prevention

This issue brief, based on a GIH roundtable discussion of select grantmakers and national experts in childhood immunization, explores various factors influencing public acceptance of childhood immunization; the importance of ensuring and conveying …

Author: Grantmakers in Health (GIH)

Publication date: 2001

Acute Respiratory Infections (Update September 2009): Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza viruses

This page on the World Health Organization website provides information on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza viruses, including the RSV disease burden, virology, and vaccines under development.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2009

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides this web page to offer a wide spectrum of information about human papillomavirus (HPV) in the United States. It offers a general overview of the disease, as well as prevention and treatment …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

PubMed Searches: Hib

These pre-formatted PubMed searches will retrieve journal citations and available abstracts that address disease burden, vaccine efficacy and benefits, model programs and cost issues in Asian, African, and Latin American countries. Documents may be …

Author: Various

Hib Vaccination

This page on the CDC website provides an overview of Hib disease and links and information on the Hib vaccine. The web page also has sections containing information especially geared for health professionals and the media.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2008

Conjugate Vaccines and the Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae type b

Many junior doctors today have not had occasion to treat a child for Hib disease. The remarkable absence of cases of this disease is due to the use of conjugate vaccines. In countries with established Hib vaccination programs the incidence of …

Author: Barbour M

Publication date: 1996

Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antibiotic Resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in Healthy Children

This study, published in Epidemiology and Infection, examines the isolation rate and antibiotic resistance of Haemophilus influenzae from the nasopharynx of young children.

Author: Howard A, et al.

Publication date: 1988

Rapid Disappearance of Haemophilus influenzae type b Meningitis After Routine Childhood Immunization with Conjugate Vaccines

This study, published in The Lancet, carried out a retrospective survey of the incidence of Hib meningitis over five decades in the Greater Helsinki area of Finland, where all children with bacterial meningitis are treated in one of three centers. …

Author: Peltola H, Kilpi T, Anttila M

Publication date: 1992

Prevention of Systemic Infections, Especially Meningitis, Caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b

This study, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, examines the impact of the Hib vaccine on public health and implications for other polysaccharide-based vaccines. The principles derived from the use of the Hib …

Author: Robbins JB, Schneerson R, Anderson P, Smith DH

Publication date: 1996

Giving Safe Injections: Using Auto-Disable Syringes for Immunization

This excellent, 112-page manual is a training curriculum for health care workers who provide injections. It includes information on the health impact of unsafe injections, selecting safe and effective vaccines, reconsituting vaccines safely, reading …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2001

Immunization Essentials: A Practical Field Guide

This 275-page manual is full of useful information and belongs on every immunization professional's bookshelf.

Author: US Agency for International Development

Publication date: 2004

Immunization in Practice

This online manual covers all aspects of immunization program management.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2004

Immunization Safety Review: Vaccinations and Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy

This report contains results of a review completed by the Immunization Safety Review Committee of epidemiologic evidence on Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) and neonatal death. The committee found that the evidence did not support a causal …

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publication date: 2003

Immunizing Children Against Hepatitis B

Part of the "Training Resource Series," this unique training module was specially designed to be easy to adapt for specific national programs. In addition to key technical content—including sections on using monovalent, quadrivalent, or …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

The Pink Book—Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

This book provides physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, pharmacists, and others with the most comprehensive information on vaccine-preventable diseases. In addition to chapters on more general vaccine-related topics, it …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2015

Advocacy for Immunization

This manual provides information on how to generate and maintain support for vaccination programs, including how to create messages and materials, engage policymakers, and work with the media.

Author: PATH and the GAVI Alliance

Publication date: 2001

Canadian Immunization Guide

This comprehensive and regularly updated manual deals with a wide range of scientific and clinical issues relating to child, adult, and traveler immunization. Information is provided on vaccine safety, immunization recommendations, and specific …

Author: Public Health Agency of Canada

Care and Repair of Refrigerators for Vaccine Storage

This set of 17 training modules, developed for refrigerator technicians, includes handbooks on different types of refrigerators, as well as courses on service and repair techniques, repair work, and stocking spare parts, among others.

Author: World Health Organization

Getting Started With Vaccine Vial Monitors: Questions and Answers on Field Operations

This excellent, comprehensive training manual addresses and answers important questions about using vaccine vial monitors in the field.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2002

Guidelines for Implementing Supportive Supervision

These guidelines define supportive supervision, how it can be incorporated into immunization programs, major steps in implementing supportive supervision, country-specific examples, and tools for implementing supportive supervision.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2003

Immunization and Child Health Materials Development Guide

A practical, "how-to" manual for conducting audience research and developing effective, user-appropriate print, audio, video, and computer-based health education materials.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2001

Maintaining a Needle Remover

Safely managing infectious sharps waste is one of the critical challenges facing health systems in low-resource settings. It is an important component of injection safety strategy. This two-page guide contains instructions for correctly maintaining …

Author: Berman A

Publication date: 2006

Improving Immunization Registration, Coverage and Monitoring in Viet Nam – PATH’s Digital Immunization Registry (IR) System

This document describes PATH’s collaboration with Vietnam’s National Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) and Southern EPI to implement a digital immunization registry system. It discusses the benefits a digital immunization system has over …

Author: World Health Organization, PATH

Publication date: 2014

PubMed Searches: Influenza

These pre-formatted PubMed searches will retrieve journal citations and available abstracts that address disease burden, vaccine efficacy and benefits, and model programs, among other relevant issues related to influenza. Documents may be ordered …

Author: Various

Immunology Problem Sets and Tutorials

An online resource for learning immunology, including information on antibody structure, HIV/AIDS, and case studies.

Author: The Biology Project, University of Arizona

Publication date: 2002

PubMed Searches: ETEC and Shigella

These pre-formatted PubMed searches will retrieve journal citations and available abstracts that address relevant issues related to ETEC and Shigella. Documents may be ordered through Loansome Doc if you have established an agreement with a …

Author: Various

Introduction to DPT-Hepatitis B Vaccine, Information for Health Care Workers

This document contains two booklets that provide information about the DTP-hepatitis B vaccine. One booklet is for health workers; the other targets community leaders.

Author: Mozambique Ministry of Health

Publication date: 2001

Practical, Local Solutions for Safely Managing Contaminated Syringes and Other Medical Waste

Until recently little guidance had been available on practical, affordable, and safe waste storage and collection systems or on construction of effective burners. PATH partnered with Nepali nongovernmental organization General Welfare Pratistan and …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2004

Preventing Vaccine Freezing in the Cold Chain

Vaccine freezing in the cold chain is increasingly recognized as a serious threat to immunization programs. This zipped set of materials includes background information on the freezing problem (two literature reviews and a PowerPoint presentation); …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2003

Proper Handling and Disposal of Auto-Disable Syringes and Safety Boxes

Part of the "Training Resource Series," this unique training module was specially designed to be easy to adapt for specific national programs. In addition to key technical content it includes quizzes, role plays, and creative ideas for trainers.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Training for Mid-Level Managers (MLM)

This eight-module training manual aims to help mid-level immunization managers effectively deliver vaccines to their communities. The modules are focused on: cold chain, vaccines, and safe-injection equipment management; partnering with the …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Standards for Surveillance of Selected Vaccine-preventable Diseases

This document provides WHO recommendations on surveillance standards for selected vaccine-preventable diseases. These recommendations should be adapted to meet national needs in accordance with each country's disease control priorities, …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Strengthening Immunization Programs: The Communication Component

This 46-page manual presents a comprehensive overview of the key elements of immunization communications. There also is an interesting annex focusing on an excellent project in Madagascar.

Author: BASICS II, US Agency for International Development

Publication date: 2004

Delivery Cost of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination of Young Adolescent Girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam

This article, published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, aimed to estimate the incremental delivery cost of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young adolescent girls in three countries. They found that the delivery cost per …

Author: Levin CE, Minh HV, Odaga J, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Using Uniject™ to Increase the Safety and Effectiveness of Hepatitis B Immunization

This seven-page paper describes use of an innovative injection device to immunize Indonesian newborns as soon after birth as possible. Results were positive: more infants were protected against hepatitis B earlier in life, health workers and parents …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2002

The Australian Immunisation Handbook

Similar to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pink Book, this handbook provides information for health care providers on vaccine safety, immunization procedures, monitoring adverse events following immunization, and many other …

Author: Australian Department of Health and Aging

Publication date: 2017

Risk of Intussusception Following Administration of a Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine in US Infants

This article, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, reports on a study that examined the rates of intussusception in  infants in the United States during the 1- to 7-day and 1- to 30-day windows following vaccination with …

Author: Shui IM, Baggs J, Patel M, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Global Health eLearning Center

This learning resource offers an array of online courses that learners from many disciplines and positions can use to expand their knowledge in key public health areas and access important up-to-date technical information, including information on …

Author: US Agency for International Development and the INFO Project

Publication date: 2008

Hepatitis B Vaccine Introduction: Lessons Learned in Advocacy, Communication, and Training

This five-page paper summarizes lessons learned as a result of over ten years' experience introducing hepatitis B vaccine worldwide.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2001

Freezing Temperatures in the Vaccine Cold Chain: A Systematic Literature Review

This analysis, published in the journal Vaccine, highlights the pervasiveness of accidental freezing across the cold chain and makes recommendations for addressing the problem. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in developing countries can gain free …

Author: Matthias DM, Robertson J, Garrison MM, Newland S, Nelson C

Publication date: 2007

Preventing Freeze Damage to Vaccines

This aide-memoire details best practices in how to prevent freeze damage to vaccines.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2007

Procedure for Expedited Review of Imported Prequalified Vaccines for Use in National Immunization Programs

These guidelines are directed at countries that may lack resources to carry out a regulatory approval procedure for sourcing WHO prequalified vaccines either through UN agencies or directly from manufacturers.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2007

Strengthening Cold Chain and Logistics Systems

This report details the first UNICEF-hosted meeting of partners involved in immunization to enhance and coordinate the collective support provided to national governments for strengthening cold chain and logistics sytems.

Author: UNICEF

Publication date: 2007

Sustaining Immunization Efforts Under Health Reform: Challenges for Africa

In this paper Dr. Khadija Ali Msambichaka looks at the current state of EPI programs in Africa and the effects that health care reform is having on them. She cautions that health care reforms must be implemented carefully to ensure that immunization …

Author: Msambichaka K

Publication date: 1999

Temperature Sensitivity of Vaccines

This document addresses issues regarding potential exposure of temperature-sensitive vaccines to freezing temperatures and provides updated information on vaccine vial monitors, as well as a discussion of future advances in cold chain technology.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2006

Toolkit – The Assessment of Adolescent Health Interventions in GAVI HPV Vaccine Demonstration Programmes

This toolkit provides resources to evaluate existing adolescent health interventions in order to prioritize feasible health interventions to be delivered with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The kit contains tools and templates to guide …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Vaccines: Handled with Care

This attractive, 25-page booklet describes how vaccines are stored and handled to ensure safety.

Author: UNICEF

Publication date: 2004

Vaccine Stock Management: Guidelines on Stock Records for Immunization Program and Vaccines Store Manager

This document was developed to assist countries in improving vaccine stock management practices in accordance with the WHO-UNICEF Effective Vaccine Store Management initiative. It reviews approaches and tools for recording necessary information. …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2007

Access to Vaccine Technologies in Developing Countries: Brazil and India

The authors of this study, published in the journal Vaccine, analyzed advantages and disadvantages of different ways vaccine manufacturers access new technologies. Among the methods considered were collaborations with academia and research …

Author: Milstien J, Gaule G, Kaddar M

Publication date: 2007

Attitudes Toward Immunization in Cambodia: A Qualitative Study of Health Worker and Community Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in Kampong Chhnang

Nearly 200 consumers and medical care providers were interviewed for this well-documented, qualitative research study. The data offer insight into many aspects of public and professional attitudes toward immunization and health care in general.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2002

Guidelines on the International Packaging and Shipping of Vaccines

This widely used reference from WHO has been updated according to new developments in vaccine stability, temperature monitoring, and recently pre-qualified vaccines.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2005

Immunization Safety: A Global Priority

This entire issue of the Bulletin of the World Health Organization is devoted to the topic of immunization safety, including vaccine quality, adverse events reporting, and safety of immunization injections.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2000

Increasing Immunization Coverage at the Health Facility Level

This 41-page handbook offers practical guidance for understanding and addressing reasons for low coverage.

Author: World Health Organization and UNICEF

Publication date: 2002

The Manager's Electronic Resource Center

This web resource center provides management tools and information across an international network of health professionals. The site is run by MSH, a nonprofit organization geared toward strengthening health programs worldwide.

Author: Management Sciences for Health

Outbreak Communication Guidelines

A 13-page paper describing best communication practices for rapid disease outbreak control.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2005

TechNet-21

The Technical Network for Strengthening Immunization Services (TechNet-21) is an online forum for experts in the field of immunization to learn from each other, share experiences, coordinate activities, and discuss major global policy issues. It …

Author: World Health Organization and UNICEF

Technologies for Vaccine Delivery in the 21st Century

This 25-page paper looks at new vaccine delivery concepts that could benefit the developing world within the next ten years.

Author: World Health Organization, UNICEF, and PATH

Publication date: 2000

Understanding and Addressing Childhood Immunization Coverage in Urban Slums

Supported by the US Agency for International Development, the authors of this article, published in Indian Pediatrics, identified challenges and potential solutions for improving immunization coverage in urban slums.

Author: Agarwal S, Bhanot A, Goindi G

Publication date: 2005

Vaccine Management and Logistics

This section of the World Health Organization website focuses on vaccine management issues including the cold chain, transport, stock management, and reconstitution of vaccines.

Author: World Health Organization

Immunogenicity of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine Among Girls 11 to 13 Years of Age Vaccinated Using Alternative Dosing Schedules: Results 29 to 32 Months After Third Dose

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports on a study to examine whether immune responses from alternative human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine schedules are noninferior to the standard schedule two years after …

Author: LaMontagne DS, Thiem VD, Huong VM, Tang Y, Neuzil KM

Publication date: 2013

The Cost of Immunization Programs in the Next 10 Years

This paper summarizes the results of a WHO/UNICEF study on the potential impact of immunization over the next decade and the financing required for immunization activities in the 72 poorest countries of the world.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2006

Estimating the Costs of Achieving the WHO-UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy, 2006 - 2015

This paper estimates the costs of achieving the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy, 2006 - 2015, which aims to immunize more people, from infants to seniors, with a greater range of vaccines, and whose chief goal is to, by 2015 or earlier, …

Author: Wolfson LJ, Gasse F, Lee-Martin S, et al.

Publication date: 2008

A New Approach to Planning for Immunization - WHO-UNICEF Guidelines for Developing a Comprehensive Multi-Year Plan (cMYP)

The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) for 2006 to 2015 provides a framework for policymakers and stakeholders to have a unified vision of immunization and a set of strategies from which countries can select those most suited to their …

Author: World Health Organization; United Nations Children's Fund

Immunization Financing Options: A Resource for Policymakers and Program Managers

These user-friendly briefing sheets, prepared by the World Bank and intended for policymakers in Ministries of Health, Finance, Planning and Investment, outline options for financing national immunization services.

Author: GAVI Alliance

Publication date: 2010

Surveillance for Respiratory Syncytial Virus in CDC's Global Disease Detection Network: Epidemiology, Disease Burden and Clinical Characteristics

This supplement to The Journal of Infectious Diseases features articles on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) surveillance data through the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Global Disease Detection Network . The 12 articles …

Author: Iwane MK, Garnon EC, Gerber SI, eds.

Publication date: 2013

Revised Procedure for WHO Prequalification of Vaccines

This web page provides an explanation and link to the revised procedure for assessing the acceptability of vaccines in order to verify that they meet the specifications of the relevant United Nations agency for procurement and that they are produced …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Pneumococcal AMC

This section on the GAVI Alliance's website provides information about the pilot pneumococcal Advance Market Commitment (AMC), which is an innovative funding mechanism. It incentivizes vaccine makers to produce suitable and affordable vaccines for …

Author: GAVI Alliance

Advance Market Commitments for Vaccines

This informative fact sheet provides a definition of Advance Market Commitments as a potential financing mechanism for bringing new vaccines to the developing world and also outlines World Health Organization's position on the mechanism.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2006

2013 Rota Roundup

2013 was a remarkable year for rotavirus vaccines, the best tool to prevent severe rotavirus disease and the deadly, dehydrating diarrhea that it causes. This infographic depicts various rotavirus vaccine highlights from the year, including the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Using Solar-Powered Refrigeration for Vaccine Storage Where Other Sources of Reliable Electricity are Inadequate or Costly

Large areas of many developing countries have no grid electricity, which is a serious challenge that threatens the continuity of the vaccine cold chain. This article, published in Vaccine, highlights some lessons learned with solar-powered …

Author: McCarney S, Robertson J, Arnaud J, Lorenson K, Lloyd J

Publication date: 2013

Economics of Immunization: A Guide to the Literature and Other Resources

This 87-page document identifies literature and web resources on costing, cost-benefit analyses, financing, and policy among other issues.

Author: World Health Organization, US Agency for International Development, and Partners in Health Reform Plus

Publication date: 2004

Global Vaccine Action Plan: Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization: Assessment Report 2013

The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) was endorsed by the World Health Assembly in May 2012 to achieve its “Decade of Vaccines” vision of universal access to immunization. As requested by the Member States, the World Health Organization's …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Burundi

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Burundi. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Burundian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Financing Assessment Tool for Immunization Services: Guidelines for Performing a Country Assessment

On behalf of Partnerships for Health Reform, this immunization financing tool is intended for in-depth, systematic evaluations of the costs and financing of immunization programs. The tool offers a checklist and tables that guide the user through …

Author: Kaddar M, Makinen M, Khan M

Publication date: 2000

Immunization Planning and Financing

This web page is an online resource for information and data about immunization financing in low- and lower-middle-income countries. It country profiles with a summary of the immunization financing situation, key data, and indicators of …

Author: World Health Organization

Immunization Financing Through the GAVI Alliance

An overview of immunization support to developing countries provided through the GAVI Alliance.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2006

The International Finance Facility for Immunization (IFFIm)

General information on the function and objectives of IFFIm, a new funding mechanism that secures pledges of future aid in order to leverage money from international capital markets to support national immunization programmes.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2006

Sustainable Immunization Financing (SIF) Program

This web page provides information about the Sabin Vaccine Institutes’ SIF program and the countries it serves. The program encourages key stakeholders—national governments (ministries of health and finance), parliamentarians, the domestic …

Author: Sabin Vaccine Institute

Software for National-Level Vaccine Cold Chain Equipment Management

The Cold Chain Equipment Manager (CCEM) is an inventory and planning tool that utilizes Microsoft Access–based software and analytic tools to help with data collection and analysis. Planning algorithms, data visualization, system modeling, and …

Author: University of Washington, PATH

Publication date: 2012

Soluble Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein in the Fully Cleaved, Pretriggered State is Triggered by Exposure to Low-Molarity Buffer

This article, published by the Journal of Virology, discusses research conducted to study the triggering mechanism of a soluble respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in developing countries can gain free access …

Author: Chaiwatpongsakorn S, Epand RF, Collins PL, Epand RM, Peeples ME

Publication date: 2011

Vaccines for Children: Supply at Risk

This report warns of vaccine shortages serious enough to jeopardize immunization programs for children throughout the world.

Author: United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2002

Designing Safe Syringe Disposal Systems for Immunization Services

This 30-page manual for program managers helps guide decision-making related to safe syringe disposal at the district level. A range of disposal methods and issues are covered, including practical advice on incineration (with details on two small …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2003

Safe Injection Global Network

Coordinated through World Health Organization (WHO), the Safe Injection Global Network is a voluntary coalition of stakeholders aiming to achieve safe and appropriate use of injections throughout the world.

Author: World Health Organization

Unsafe Injections, Fatal Injections

The authors of this paper provide an overview of medical and social science wisdom on the extent of unsafe injections and the complex reasons why many injections are given in an unsafe manner.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2000

Best Infection Control Practices for Interdermal, Subcutaneous, and Intramuscular Needle Injections

From the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, this article discusses evidence-based guidelines for making injections safer. Abstracts are available in Spanish, French, and Arabic.

Author: Hutin Y, Hauri A, Chiarello L, et al.

Publication date: 2003

The Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety

The Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety was established at the World Health Organization in 1999 "to respond promptly, efficiently, and with scientific rigour to vaccine safety issues of global importance." The site contains links to …

Author: World Health Organization

Guidelines for National Strategies for the Safe and Appropriate Use of Injections

This two-page document summarizes key elements to assist in the development of a national strategy for ensuring safe and appropriate use of injections.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2000

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Tajikistan

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Tajikistan. It includes information on the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Tajikistani children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Injection Safety

Resources available on this web page include scientific articles, technical tools, policy statements, and more on injection safety.

Author: World Health Organization

Perceptions About Injections and Private-Sector Injection Practices in Central Nepal

This eye-opening report documents provider injection practices and attitudes toward medical injections among providers and the general public. In spite of widespread use of disposible syringes and seemingly high awareness of the dangers of …

Author: PATH and the General Welfare Pratisthan

Publication date: 2000

Safe Health Care Waste Management

A two-page aide-memoire focusing on national strategies for safe handling and disposal of medical waste.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2000

Vaccine Supply Chain Costing Methodology

Between 2009 and 2012, technical staff from project Optimize worked to develop costing methodology and create an accompanying Microsoft Excel-based costing tool to help estimate the cost of the vaccine supply chain in Senegal and Vietnam. This …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Injection Safety: Questions & Answers

This document provides common questions and answers on injection safety, including what constitutes an unsafe injection, the potential consequences of unsafe injections, and disposal of syringes.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2016

Strategies for Safe Injections

From the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, the article is a discussion of the implications of using sterilizable versus disposible injection equipment. Abstract also available in French.

Author: Battersby A, Feilden R, Stoeckel P, et al.

Publication date: 1999

The Cure That Kills

This paper examines the health risks posed by unsafe injections in Africa and outlines some of the programs that are helping reduce these risks.

Author: Practical Patient Care

Publication date: 2008

Disposal and Destruction of Syringes and Needles in Vietnam and the Philippines

The paper reports on a field trial of disposal and destruction methods (including autocombustion incinerators) in the two countries.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 1998

Improved Injection Practices After the Introduction of Treatment and Sterility Guidelines in Tanzania

From the journal of Tropical Medicine and International Health, this article follows a training program at health centers, observations included increased health worker knowledge and improved sterilization practices, along with reductions …

Author: Vos J, Gumodoka B, van Asten HA, et al.

Publication date: 1998

Progress in Improving the Safety of Injections in the EPI Western Pacific Region

Includes a "Guide for developing a national plan of action for injection safety" and a "Checklist for EPI supervisors—sterilization and injection practices."

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 1998

Rapid Assessment of Perceptions, Knowledge, and Practices Related to Immunization Injection Safety in Nepal

This eye-opening report gives an in-depth look at immunization practices and concerns among immunization providers and managers in Nepal. The report shows that despite adequate training and supply of vaccines, availability of proper disposal …

Author: PATH and the General Welfare Pratisthan

Publication date: 2001

Safety of Immunization Injections in Africa: Not Simply a Problem of Logistics

From the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, this report is an evaluation of a "logistic approach" on immunization injection safety. The investigators found that unsafe injection practices were generally due to a failure to integrate …

Author: Dicko M, Oni AQ, Ganivet S, et al.

Publication date: 2000

Vaccination Against Pneumococcus in West Africa: Perspectives and Prospects

This article, published in the International Journal of General Medicine, provides epidemiological insights into pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in West Africa based on the prevailing pneumococcal serotypes in the subregion. The study covered …

Author: Donkor ES, Dayie NT, Badoe EV

Publication date: 2013

Safety of Injections: WHO-UNICEF-UNFPA Joint Statement on the Use of Auto-Disable Syringes in Immunization Services

This policy statement outlines recommended approaches to immunization safety through the use of auto-disable syringes and proper sharps disposal.

Author: World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the United Nations Population Fund

Publication date: 2003

Best Infection Control Practices for Skin-Piercing Intradermal, Subcutaneous, and Intramuscular Needle Injections

This leaflet outlines the best practices for safe injections, with pictograms to aid in training. Topics include preventing needlestick injuries to the provider, using sterile equipment, preventing contamination of equipment and medication, and …

Author: World Health Organization, Safe Injection Global Network, and the International Council of Nurses

Publication date: 2001

Infection Prevention: An Online Course

Designed to help health care providers, supervisors of health care facilities, and medical/nursing students strengthen their ability to protect themselves, their clients, and members of the surrounding community from infections. Topics covered …

Author: EngenderHealth

Publication date: 2004

All Kids Need Hepatitis B Shots

This informational brochure, created by the Immunization Action Coalition, provides parents with information on hepatitis B and vaccines against the disease. It also includes contact information for parents with questions about the hepatitis B …

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

Publication date: 2008

Sample Injection Safety Leaflets for Health Care Providers

Two safe injection leaflets were prepared by the Ministry of Health in Mongolia in collaboration with SIGN. One provides a guide to giving safe injections. The other provides guidelines for preventing needlestick injuries.

Author: Mongolia Ministry of Health

Publication date: 2001

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)

This website provides information on a range of child health issues, including vaccines and immunization. The AAP is dedicated to improving the social, mental, and physical health and well-being of children.

Author: American Academy of Pediatrics

Temperature Monitoring Devices: An Overview

Maintaining proper temperatures for vaccine products is challenging, especially in places with extremely hot or cold climates, unreliable electricity, and weak transportation infrastructure. This handout displays devices prequalified by the World …

Author: Optimize (PATH, World Health Organization)

Publication date: 2013

Fears of Hepatitis B Vaccine Unfounded

This article addresses concerns about hepatitis B vaccination and emphasizes the positive health benefits of immunization.

Author: KidsGrowth.com

Publication date: 2007

Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Introduction and Sustainability in the Mekong Region

This fact sheet summarizes PATH's work to support lifesaving Japanese encephalitis vaccine delivery and access efforts across the Mekong region, including identifying an affordable vaccine, providing technical and manufacturing support to the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

An Economic Evaluation of the Controlled Temperature Chain Approach for Vaccine Logistics: Evidence From a Study Conducted During a Meningitis A Vaccine Campaign in Togo

This article, published in The Pan African Medical Journal, reports the results of a costing study conducted in Togo’s Central Region during a 2014 MenAfriVac® vaccine introduction campaign. The study evaluated the economic benefits of using an …

Author: Mvundura M, Lydon P, Gueye A, et al.

Publication date: 2017

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The CDC's mission is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The Communication Initiative Network

This site contains links to select programs, data, and materials, from various development organizations focused on immunization initiatives, including avian influenza and polio.

Author: The Communication Initiative Network

Every Child by Two

This organization, founded by Former First Lady of the United States Rosalynn Carter and Former First Lady of Arkansas Betty Bumpers, focuses on reducing infant mortality through timely immunization.

Author: Every Child by Two

IMMUNIZATIONbasics

Building on the work of earlier US Agency for International Development (USAID) projects, including BASICS, Partners for Health Reform Plus, and CHANGE, the IMMUNIZATIONbasics Project continued USAID's longstanding immunization support to …

Author: John Snow, Inc.; US Agency for International Development

Publication date: 2009

Hepatitis

This page provides links to WHO activities, reports, news, and events related to hepatitis, including hepatitis B. It also includes links to partners working on hepatitis B surveillance and vaccine introduction, and further information on vaccines …

Author: World Health Organization

Institute for Vaccine Safety

The Institute for Vaccine Safety provides independent assessment of vaccine safety to help guide decision-makers and educate physicians, the public, and the media about key issues surrounding the safety of vaccines. The institute's goal is to work …

Author: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health

International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations (IFPMA)

IFPMA represents the research-based pharmaceutical industry and other manufacturers of prescription medicines worldwide. It is the main channel of communication between this sector of the industry and the World Health Organization, as well as other …

Author: International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations

International Vaccine Institute (IVI)

Based in Korea, IVI is dedicated to improving human health through research, development, and strengthening vaccine science capabilities for developing countries. This website offers IVI publications and reports, as well as an events calendar.

Author: International Vaccine Institute

National Alliance for Hispanic Health (NAHH)

The mission of NAHH is to improve the health and well being of Hispanics, including through immunization. Materials for parents are available in English and Spanish.  Hay información sobre las vacunas en español.

Author: National Alliance for Hispanic Health

National Network for Immunization Information (NNii)

NNii promotes public education to sustain and build confidence that immunizations are in the best interests of children, adolescents, and adults. The network is a project of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Pediatric …

Author: National Network for Immunization Information

Comprehensive Family Immunization (IM)

This web page on the Pan American Health Organization's website provides information about the IM initiative. The mission of this initiative is to promote and coordinate technical cooperation and partnerships with the private and public sectors and …

Author: Pan American Health Organization

Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs)

This national parent advocacy organization is committed to protecting American children against diseases that have life-long effects on their health and development.

Author: Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases

PATH

PATH is an international, nonprofit organization that creates sustainable, culturally relevant solutions, enabling communities worldwide to break longstanding cycles of poor health. By collaborating with diverse public- and private-sector partners, …

Author: PATH

The Sabin Vaccine Institute

The Sabin Vaccine Institute promotes rapid scientific advances in vaccine development, delivery, and distribution worldwide.

Author: Sabin Vaccine Institute

United Nations Children's Fund

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) advocates and works for the protection of children's rights, to help the young meet their basic needs, and to expand their opportunities to reach their full potential. Search for keyword …

Author: United Nations Children's Fund

Pandemic Preparedness and Response – Lessons From the H1N1 Influenza of 2009

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, reviews and critiques the global H1N1 pandemic response in 2009. It discusses lessons learned by identifying key successes and shortcomings, and outlines steps that could improve …

Author: Fineberg HV

Publication date: 2014

The Hepatitis B Foundation

A US-based, non-profit organization dedicated to the cause and cure of hepatitis B through research, education, and patient advocacy.

Author: The Hepatitis B Foundation

VillageReach

VillageReach is an entrepreneurial, nonprofit organization that assures access to lifesaving immunizations for families in low-income countries with the greatest need.

Author: VillageReach

The World Bank: Health

The World Bank’s global strategy for health, nutrition, and population centers on strengthening health systems, including systems for the delivery of life-saving vaccines. This web page provides information about their health projects around the …

Author: The World Bank

Immunization, Vaccines, and Biologicals

This is the main web page for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) department on Immunization, Vaccines, and Biologicals. A wealth of information related to vaccines and immunization can be accessed from here, including information on specific …

Author: World Health Organization

Questions Frequently Asked About Hepatitis B

Helpful information about hepatitis B risks, transmission, symptoms, and prevention through immunization.

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

Publication date: 2014

Hepatitis B Shots Are Recommended for All New Babies

A brochure for parents of infants outlining the rationale for hepatitis B vaccination.

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

Publication date: 2008

Hepatitis Foundation International

This website contains resources and support for people living with hepatitis. The mission of Hepatitis Foundation International is to teach the public and hepatitis patients how to prevent, diagnose, and treat viral hepatitis; prevent viral …

Author: Hepatitis Foundation International

If You Have Sex, Read This... And Stop a Killer STD From Sneaking Up On You!

This one-page article, reprinted from Mademoiselle magazine by the Immunization Action Coalition, is designed to educate young women about the danger of hepatitis B infection and how to prevent sexual transmission.

Author: Liu L

Publication date: 1999

American Liver Foundation: Hepatitis B

The American Liver Foundation's web page on hepatitis B includes a description of the disease, how it's diagnosed, how it's treated, and the best way to prevent it.

Author: American Liver Foundation

Publication date: 2007

The Pink Book—Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Hepatitis B

A chapter detailing hepatitis B disease and vaccines from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pink Book, a standard reference on the epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2012

PubMed Searches: Hepatitis B

These pre-formatted PubMed searches will retrieve journal citations and available abstracts that address disease burden, vaccine efficacy and benefits, model programs and cost issues in Asian, African, and Latin American countries. Documents may be …

Author: Various

Viral Hepatitis

A web resource from the CDC's National Center for HIV, STD & TB Prevention, containing information on hepatitis A, B, and C, along with links to resources and partner organizations.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2006

Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board

The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board contributes to the control and prevention of viral hepatitis through its advocacy efforts, by issuing prevention guidelines and by encouraging initiatives to improve control and prevention of the disease. This …

Author: Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board

Hepatitis B Immunization: Introducing Hepatitis B Vaccine Into National Immunization Services

This document outlines the introduction process for hepatitis B vaccine into national immunization services. It offers a summary of WHO policies and practices regarding hepatitis B immunization, and includes information on immunization strategies, …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2001

Disease Outbreak News

This web page provides frequently updated information about current disease outbreaks, as well as disease-specific archives of past alerts and links to related resources.

Author: World Health Organization

Thermostable Formulations of a Hepatitis B Vaccine and a Meningitis A Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine Produced by a Spray-Drying Method

This article, published in the journal Vaccine, reports that employing a spray-drying process to produce glassy state formulations of two common subunit vaccines demonstrates that the production of thermostable vaccines is achievable. The process …

Author: Chen D, Kapre S, Goel A, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Introduction of Hepatitis B Vaccine into Childhood Immunization Services

WHO recommends that hepatitis B vaccine be included in routine immunization schedules for all children in all countries. This manual provides management guidelines for the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine into childhood immunization services, …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2001

Hepatitis B Vaccine Freezing in the Indonesian Cold Chain: Evidence and Solutions

This study, published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, aimed to document and characterize freezing temperatures in the Indonesian vaccine cold chain to evaluate the feasibility of changes designed to reduce the occurrence of …

Author: Nelson C, et al

Publication date: 2004

Direct and Indirect Effects of Rotavirus Vaccination Upon Childhood Hospitalizations in 3 US Counties, 2006–2009

This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, is about an active, population-based surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations in three United States counties to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccines. The study …

Author: Payne DC, Staat MA, Edwards KM, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Impact of Maternal Immunization on Influenza Hospitalizations in Infants

This article, published in the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, reports on the results of a study to determine whether maternal vaccination during pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza …

Author: Poehling KA, Szilagyi PG, Staat MA, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Analysis of Immunization Financing Indicators of the WHO-UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF), 2006-2012

This report presents an analysis of global and regional trends in key financing indicators, which are used to examine the financial sustainability of immunization programs, for the period of 2006 to 2012. The financing indicators aim to capture the …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Analysis of Data Gaps Pertaining to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Infections in Low and Medium Human Development Index Countries, 1984-2005

Published in Epidemiology and Infection, this article examines both population- and facility-based studies of ETEC infections and identifies a need for additional large, population-based studies combined with facility-based studies covering a …

Author: Gupta SK, Keck J, Ram PK, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Analysis of Data Gaps Pertaining to Shigella Infections in Low and Medium Human Development Index Countries, 1984-2005

Published in Epidemiology and Infection, this article seeks to identify contemporary gaps in the understanding of the global epidemiology of shigellosis, through a review of the English-language scientific literature from 1984 to 2005, restricting …

Author: Ram PK, Crump JA, Gupta SK, Miller MA, Mintz ED

Publication date: 2008

The Future of Immunisation Policy, Implementation, and Financing

The authors of this article, published in The Lancet, discuss the challenges and possibilities of further expanding coverage of existing vaccines while widely implementing new vaccines, with respect to low-income and middle-income countries. They …

Author: Levine OS, Bloom DE, Cherian T, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Disease Burden Due to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in the First Two Years of Life in an Urban Community in Bangladesh

Published in Infection and Immunity, a cohort of 321 children were followed from birth up to two years to determine the incidence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in Bangladesh. Children with ETEC diarrhea were underweight and stunted …

Author: Qadri F, Saha A, Ahmed T

Publication date: 2007

Refocusing Gavi for Greater Impact

This report outlines the large impact that Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, has had on immunization rates in eligible countries through funding support and dispersal of vaccines. It also provides recommendations on how Gavi could have a greater impact. …

Author: Dykstra S, Glassman A, Kenny C, Sandefur J (Center for Global Development)

Publication date: 2015

Escherichia coli Infections

This web page provides general information on Escherichia coli bacteria and symptoms of disease. It also includes links to other World Health Organization web pages related to E. coli.

Author: World Health Organization

Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Invasive Disease Among Unvaccinated People: Review of Evidence on Indirect Effects

This article, published in Vaccine, summarizes the evidence for the indirect effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on vaccine-type pneumococcal disease and its correlation with changes in carriage among unvaccinated populations.

Author: Davis SM, Deloria-Knoll M, Kassa HT, O'Brien KL

Publication date: 2013

International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b)

This website provides information on icddr,b's work in Bangladesh and other areas to develop and promote solutions to major health, population, and nutrition problems, particularly those involving diarrheal disease.

Author: International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh

Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for 291 Diseases and Injuries in 21 Regions, 1990–2010: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

This article, published in The Lancet, shares results from the Global Burden of Disease Study, calculating disease burden using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) both worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable …

Author: Murray CJL, Vos T, Lozano R, et al.

Publication date: 2012

A Multicenter Study of Shigella Diarrhea in Six Asian Countries: Disease Burden, Clinical Manifestations, and Microbiology

Published in PLoS Medicine, this article discusses a prospective, population-based study in six Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the current disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology of shigellosis in Asia.

Author: von Seidlein L, Kim DR, Ali M, et al.

Publication date: 2006

Progress and Hurdles in the Development of Vaccines Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Humans

This article, published in the Expert Review of Vaccines, describes the status of vaccines under development to address enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), which have been designed to stimulate local intestinal immunity and are delivered either …

Author: Zhang W, Sack DA

Publication date: 2012

Influenza

This web page provides an overview of influenza. It also includes links to general and technical information about influenza and vaccines, as well as related World Health Organization programs and activities.

Author: World Health Organization

Information on Avian Influenza

This web page provides important information for the public, health professionals, and travelers on avian influenza, including key facts on how the virus is spread and treatment for avian influenza.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Influenza

This web page provides key information about influenza, including seasonal, avian, and pandemic influenza. Resources include information on causes, symptoms, prevention, and treatment for influenza.

Author: US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in History

This book provides an account the influenza pandemic of 1918 that killed at least 40 million people in less than a year. John Barry illustrates not only how this infectious disease spread, but also how it torn at the social fabric of the time …

Author: Barry JM

Publication date: 2004

Influenza

The mission of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy is to prevent illness and death from infectious diseases, including influenza, through epidemiologic research and the rapid translation of scientific information into …

Author: Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, University of Minnesota

Influenza Virus Traceability Mechanism

In November 2007, the Intergovernmental Meeting on Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: Sharing of Influenza Viruses and Access to Vaccines and Other Benefits, requested that the World Health Organization (WHO) develop an Influenza Virus Traceability …

Author: World Health Organization

Pandemic Influenza

This web page provides comprehensive information on pandemic influenza for the general public, health and emergency preparedness professionals, policymakers, government and business leaders, school systems, and local communities.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Pandemic Flu and You

Pandemicfluandyou.org is a comprehensive resource guide on pandemic influenza. The site is a one-stop, easy-to-use web portal which contains the most current information and web based resources detailing how a flu pandemic might affect individuals, …

Author: Trust for America's Health

Pandemic Preparedness

This web page provides information and links to useful resources on global influenza pandemic preparedness, including how to detect and prepare for a pandemic as well as responses to an influenza pandemic.

Author: World Health Organization

Influenza (Flu)

This web page provides information and resources for health professionals and the public on preventing and controlling influenza.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Development and Clinical Evaluation of Prevnar 13, a 13-Valent Pneumocococcal CRM197 Conjugate Vaccine

This article, published in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, discusses the development, clinical evaluation, and postlicensure impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal CRM(197) protein conjugate vaccine, PCV13, (Prevnar 13®). ABSTRACT …

Author: Gruber WC, Scott DA, Emini EA

Publication date: 2012

Creating a Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance System in Vietnam

This document provides details on PATH's partnership with the National Expanded Program on Immunization in Vietnam to enhance surveillance of JE disease and inform future immunization program planning.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Japanese Encephalitis Activities: Focusing on Control in China and Beyond

A summary of the JE Project's work in China to evaluate and strengthen JE control. Information is also provided on PATH's partnership with the Chinese manufacturer of a safe and affordable JE vaccine.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance in Cambodia

An update on surveillance activities in Cambodia supported by PATH's JE Project.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance in Indonesia

An update on surveillance activities in Indonesian districts supported by PATH's JE Project.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Partnering for Successful Introduction of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine in India

Presented at the 11th Annual Scientific Conference of the International Center for Diarrheoal Disease Research, Bangladesh, this poster describes the role of partnership in planning and implementing a groundbreaking JE vaccination campaign that …

Author: PATH; Government of India

Publication date: 2007

Protecting India's Children from Japanese Encephalitis

This fact sheet provides information about the partnerships and commitments that helped the Government of India introduce a landmark strategy to vaccinate children at highest risk. Campaigns in 2006 reached more than 9 million, and the target …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Meeting Report: Third Biregional Meeting on Control of Japanese Encephalitis

This report provides an update on JE surveillance, diagnostics, and immunization programs in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2007

The Burden of JE in Southeast Asia: The Role of NGOs in the Fight Against the Disease

This presentation, given at the 2006 meeting of the American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, provides an overview of JE disease burden and the activities of the PATH JE project.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Effect of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction on Hospital Admissions for Diarrhoea and Rotavirus in Children in Rwanda: A Time-Series Analysis

This article, published in The Lancet Global Health, reports on the results of a time-series analysis that examined hospital admissions of children under five years of age due to diarrhea in Rwanda from 2009 to 2014. The authors compared hospital …

Author: Ngabo F, Tate JE, Gatera M, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Protecting Asia's Children

This article featured in PATH’s programmatic newsletter, Directions in Global Health, discusses PATH's JE project and their work in Asia.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2005

Control of Japanese Encephalitis--Within Our Grasp?

The article, from the New England Journal of Medicine, provides an up-to-date summary of JE disease incidence, epidemiology, and vaccines against JE.

Author: Solomon T

Publication date: 2006

JE Vaccines at a Glance

A side-by-side comparison of internationally available JE vaccines, including information on dosage, cost, and supply.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Strategic Advisory Group of Experts Japanese Encephalitis Recommendations

This issue of the Weekly Epidemiological Record includes recommendations on Japanese encephalitis control through immunization, as provided at the April 2006 Strategic Advisory Group of Experts meeting.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2006

2006 Report of the Steering Committee on Dengue and Other Flavivirus Vaccines

The Japanese encephalitis (JE) section of this report summarizes current activities aimed at furthering JE control through immunization, including clinical trials, the establishment of an Adverse Events Following Immunization surveillance …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2006

E-medicine: Japanese Encephalitis

This article provides a comprehensive overview of the disease.

Author: Kallen A

Publication date: 2002

Japanese Encephalitis: An Orphan Disease Comes of Age

Published in Immunization Forum, a publication of the GAVI Alliance, this article discusses JE, including surveillance and reporting of the disease as well as prevention and treatment.

Author: GAVI Alliance; The Vaccine Fund

Publication date: 2004

SA 14-14-2 Live Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Vaccine

This fact sheet provides important information on the SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine manufactured by the Chengdu Institute of Biological Products in China. Topics include vaccine presentation, dosage, safety, and history of use.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

H2N2 Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine is Safe and Immunogenic for Healthy Adult Volunteers

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, reports the results of a study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an H2N2 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) candidate. The authors found that the vaccine candidate …

Author: Isakova-Sivak I, Stukova M, Erofeeva M, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Report on the Japanese Encephalitis Disability Assessment

The burden of disability among JE survivors has been a neglected area of study. This assessment, performed by the Government of Cambodia in partnership with PATH, found one in four children infected with JE either died or suffered severe sequelae …

Author: Cambodian Ministry of Health

Publication date: 2008

Sentinel Site Surveillance of Japanese Encephalitis

These guidelines were developed to assist program managers considering the implementation of JE sentinel site surveillance.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Sentinel Surveillance for Japanese Encephalitis: Fact Sheet

This document outlines the rationale and summarizes considerations for sentinel surveillance of JE disease burden.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

A Cohort Study to Assess the New WHO Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance Standards

From the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, researchers evaluated the clinical case definition of acute encephalitis syndrome, which the standards use for identification of JE patients, to determine its sensitivity and specificity.

Author: Solomon T, Thao TT, Lewthwaite P, et al.

Publication date: 2008

A Decade of Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance in Sarawak, Malaysia: 1997-2006

From the journal Tropical Medicine and International Health, this summary of surveillance data from Malaysia reveals seasonal peak incidence, age distribution of JE cases, and effect of the JE immunization program on disease incidence.

Author: Wong SC, Ooi MH, Abdullah AR, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Clinical Performance and Safety of the ID Adapter, a Prototype Intradermal Delivery Technology for Vaccines, Drugs, and Diagnostic Tests

The authors of this article, published in Procedia in Vaccinology, discuss a Phase 1 clinical study conducted to evaluate the intradermal (ID) adapter, a prototype intradermal delivery aid, for safety and precision of injection. The authors present …

Author: Jarrahian C, Zehrung D, Saxon E, Griswold E, Klaff L

Publication date: 2012

Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed - Progress Report 2012

"A Promised Renewed" is a wide-ranging and ambitious initiative that seeks to unite a number of partners around the goal of ending preventable child deaths. This first annual progress report on child survival aims to stimulate public dialogue and …

Author: United Nations Children’s Fund

Publication date: 2012

Evaluation of Three Immunoglobulin M Antibody Capture Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays for Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis

From the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, this study evaluates the sensitivity, specificity, and usability of three commercially-available kits for Japanese encephalitis laboratory diagnostics.

Author: Jacobson J, Hills S, Winkler J, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Manual for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection

This resource details recommended procedures for diagnosing japanese encephalitis in the laboratory as part of routine surveillance. The current draft is intended for evaluation purposes.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2007

Surveillance for Encephalitis in Bangladesh: Preliminary Results

Published in Health Science and Bulletin, this paper summarizes data from an ongoing study to identify the incidence of JE infection among encephalitis cases at three hospitals in order to inform future plans for JE control through immunization.

Author: International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh

Publication date: 2004

Japanese Encephalitis

This web page provides a comprehensive overview of the disease including prevention tips, recommendations for vaccine use, signs and symptoms, and a geographic distribution of the Japanese encephalitis virus.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

VIEW-hub

This online database provides real-time data on vaccine introductions and impact. The Vaccine Information and Epidemiology Window (VIEW-hub) includes information related to rotavirus, pneumococcal, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and inactivated …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Putting an End to Epidemic Meningitis in Africa

This fact sheet describes PATH’s efforts to eliminate meningococcal meningitis epidemics from Africa. It covers work across meningitis projects, including the development and distribution of MenAfriVac®, the vaccine that has virtually eliminated …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

The Gavi Full Country Evaluations

The Gavi Full Country Evaluations (FCE) are prospective studies that aim to understand and quantify the barriers and drivers of immunization program improvement, with an emphasis on the contribution of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance in four countries: …

Author: PATH

Effect of Single Dose of SA 14-14-2 Vaccine One Year After Immunisation in Nepalese Children with Japanese Encephalitis: A Case-Control Study

Published in The Lancet, investigators conducted a case-control study and efficacy of the SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine to be 98.5 percent 12 to 15 months after vaccination. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in developing countries can gain free access to …

Author: Ohrr H, Tandan JB, Sohn YM, et al.

Publication date: 2005

Long-Term Immunogenicity of Measles Vaccine After Coadministration with Live Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine

This follow-up study to PATH's original coadministration trial demonstrated that measles seroprotection rates were still high one year post-vaccination among infants who originally seroconverted for measles.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Measles Vaccine Immunogenicity After Coadministration with Live Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Shows Equivalence to That of Measles Vaccine Given Alone

This study by PATH's JE project determined that measles vaccine and the live, attenuated JE vaccine can be safely co-administered with no effect on the immunogenicity of either.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Protection of SA 14-14-2 Live Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Against the Wild-Type JE Viruses

Published in the Chinese Medical Journal, this study found the SA 14-14-2 vaccine to be broadly immunogenic and protective against several strains of JE endemic to Asia.

Author: Jia L, Wang Z, Yu Y

Publication date: 2003

Short-term Safety of Live Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine (SA 14-14-2): Results of a Randomized Trial with 26,239 Subjects

Published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, this study evaluated the occurrence of severe adverse events among children immunized with the live, attenuated SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine for 30 days, and data demonstrated short-term safety of the …

Author: Liu Z-L, Hennessy S, Strom B, et al.

Publication date: 1997

Single Dose of SA 14-14-2 Vaccine Provides Long-term Protection Against Japanese Encephalitis: A Case-control Study in Nepalese Children 5 Years After Immunization

Published in the journal Vaccine, this article discusses the return of investigators to Nepali villages where they conducted a case control study that revealed 99 percent efficacy after one year among children who received a single dose of the …

Author: Tandan J, Ohrr H, Sohn Y, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis in Context With Indian Scenario

This article provides a historical overview of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in India since the first detection of JE virus activity in 1952 until the 2006 introduction of JE vaccine in high-risk states and expansion of vaccination efforts in 2007 …

Author: Dhillon GP, Raina VK

Publication date: 2008

Protection Against Japanese Encephalitis by Inactivated Vaccines

Published in the New England Journal of Medicine, this evaluation of two doses of monovalent and bivalent inactivated mouse brain-derived JE vaccines in a northern Thai province found a combined rate of 91% efficacy. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users …

Author: Hoke C, Nisalak A, Sangawhipa N, et al.

Publication date: 1988

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Vero-cell-Derived, Inactivated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: A Non-inferiority, Phase III, Randomised Controlled Trial

Published in The Lancet, this study demonstrates a strong immunogenicity and safety profile among adults for a JE vaccine under development by Intercell. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in developing countries can gain free access to journal …

Author: Tauber E, Kollaritsch H, Korinek M, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination Campaign, India

This fact sheet provides an overview of the strategy and outcomes of the 2006 mass immunization campaigns to introduce the SA 14-14-2 vaccine in India's high risk districts. More than 9 million children were reached through this landmark effort.

Author: PATH; Government of India

Publication date: 2006

Impact of the Serogroup A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine, MenAfriVac, on Carriage and Herd Immunity

The conjugate vaccine against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (NmA), MenAfriVac, was first introduced in mass vaccination campaigns of 1 to 29-year-olds in Burkina Faso in 2010. The authors of this article, published in Clinical Infectious …

Author: Kristiansen PA, Diomandé F, Ba AK, et al.

Publication date: 2013

PubMed Searches: Rotavirus

These pre-formatted PubMed searches will retrieve journal citations and available abstracts that address relevant issues related to rotavirus. Documents may be ordered through Loansome Doc if you have established an agreement with a participating …

Author: Various

Ingredients of a Successful Public-Private Partnership: A Case Study of the Landmark Vaccine Vial Monitor Partnership

This document describes the partnership that created the vaccine vial monitor, providing a useful example to policymakers, funders, nongovernmental and multilateral organizations, and product developers of how the public and private sectors can …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Hepatitis B Vaccination

This web page provides links to information about hepatitis B disease and vaccines, issues around vaccine safety, and many additional links to detailed materials for health professionals.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2008

Vaccine Introduction in India: Status and Lessons Learned

This abstract of a presentation made at the 2006 Global Vaccine Research Forum summarizes the strategy and achievements of India's 2006 mass JE vaccination campaigns.

Author: PATH; Government of India

Publication date: 2006

JE Clinical Care Guidelines

These guidelines are intended for use in the clinical management of acutely ill children with symptoms suggesting meningitis or encephalitis. Local adaptation of these guidelines is encouraged.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

JE Posters for Clinics

PATH created these materials to provide updated and accurate information about JE in clinical settings. The posters aim to educate parents on JE prevention by immunization, as well as on the immediate need for health care if a child develops …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2005

Thiomersal

This information sheet covers issue relating to the use of thiomersal (also known as thimerosal) in vaccines, including why it is used, evidence regarding safety, and the World Health Organization's position on the issue.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2011

Thiomersal - Questions and Answers

This in-depth fact sheet provides common questions and answers related to the use of thiomersal (also known as thimerosal) in vaccines. It includes general information about thiomersal, which vaccines contain it and why, updates on additional …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2011

Long Term Care of Patients with Encephalitis: A Simple Guide for Resource Poor Settings

This document offers simple and practical tips for clinicians and other health care workers providing long term and follow up care of pediatric encephalitis patients. The linked website also contains resources for assessing disability resulting from …

Author: Viral Brain Infections Group, University of Liverpool, UK

Publication date: 2007

Assessing Disease Burden of JE: Population-Based Surveillance

This slide presentation provides an overview of the components of a population-based surveillance system for JE. The presentation should be used in conjunction with the World Health Organization's Recommended Standards for Surveillance of Selected …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2008

Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of Encephalitis

This presentation provides an overview of the clinical manifestations and diagnosis of encephalitis. This presentation can be adapted for your specific use.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2005

Japanese Encephalitis: Control of the Disease

This slide presentation provides an overview of the control of JE and prevention of JE through immunization.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Diagnostic and Laboratory Testing Aspects of JE

This slide presentation give an overivew of the diagnostic and laboratory testing aspects of JE and can be apdated to fit your audience.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

The Epidemiology of JE

This slide presentation gives an overview of the epidemiology of JE and can be adapted for individual use.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

How to Perform a Lumbar Puncture

This slide presentation gives an overview of performing a lumbar puncture in diagnosing encephalitis.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2005

Immunizing Children Using the SA 14-14-2 JE Vaccine

This slide presentation give an overview of immunizing using the SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine. The slide set can be adapted for individual use.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2008

Control of Japanese Encephalitis in Asia: The Time is Now

This editorial, published in Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, discusses recent progress in the development and availability of improved Japanese encephalitis vaccines to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease. ABSTRACT …

Author: Hills S, Martin R, Marfin A, Fischer M

Publication date: 2014

Immunizing Children Against Japanese Encephalitis Using SA 14-14-2 JE Vaccine

This training module is designed for local adaptation and can be transformed into a guide for trainers as well as a comprehensive handbook for trainees.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2008

Cost-Effectiveness of Routine Immunization to Control Japanese Encephalitis in Shanghai, China

From the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, this article investigates the cost-effectiveness of JE immunization in China and demonstrates that a JE immunization program can be a cost-saving intervention for countries.

Author: Ding D, Kilgore PE, Clemens JD, Liu W, Xu Z

Publication date: 2003

Protein Carriers of Conjugate Vaccines: Characteristics, Development and Clinical trials

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, discusses the conjugate vaccines for preventing infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. It specifically …

Author: Pichichero ME

Publication date: 2013

Shadow Lives: The Human Toll of Japanese Encephalitis

Children who survive JE infection must come to grips with the human and socioeconomic consequences of the disease. Produced in collaboration with the JE Project, Shadow Lives—The Human Toll of Japanese Encephalitis, introduces us to families who …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Resources: From pneumoACTION to Now

This web page offers a vast array of links to resources on a leading cause of child morbidity and mortality, pneumococcal diseases. It provides information on available vaccines, vaccine safety, disease burden, immunization financing, and other …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Pneumococcal Vaccination

This web page offers descriptions of pneumococcal disease and vaccines, links to resources, frequently asked questions, and other related information.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Pneumococcal Disease

This web page provides an overview of pneumococcal disease and vaccines against it. This page also provides links to World Health Organization (WHO) position papers on the disease and other related WHO resources.

Author: World Health Organization

Global Progress in HPV Vaccination

This web page illustrates global progress in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination with a map that shows current HPV vaccination programs. It also contains a link to a short slide show that compares HPV vaccination in 2010 and 2015.

Author: Cervical Cancer Action

Publication date: 2015

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine for Childhood Immunization - WHO Position Paper

This article, published in Weekly Epidemiological Record, is a summary of pneumococcal disease and its burden, as well as the official World Health Organization (WHO) position on use of conjugate vaccines in a global context. In 2012, the WHO …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2007

Vaccines in the Era of Genomics: The Pneumococcal Challenge

Published in the journal Vaccine, this review aims to provide the reader with an understanding of the capsular-based complexity of Streptococcus pneumoniae, one of the main limitations to current vaccine development; the need for a new vaccine …

Author: Barocchi MA, Censini S, Rappuoli R

Publication date: 2007

Development of Lactococcal GEM-Based Pneumococcal Vaccines

Published in the journal Vaccine, this article reports on the development of a novel protein-based nasal vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which three pneumococcal proteins were displayed on the surface of a non-recombinant, killed …

Author: Audouy S, van Selm S, van Roosmalen M, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Antibody-Independent, Interleukin-17A-Mediated, Cross-serotype Immunity to Pneumococci in Mice Immunized Intranasally with the Cell Wall Polysaccharide

Published in the journal Infection and Immunity, this article shows that C-Ps given intranasally with mucosal adjuvant increased the resistance of mice to experimental nasopharyngeal colonization by capsulated S. pneumoniae of serotype 6B.

Author: Malley R, Srivastava A, Lipsitch M, et al.

Publication date: 2006

Bacterial Pneumonia Vaccines and Childhood Pneumonia: Are We Winning, Refining, or Redefining?

Published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, this article provides an overview of the diagnostic challenges of bacterial pneumonia and highlight the need for refining the current diagnostic approach to ensure adequate epidemiological surveillance of …

Author: Obaro S, Madhi S

Publication date: 2006

Development of Antibodies Against the Putative Proteinase Maturation Protein A in Relation to Pneumococcal Carriage and Otitis Media

Published in FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, this article examines serum anti-pneumococcal proteinase maturation protein A antibodies at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age, and showed that the age-related development of antipneumococcal …

Author: Bogaert D, Holmlund E, Lahdenkari M, et al.

Publication date: 2006

DNA Vaccines Expressing Pneumococcal Surface Protein A (PspA) Elicit Protection Levels Comparable to Recombinant Protein

This article, published in the Journal of Medical Microbiology, provide results that show that DNA vaccines expressing PspA are able to elicit protection levels comparable to recombinant protein, even though total anti-PspA IgG response is …

Author: Ferreira DM, Miyaji EN, Oliveira MLS, et al.

Publication date: 2006

Effect of Combined Pneumococcal Conjugate and Polysaccharide Vaccination on Recurrent Otitis Media with Effusion

Published in the journal Pediatrics, this article assess the effect of combined pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccinations on the recurrence of otitis media through a randomised, controlled trial.

Author: van Heerbeek N, Straetemans M, Wiertsema SP

Publication date: 2006

Immunization of Aged Mice with a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Combined with an Unmethylated CpG-Containing Oligodeoxynucleotide Restores Defective Immunoglobulin G Antipolysaccharide Responses and Specific CD4+-T-cell Priming to Young Adult Levels

Polysaccharide (PS)-protein conjugate vaccines, in contrast to purified PS vaccines, recruit CD4+-T-cell help and restore defective PS-specific humoral immunity in the immature host. Surprisingly, in the immunocompromised, aged host, anti-PS …

Author: Sen G, Chen Q, Snapper C

Publication date: 2006

Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharides Conjugated to Protein D for Prevention of Acute Otitis Media Caused by Both Streptococcus pneumoniae and Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae: A Randomised Double-Blind Efficacy Study

Published in The Lancet, this study assessed the efficacy of a novel vaccine that contained polysaccharides from 11 different Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes each conjugated to Haemophilus influenzae-derived protein D in prevention of acute …

Author: Prymula R, Peeters P, Chrobok V, et al.

Publication date: 2006

The Evidence for Using Conjugate Vaccines to Protect HIV-Infected Children Against Pneumococcal Disease

Published in The Lancet, this review summarises available data on the burden of pneumococcal disease and the safety and efficacy of PCVs in HIV-infected children. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in developing countries can gain free access to …

Author: Bliss SJ, O'Brien KL, Janoff EN, et al.

Publication date: 2008

WHO Expert Consultation on Serotype Composition of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines for Use in Resource-Poor Developing Countries, 26–27 October 2006, Geneva.

Published in the journal Vaccine, this article reports on a World Health Organization expert consultation to formulate a data-driven approach to determine the minimum or optimal formulation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, particularly keeping in …

Author: Cherian T

Publication date: 2007

Herd Immunity and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: A Quantitative Model

An empirical quantitative model was developed to estimate the herd (indirect) effects on the incidence of invasive disease among persons ≥5 years of age induced by vaccination of young children with 1, 2, or ≥3 doses of the …

Author: Haber M, Barskey A, Baughman W, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Decline in Pneumonia Admissions After Routine Childhood Immunization with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the USA: A Time-Series Analysis

Published in The Lancet, this article assesses the effect of routine infant immunization with seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on rates of all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia admissions. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in …

Author: Grijalva CG, Nuorti JP, Arbogast PG, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Immunization with the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Bangladeshi Infants and Effects of Zinc Supplementation

Published in the journal Vaccine, this article aimed to determine the immunogenicity of the heptavalent pneumococcal protein conjugate (PNC) vaccine in poor Bangladeshi infants and to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on immune response to …

Author: Osendarp SJM, Prabhakar H, Fuchs GJ, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Prevenar™ Vaccination: Review of the Global Data, 2006

This article, published in the journal Vaccine, reviews the incidence of vaccine-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease and other pneumococcal-associated respiratory tract diseases following the routine use of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate …

Author: Center KJ

Publication date: 2007

World Health Organization Definition of "Radiologically Confirmed Pneumonia" May Under-estimate the True Public Health Value of Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccines

The public health benefit of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) in preventing pneumonia would only be appreciated if the tool used for measuring “pneumococcal pneumonia” had good sensitivity. Exploratory studies in South Africa …

Author: Madhi S, Klugman K

Publication date: 2007

Indirect Effects Associated with Widespread Vaccination of Infants with Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar)

Published in the journal Vaccine, this review summarises published reports of invasive pneumococcal disease incidence (1998–2005) among non-immunised individuals in countries with universal PCV7 immunisation. Findings suggest that …

Author: Isaacman DJ, Fletcher MA, Fritzell B, Ciuryla V, Schranz J

Publication date: 2007

Long-Term Immunogenicity and Efficacy of a 9-valent Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine in Human Immuno-deficient Virus Infected and Non-infected Children in the Absence of a Booster Dose of Vaccine

The long-term immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy (VE) of a 9-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine was studied in HIV infected and HIV non-infected children. VE against vaccine-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease following 6.16 years of …

Author: Madhi S

Publication date: 2007

Kinetics of the Immune Response Following Pneumococcal PD Conjugate Vaccination

Primary vaccination with pneumococcal protein D conjugate vaccine in the first year of life induced clear ELISA and OPA responses, which varied considerably for the different serotypes. Antibody levels declined following primary vaccination but were …

Author: Schuerman L, Prymula R, Chrobok V, Dieussaert I, Poolman J

Publication date: 2007

Estimating the Protective Concentration of Anti-pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide Antibodies

Published in the journal Vaccine, this article describes a method for correlating pneumococcal anticapsular antibody responses of infants immunized with pneumococcal conjugate (PnC) vaccine (Prevenar) with clinical protection from invasive …

Author: Siber G, Chang I, Baker S, et al.

Publication date: 2007

The Kinetics and Phenotype of the Human B-cell Response Following Immunization with a Heptavalent Pneumococcal CRM Conjugate Vaccine

Published in the journal Immunology, this study aimed to establish the kinetics and phenotype of B-cell subpopulations responding to booster immunization with a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Pnc7), which is to be introduced into the …

Author: Clutterbuck EA, Salt P, Oh S, et al.

Publication date: 2006

The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health Project: A 21st Century Childhood Pneumonia Etiology Study

This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, details the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project, which is a seven-country, standardized, comprehensive evaluation of the etiologic agents causing severe pneumonia in …

Author: Levine OS, O'Brien KL, Deloria-Knoll M, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Vaccines With Aluminum-Containing Adjuvants: Optimizing Vaccine Efficacy and Thermal Stability

Aluminum-containing adjuvants have been in use in vaccines for decades to enhance immune responses. However, exposure of vaccines containing these adjuvants to temperatures outside of the recommended storage ranges (especially exposure to freezing …

Author: Clapp T, Siebert P, Chen D, Jones Braun L

Publication date: 2010

Efficacy of Nine-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Pneumonia and Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in The Gambia: Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Published in The Lancet, this study aims to assess the efficacy of a nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children through a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in eastern Gambia. Children age 6–51 weeks were randomly …

Author: Cutts U, Zaman SMA, Enwere G, et al.

Publication date: 2005

Population-Based Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Young Children

Published in the journal Pediatrics, this study aims to determine the population impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on pneumococcal-related diseases, including pneumonia and otitis media by measuring annual rates of medical visits for …

Author: Poehling K, Lafleur BJ, Szilagyi PG, et al.

Publication date: 2004

Potential Impact of Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccines on Pediatric Pneumococcal Diseases

Children younger than two years have the highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and play an important role in its transmission. In the United States, seven pneumococcal serotypes cause approximately 80 percent of invasive disease …

Author: O'Brien K, Santosham M

Publication date: 2004

Decline in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease After the Introduction of Protein-Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine

Published in the New England Journal of Medicine, this study examined population-based data from the Active Bacterial Core Surveillance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to evaluate changes in the burden of invasive disease, defined …

Author: Whitney C, Farley M, Hadler J, et al.

Publication date: 2003

Impact of the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Otitis Media

Published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, this study examines the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the incidence of otitis media, frequent otitis media, and tympanostomy tube procedures and to assesses whether the …

Author: Fireman B, Black SB, Shinefield HR, et al.

Publication date: 2003

Pneumococcal Genome Sequencing Tracks a Vaccine Escape Variant Formed Through a Multi-Fragment Recombination Event

This article, published in Nature Genetics, describes a study using array-based sequencing of 62 isolates from a US national monitoring program to study five independent instances of vaccine escape recombination. The study observations clarify the …

Author: Golubchik T, Brueggemann AB, Street T, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Is the Pneumococcal Vaccine Advance Market Commitment Motivating Innovation and Increasing Manufacturing Capacity? Some Preliminary Answers

This article, published in Vaccine, provides preliminary evidence on the potential outcome of the pneumococcal vaccine Advance Market Commitment, with a focus on its impact on innovation in emerging vaccine manufacturers in low-resource countries. …

Author: Plahte J

Publication date: 2012

Population-Level Impact and Herd Effects Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programmes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

This article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, reports on a study to assess the population-level consequences of female human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs to verify if the high efficacy reported in randomized controlled …

Author: Drolet M, Bénard E, Boily M-C, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Preventing and Controlling Influenza With Available Interventions

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, provides the author's perspective on current influenza patterns, populations most affected by the virus, interventions currently available and being used to prevent and control …

Author: Uyeki TM

Publication date: 2014

A 9-Valent HPV Vaccine Against Infection and Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Women

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, reports on a study to determine the efficacy and immunogenicity of an investigational 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in women 16 to 26 years of age. The authors found that …

Author: Joura EA, Giuliano AR, Iversen O-E, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (Prevnar; PNCRM7): A Review of Its Use in the Prevention of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection

Published in the journal Pediatric Drugs, this article reviews data from trials using the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to determine the vaccine's ability to reduce and/or prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users …

Author: Darkes M, Plosker G

Publication date: 2002

Efficacy of a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Acute Otitis Media

This study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, enrolled 1662 infants in a randomized, double-blind efficacy trial of a heptavalent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in which the carrier protein is the nontoxic …

Author: Eskola J, Kilpi T, Palmu A, et al.

Publication date: 2001

Efficacy of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines and Their Effort on Carriage and Antimicrobial Resistance

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have shown a high degree of success in preventing pneumococcal bacteraemia in children. They also reduce the acquisition of carriage of vaccine serotypes in the nasopharynx, and reduce otitis media caused by those …

Author: Klugman K

Publication date: 2001

Post-licensure Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Seven-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

Published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, this study evaluates the impact of the introduction and routine use of seven valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease within the Northern …

Author: Black S, Shinefield HR, Hansen J, et al.

Publication date: 2001

Effect of a Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine on the Occurrence of Respiratory Infections and Antibiotic Use in Day-Care Center Attendees

Published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, this article examines whether the use of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could reduce the occurrence of respiratory infections and the ensuing antibiotic drug use in the day care. In this …

Author: Dagan R, Sikuler-Cohen M, Zamir O, et al.

Publication date: 2001

Persistence of Immune Responses to the HPV-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine in Women Aged 15-55 Years and First-Time Modelling of Antibody Responses in Mature Women: Results From an Open-Label 6-Year Follow-Up Study

This article, published in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, reports on a study to evaluate the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine's long-time immunogenicity persistence in women. The authors found that six years after …

Author: Schwarz T, Spaczynski M, Kaufmann A, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Inactivated Polio Vaccine Development for Technology Transfer Using Attenuated Sabin Poliovirus Strains to Shift From Salk-IPV to Sabin-IPV

Even after polio eradication, countries will need to continue immunization against poliomyelitis to prevent the risk of a global outbreak due to accidental or deliberate re-introduction of the virus. Following the demonstration of a …

Author: Bakker WA, Thomassen YE, van't Oever AG, et al.

Publication date: 2011

The Preventable Burden of Pneumococcal Disease in the Developing World

The efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) and their remarkable success in operational use in North America challenge us to define the burden of pneumococcal disease and the likely benefits of PCV use in developing countries. …

Author: Scott JA

Publication date: 2007

Estimates of World-Wide Distribution of Child Deaths From Acute Respiratory Infections

To establish a relation between deaths due to acute respiratory infections (ARI) and all-cause deaths in children under 5 years we show that the proportion of deaths directly attributable to ARI declines from 23% to 18% and then 15% (95% confidence …

Author: Williams B, Gouws E, Boschi-Pinto C, Bryce J, Dye C

Publication date: 2002

Outcome of Meningitis Caused by Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b in Children in the Gambia

Published in the journal Tropical Medicine and International Health, the purpose of this study was to assess the importance of disabilities following pneumococcal and Hib meningitis in The Gambia. 257 children aged 0-12 years hospitalized between …

Author: Goetghebuer T, et al.

Publication date: 2000

Streptococcus pneumoniae Comparative System

This website contains data from a PATH-sponsored study on sequencing the genomes of five geographically diverse Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. The sequencing was performed by The Institute for Genome Research (TIGR, now known as the J. Craig …

Author: The Institute for Genomic Research

Publication date: 2008

The Roles of Pneumococcal Serotypes 1 and 5 in Pediatric Invasive Disease

A small number of serotypes are responsible for most invasive pneumococcal disease in children worldwide. Serotypes 1 and 5 were among the first pneumococcal serotypes to be identified, reflecting their great prominence as causes of disease in the …

Author: Hausdorff WP

Publication date: 2007

Evolution of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Serotypes and Penicillin Susceptibility in Latin America, Sireva-Vigia Group, 1993-1999

Since 1993 the Pan American Health Organization has coordinated a surveillance network with the National Reference Laboratories of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Uruguay aimed at monitoring capsular types and antimicrobial …

Author: Di Fabio JL, Castañeda E, Agudelo CI, et al.

Publication date: 2001

Multinational Study of Pneumococcal Serotypes Causing Acute Otitis Media in Children

This study analyzed nine existing datasets comprising pneumococcal isolates from middle ear fluid samples collected from 1994 through 2000 from 3,232 children with AOM from Finland, France, Greece, Israel, several East European countries, the US …

Author: Hausdorff WP, Yothers G, Dagan R, et al.

Publication date: 2002

Which Pneumococcal Serogroups Cause the Most Invasive Disease: Implications for Conjugate Vaccine Formulation and Use, Part I

Published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases, this study analyzed more than 70 recent data sets to compare the serogroups causing invasive pneumococcal disease with those represented in conjugate vaccine formulations. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn …

Author: Hausdorff WP, Bryant J, Paradiso P, Siber G

Publication date: 2000

The Contribution of Specific Pneumococcal Serogroups to Different Disease Manifestations: Implications for Conjugate Vaccine Formulation and Use, Part II

To assess whether certain serogroups of Streptococcus pneumoniae are preferentially associated with specific disease manifestations, we analyzed all recent pneumococcal disease studies and assessed the relative frequency of isolation of each …

Author: Hausdorff WP, Bryant J, Paradiso P, Siber G

Publication date: 2000

Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children: Geographic and Temporal Variations in Incidence and Serotype Distribution

Published in the European Journal of Pediatrics, this study examined published studies from the United States, Europe, and Latin America to better understand geographic and temporal variability in the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease …

Author: Hausdorff WP

Publication date: 2002

Prospective Multicentre Hospital Surveillance of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Disease in India

The Network studied the characteristics of invasive pneumococcal infections in six hospitals in India over four years, in patients with suspected pneumonia (3686), pyogenic meningitis (1107), septicaemia (257), or localised pus-forming lesions …

Author: Invasive Bacterial Infection Surveillance (IBIS) Group, International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN)

Publication date: 1999

Merck Manual: Pneumococcal Infections

Merck’s website offers information about pneumococcal pneumonia.

Author: Merck

Prevnar13®, Pneumococcal 13-valent Conjugate Vaccine

This website provides information on Pfizer's (formerly Wyeth's) 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, including usage and safety information.

Author: Wyeth Pharmaceuticals and Pfizer Inc.

Projected Cost-Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination of Healthy Infants and Young Children

This study, published in the Journal of American Medical Association, evaluates the projected health and economic impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of healthy US infants and young children through a cost-effectiveness analysis based on …

Author: Lieu TA, Ray GT, Black SB, et al.

Publication date: 2000

DefeatDD.org

This website provides comprehensive resources on diarrheal disease treatment interventions, including low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution, zinc treatment, and rotavirus vaccines. Traditional interventions such as improved sanitation and …

Author: PATH

On-Time Vaccine Receipt in the First Year Does Not Adversely Affect Neuropsychological Outcomes

This article, published in the journal Pediatrics, examines whether children who received recommended vaccines on time during the first year of life had different neuropsychological outcomes at 7 to 10 years of age as compared with children with …

Author: Smith MJ, Woods CR

Publication date: 2010

The Cost of Unsafe Injections

Unsafe injection practices are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Annually more than 1.3 million deaths and US$535 million in expenses are estimated to be due to unsafe injection practices. This article, published in the Bulletin …

Author: Miller MA, Pisani E

Publication date: 1999

Rotavirus and the Vaccine (Drops) to Prevent It - Fact Sheet for Parents

This fact sheet provides information about rotavirus symptoms and vaccine safety as well as childhood rotavirus vaccination.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus

A web page containing information on rotavirus disease burden and the World Health Organization's recommendations related to rotavirus disease and vaccines.

Author: World Health Organization

Epidemiology, Aetiology and Management of Childhood Acute Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Developing Countries--A Review

This article, published in the African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, provides an overview of the causes of clinical pneumonia in developing countries, available vaccines for fighting pneumonia, and efforts underway and planned to expand …

Author: Falade AG, Ayede AI

Publication date: 2011

Green Supply Chains: A Glimpse Into the Future?

This project Optimize evidence brief discusses the rationale for introducing net-zero energy systems into vaccine supply chains and describes the experiences and lessons learned in a demonstration project in Tunisia. Opportunities and challenges are …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Rotavirus Vaccines - WHO Position Paper

This article, published in Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes the World Health Organization's recommendations on rotavirus vaccines and related activities, including vaccine introduction, surveillance of rotavirus disease, and studies to …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2007

Prevention of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Among Infants and Children: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices

This report, published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, provides background on the development of RotaTeq®, Merck's vaccine against rotavirus, and recommendations for its use in the prevention of rotavirus through immunization.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2006

Safety of Injections: Global Facts & Figures

This fact sheet provides global statistics about unsafe injections.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

Rotavirus

This web page provides general information from WHO on rotavirus disease and the development of rotavirus vaccines. Related activities of WHO and its partners are also highlighted.

Author: World Health Organization

Reduced Price on Rotavirus Vaccines: Enough to Facilitate Access Where Most Needed?

This article, published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, examines whether the reduced prices for rotavirus vaccine are affordable enough to facilitate access to the vaccine where it is most needed. The study points to the rotavirus …

Author: Madsen LB, Ustrup M, Fischer TK, Bygbjerg IC, Konradsen F

Publication date: 2012

Vaccine Safety Events: Managing the Communications Response

Managing a country’s immunization program requires in-depth knowledge of the technical side of vaccination. Increasingly, however, program managers are also being asked to respond to communications issues caused by real or perceived …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

PubMed Searches: Pneumococcal Disease

These pre-formatted PubMed searches will retrieve journal citations and available abstracts that address disease burden, vaccine efficacy and benefits, model programs and cost issues in Asian, African, and Latin American countries.  Documents …

Author: Various

Generic Protocols for (i) Hospital-Based Surveillance to Estimate the Burden of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children and (ii) a Community-Based Survey on Utilization of Health Care Services for Gastroenteritis in Children

This guide is intended for use in epidemiological surveillance activities aimed at collecting data on rotavirus disease burden.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2002

Rotavirus and Severe Childhood Diarrhea

Study authors reviewed literature on hospitalizations related to severe diarrhea and rotavirus and found that, while diarrheal disease incidence has reduced in recent years, due in part to improved hygiene practices, incidence of rotavirus infection …

Author: Parashar UD, Gibson CJ, Bresee JS, Glass RI

Publication date: 2006

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

This web page provides an overview of HPV and the vaccines against it. This page also provides links to World Health Organization (WHO) position papers on HPV, disease burden information, and other related WHO resources.

Author: World Health Organization

WHO Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Programmatic Resources

This web page provides links to further resources related to human papillomavirus vaccines. Topics include policy and decision making, implementation, and monitoring and surveillance.

Author: World Health Organization

The Final Phase of Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategies for the Post-Eradication Era

This supplemental issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases features over 60 original research articles that focus on six aspects of polio eradication—acceleration of eradication; regional and country experiences; epidemiologic, virologic, and …

Author: Cochi SL, Jafari HS, Armstrong GL, et al., eds.

Publication date: 2014

Toxins and Virulence Factors of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Associated With Strains Isolated From Indigenous Children and International Visitors to a Rural Community in Guatemala

This article, published in Epidemiology and Infection, reports on a study comparing the frequency, enterotoxin, and colonization factor (CF) profiles of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains among children living in a rural community in …

Author: Torres OR, Gonzalez W, Lemus O, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Removing the Age Restrictions for Rotavirus Vaccination: A Benefit-Risk Modeling Analysis

This article, published in PLOS Medicine, reports on a study that analyzed the benefits and risks of relaxing the vaccine dosing age restrictions for rotavirus vaccines and concluded that the lives of nearly 50,000 additional children in low- and …

Author: Patel MM, Clark AD, Sanderson CFB, Tate J, Parashar UD

Publication date: 2012

Influenza Vaccination of Pregnant Women and Protection of Their Infants

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, presents results from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) in South Africa during 2011 in pregnant women infected …

Author: Madhi SA, Cutland CL, Kuwanda L, et al.

Publication date: 2014

How Much Does it Cost to Get a Dose of Vaccine to the Service Delivery Location? Empirical Evidence from Vietnam's Expanded Program on Immunization

The authors of this article, published in Vaccine, present empirical estimates of vaccine supply chain costs for Vietnam's Expanded Program on Immunization for routine vaccines at each level of the supply chain, before and after the introduction of …

Author: Mvundura M, Kien VD, Nga NT, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Clinical Consequences of Rotavirus Acute Gastroenteritis in Europe, 2004-2005: The REVEAL Study

After a multicenter study in several European countries, investigators determined that acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus resulted in more hospitalizations and emergency department visits than acute gastroenteritis from another cause. This …

Author: Guiaquinto C, Van Damme P, Huet F, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Distribution of Rotavirus Genotypes in Europe, 2004-2005: The REVEAL Study

Rotavirus genotypes were identified in several European countries using ELISA tests, and investigators determined that G1–G4 and G9 genotypes were responsible for the majority of cases. Citing these results, the authors suggest that rotavirus …

Author: Van Damme P, Giaquinto C, Maxwell M, Todd P, Van der Wielen M

Publication date: 2007

Ranking Vaccines: A Prioritization Framework - Phase I: Demonstration of Concept and a Software Blueprint

As new vaccine development opportunities continue to arise, it can be difficult for decision-makers to know where to invest their limited resources. This report describes a decision-support model and the blueprint of accompanying software being …

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publication date: 2012

Pneumonia and Diarrhea Progress Report 2013

This report evaluates the 15 countries with the highest number of child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhea and reports on their progress in implementing evidence-based interventions that are outlined in the Global Action Plan for the Prevention and …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Publication date: 2013

Intradermal Delivery for Vaccine Dose Sparing: Overview of Current Issues

Preclinical and clinical data highlight potential benefits from intradermal delivery of reduced doses of vaccines, possibly using novel delivery devices. This article, published in Vaccine, outlines evidence gaps and logistical challenges of this …

Author: Zehrung D, Jarrahian C, Wales A

Publication date: 2013

Temperature Recording System in National Vaccine Stores of Khartoum, Sudan, and Tehran, Iran

Both Iran and Sudan utilize an alarm-based temperature recording system to monitor the performance of their national immunization cold stores. To better the utility and application of such systems in other countries, this report documents the …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2010

Monitoring Ambient Temperatures Experienced During Delivery of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Uganda

This report discusses a five-year human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine demonstration project in Uganda that aims to demonstrate how existing health systems can be adapted to successfully provide HPV vaccine to young adolescent girls. HPV vaccine is a …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2010

Systematic Review of Regional and Temporal Trends in Global Rotavirus Strain Diversity in the Pre-Rotavirus Vaccine Era: Insights for Understanding the Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination Programs

The authors of this article, published in Vaccine, provide comprehensive information on rotavirus strain surveillance in the pre-rotavirus vaccine era. This information was gathered by systematically reviewing rotavirus genotyping studies spanning a …

Author: Bányai K, László B, Duque J, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Costs of Community-Acquired Pediatric Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in 7 European Countries: The REVEAL Study

Investigators found that rotavirus gastroenteritis incurs considerable use of health care resources and results in substantial costs for families of patients and employers. Routine rotavirus vaccination could significantly reduce the related …

Author: Giaquinto C, Van Damme P, Huet F, Gothefors L, Van der Wielen M

Publication date: 2007

Evaluaciónde Costo-Efectividad de la Vacuna Anti-rotavirus en Chile

This article, published in Revista Médica de Chile, outlines an economic model that determined rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective intervention that can effectively reduce the disease burden and healthcare costs of rotavirus …

Author: Constenla D, O'Ryan M, Navarrete M, Antil L, Rheingans R

Publication date: 2006

Guidelines for Estimating the Economic Burden of Diarrheal Disease with Focus on Assessing the Costs of Rotavirus Diarrhea

WHO developed these guidelines to present a method for determining the costs associated with diarrheal disease in children under 5 years of age.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2005

Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Vaccination for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Eight Latin American and Caribbean Countries

Investigators developed a model using epidemiological evidence, country-specific cost estimates, and vaccine efficacy data to estimate the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination and determined that it would reduce health care expenses and …

Author: Rheingans R, Constenla D, Antil L, Innis B, Breuer T

Publication date: 2007

Intradermal Delivery of Vaccines: Potential Benefits and Current Challenges

This article, published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, explores the ways by which the delivery of vaccine antigens to the dermis and/or epidermis layers of the skin (i.e., intradermal vaccine delivery) might be more efficient than …

Author: Hickling JK, Jones KR, Friede M, Zehrung D, Chen D, Kristensen D

Publication date: 2011

Rotavirus Disease in Uzbekistan: Cost-Effectiveness of a New Vaccine

Investigators estimated the costs related to rotavirus disease in Uzbekistan and determined that a vaccine would be cost-effective, while also drastically reducing hospitalizations and deaths. This article was published in the journal Vaccine.

Author: Isakbaeva E, Musabaevc E, Antil L, et al.

Publication date: 2007

The Development of Live, Attenuated Rotavirus Vaccines: A Manufacturer's Resource Guide

This guide is a compilation of publicly available information about the manufacturing process of rotavirus vaccines, and aims to provide a resource for manufacturers interested in developing and registering an attenuated, oral rotavirus vaccine. …

Author: PATH, GAVI Alliance

Publication date: 2006

Guidelines to Assure the Quality, Safety, and Efficacy of Live Attenuated Rotavirus Vaccines (oral)

Intended for use by National Regulatory Authorities NRAs and vaccine manufacturers, this document provides guidelines on production, quality control, and safety/efficacy evaluation of live,attenuated, oral rotavirus vaccines.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2005

PubMed Searches: Japanese Encephalitis

These pre-formatted searches will retrieve journal citations and availalbe abstracts on JE. Documents may be ordered through Loansome Doc if you have established an agreement with a participating library. See the "registration button" on …

Author: Various

Rotarix® Prescribing Information

This informational sheet contains prescription information for administration of Rotarix® vaccine.

Author: GlaxoSmithKline

Publication date: 2014

RotaTeq® Prescribing Information

This informational sheet contains prescription information for administration of RotaTeq® vaccine.

Author: Merck & Co., Inc.

Publication date: 2014

Strategic Advisory Group of Experts Recommendations: Rotavirus Vaccines

This issue of the Weekly Epidemiological Record provides recommendations and commentary from a SAGE meeting that recognized the safety of rotavirus vaccines among the populations studied and called for clinical trials to determine the vaccines' …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2006

Efficacy of Human Rotavirus Vaccine Against Rotavirus Gastroenteritis During the First 2 Years of Life in European Infants: Randomised, Double-Blind Controlled Study

This article, published in The Lancet, presents data that show high efficacy for GSK's Rotarix® administered with routine vaccines. Over two seasons, Rotarix® demonstrated 90 percent efficacy against severe rotavirus among European children and …

Author: Vesikari T, Karvonen A, Prymula R, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Efficacy of the Human Rotavirus Vaccine RIX4414 in Malnourished Children

This study, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, determined that the Rotarix® vaccine produced by GlaxoSmithKline decreased the incidence severe gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus at comparable rates among well-nourished and …

Author: Perez-Schael I, Salinas B, Tomat M, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Safety and Efficacy of an Attenuated Vaccine Against Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis

This study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, evaluated the safety and efficacy of GSK’s rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®), with a focus on determining risk of intussusception.

Author: Ruiz-Palacios G, Pérez-Schael I, Velázquez F, et al.

Publication date: 2006

Safety and Efficacy of a Pentavalent Human-Bovine (WC3) Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine

This study, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, evaluated the safety and efficacy of Merck’s rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq®), with a focus on determining risk of intussusception.

Author: Vesikari T, Matson D, Dennehy P, et al.

Publication date: 2006

Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) Availability and Use in the African, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asian, and Western Pacific Regions

This document reports on a study of vaccine vial monitor (VVM) availability and use in developing countries in four regions. The study included three aspects: the total proportion of vaccines with VVMs in the regions with detailed information by …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2010

Correlates of Immunity to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Associated-Hospitalization: Establishment of Minimum Protective Threshold Levels of Serum Neutralizing Antibodies

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study to determine if respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) specific, serum antibody titers correlate with protection against RSV-associated hospitalization at all ages. The authors identified a minimal …

Author: Piedra PA, Jewell AM, Cron SG, Atmar RL, Glezen WP

Publication date: 2003

The Global Meningococcal Initiative: Recommendations for Reducing the Global Burden of Meningococcal Disease

The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is composed of an international group of scientists, clinicians, and public health officials that aim to promote the global prevention of invasive meningococcal disease through education and research. In …

Author: Harrison LH, Pelton SI, Wilder-Smith A, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Gastroenteritis Hospitalizations in Older Children and Adults in the United States Before and After Implementation of Infant Rotavirus Vaccination

This article, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, reports on a study that explored the indirect impact of rotavirus vaccines on older age groups. The authors assessed patterns of gastroenteritis hospitalizations among …

Author: Gastañaduy PA, Curns AT, Parashar UD, Lopman BA

Publication date: 2013

Broadening the Age Restriction for Initiating Rotavirus Vaccination in Regions With High Rotavirus Mortality: Benefits of Mortality Reduction Versus Risk of Fatal Intussusception

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study that assessed the potential benefits of mortality reduction versus the risk of fatal intussusception when (a) the first dose of rotavirus vaccine was administered by 12 weeks of age compared …

Author: Patel MM, Clark AD, Glass RI, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Record of the Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, February 21-22, 2006

The meeting report outlines the committee's recommendations for introduction of RotaTeq® into the routine US immunization schedule and provides guidance on addressing special circumstances in relation to administration of the vaccine. The document …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2006

Global Illness and Deaths Caused by Rotavirus Disease in Children

This article, published in Emerging Infectious Diseases, reports on an effort to estimate the global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease from 1986 to 2000. The authors found that, each year during that period, rotavirus caused …

Author: Parashar UD, Hummelman EG, Bresee JS, Miller MA, Glass RI

Publication date: 2003

Prevention of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Infants and Children: Rotavirus Vaccine Safety, Efficacy, and Potential Impact of Vaccines

This article, published in Biologics: Targets & Therapy, provides a comprehensive review of current rotavirus vaccines, summarizing studies on their safety and efficacy, as well as special considerations that may inform future research studies. …

Author: Chandran A, Fitzwater S, Zhen A, Santosham M

Publication date: 2010

Progress Toward Introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b Vaccine in Low-Income Countries--Worldwide, 2004-2007

This report, from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, discusses the increased use of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine during 2004 through 2007.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2008

Cost and Effectiveness Analysis of Immunization Service Delivery Support in Andhra Pradesh, India

Published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, this paper offers the first attempt to quantitatively evaluate the supportive supervision framework in Andhra Pradesh, India.

Author: Suraratdecha C, Ramana V, Kaipilyawar S, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Prevention and Control of Childhood Pneumonia

This special edition of the Bulletin of the World Health Organization focuses on the prevention and control of childhood pneumonia. It highlights research on the many aspects that drive this deadly disease and the progress now being …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

10 Facts on Immunization

This short summary of immunization facts provides an overview of immunization and a ten-slide presentation on immunization facts.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

WHO's Key Normative Processes and Institutions for Vaccines: A Primer

This policy brief describes three World Health Organization (WHO) normative institutions and processes pertaining to the issuance of technical guidelines and opinons about the public health value of new vaccines, their quality, and the …

Author: International AIDS Vaccine Institute

Publication date: 2008

Avian and Pandemic Influenza: An Overview

This brief overview, published in the journal Vaccine, reviews basic virologic, immunologic, and epidemiologic information relevant to understanding and preparing for a pandemic influenza threat. In particular, the role of avian influenza …

Author: Poland G, Jacobson R, Targonski P

Publication date: 2007

Vaccines and Autism Revisited--The Hannah Poling Case

In this article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, Dr. Paul Offit discusses the vaccine safety case of a nine-year-old girl named Hannah Poling.

Author: Offit P

Publication date: 2008

Cold Chain Equipment Manager

This tool is a Microsoft Access-based software tool that helps cold chain managers and public health officers make strategic decisions about managing their cold chain equipment. It is accompanied by a user manual, a set of data collection …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

State of the World's Children 2008

This report provides a wide-ranging assessment of the current state of child survival and primary health care for mothers, newborns, and children. It examines lessons learned in child health during the past few decades and outlines the most …

Author: UNICEF

Publication date: 2007

Japanese Encephalitis

This web page provides information on Japanese encephalitis (JE) , including how the disease is transmitted, how it affects people, and methods of prevention including vaccination. Also on this page are links to the World Health Organization …

Author: World Health Organization

Improving the Affordability of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccines (IPV) for Use in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Economic Analysis of Strategies to Reduce the Cost of Routine IPV Immunization

This report presents results from an economic model that calculates the costs involved in delivering IPV vaccine in Indian immunization clinics according to three strategies: (1) intradermal delivery of reduced volumes of vaccine per dose, (2) use …

Author: PATH, Working in Tandem, Ltd.

Publication date: 2010

Cost-Effectiveness of Introducing a Rotavirus Vaccine in Developing Countries: The Case of Mexico

This study, published in BMC Infectious Diseases, developed a model to compare the cost and disease burden of rotavirus in unvaccinated children in Mexico. The study determined that it would be highly cost-effective to include rotavirus vaccine …

Author: Valencia-Mendoza A, Bertozzi SM, Gutierrez JP, Itzler R

Publication date: 2008

Live Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis (SA14-14-2) Vaccine: The Best Alternative?

This article provides a comparison of the available JE vaccines through a discussion of efficacy, route of administration, safety, and immunogenicity, among others.

Author: Mori M, Siegel R

Publication date: 2000

New Initiatives for the Control of Japanese Encephalitis by Vaccination: Minutes of a WHO/CVI Meeting, Bangkok, Thailand, 13-15 October 1998

Published in the journal Vaccine, this report outlines the discussion of developing novel Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines that could fill the gap in JE vaccine need are under pursuit, as discussed at a meeting sponsored by the …

Author: Tsai T

Publication date: 2000

Pneumonia

This web page provides information on pneumonia, including links to general and technical information on the disease and pneumococcal vaccines as well as related World Health Organization programs and activities.

Author: World Health Organization

Quadrivalent HPV Vaccination and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis and Other Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System

This article, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, reports on a study that aimed to investigate if the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis and other …

Author: Scheller NM, Svanström H, Pasternak B, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Pediatric Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in the United States in the Era of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

This article, published in Clinical Microbiology Reviews, discusses the epidemiology of serious and invasive pneumococcal infections in the United States in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era and reviews some of the pneumococcal vaccines that …

Author: Tan TQ

Publication date: 2012

Immunization of Newborns with Bacterial Conjugate Vaccines

This article, published in Vaccine, discusses the use of bacterial conjugate vaccines in human newborns. Vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type B, and Neisseria meningiditis are covered. ABSTRACT ONLY: (Learn how …

Author: van den Biggelaar AH, Pomat WS

Publication date: 2013

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)

This web page provides information on ETEC, its transmission, prevention of the disease, and more.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Guiding Principles for Managing Medical Waste

This document provides a brief overview of key considerations for developing a medical waste-management plan at the facility, district, and national levels.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2005

Training Health Workers in the Management of Sharps Waste

This document contains a set of training modules designed to be adapted for use in various health care settings. The purpose of these materials is for use in training health workers in the management of sharps waste. These materials are divided into …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2005

No Vaccine for the Scaremongers

Published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, this article discusses anxieties over safety of vaccines and the damage these worries could have on immunization programs.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Meningitis Foundation of America

This website contains background, clinical, and surveillance information on meningitis. It also includes information specific to meningococcal disease, pneumococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). The mission of the …

Author: Meningitis Foundation of America

GISAID

The Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) promotes the international sharing of all influenza virus sequences, related clinical and epidemiological data associated with human viruses, and geographical as well as …

Author: The GISAID Initiative

RSV Vaccine Research and Development Technology Roadmap

This report provides a strategic framework for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine development. It identifies priority activities in four key categories—research, vaccine development, key capacities, and policy and delivery—that need to be …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

Survey of Distribution of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Doses in 201 Countries (2004–2015): The 2003 World Health Assembly Resolution on Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Coverage and the 2009 Influenza Pandemic Have Had Very Little Impact on Improving Influenza Control and Pandemic Preparedness

This article, published in Vaccine, assesses progress made toward the 2003 World Health Assembly (WHA) vaccination coverage target for influenza vaccines. Because there is no international monitoring system for influenza vaccination …

Author: Palache A, Abelin A, Hollingsworth R, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Thimerosal in Vaccines

This page contains information on thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that has been used in vaccines. The page also includes links to other resources on thimerosal and vaccines.

Author: US Food and Drug Administration

Influenza Vaccine Strategies for Broad Global Access

This paper analyzes the current supply of influenza vaccines, the predicted demand for influenza vaccines in case of a pandemic, and new vaccine technologies that could provide for the world’s demand in a pandemic situation.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Handouts for Patients & Staff

This web page offers healthcare professionals and the public more than 250 free English-language handouts (many are also available in other languages) covering a wide range of vaccination-related topics, all of which are available for users to print …

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

Public Finance of Rotavirus Vaccination in India and Ethiopia: An Extended Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study that evaluated the potential impact of a publicly funded national rotavirus vaccination program in India and Ethiopia on reducing deaths and household costs due to rotavirus disease. The authors …

Author: Verguet S, Murphy S, Anderson B, Johansson KA, Glass R, Rheingans R

Publication date: 2013

Vaccinate Your Family

This awareness campaign is a program of Every Child by Two, an organization devoted to raising awareness of the critical need for timely immunization and to foster a systematic way to immunize all of America's children by age two. In 2015, they …

Author: Every Child by Two

Global and Regional Mortality From 235 Causes of Death for 20 Age Groups in 1990 and 2010: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

This article, published in The Lancet, reports on the results of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010, which aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes. The …

Author: Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Vaccines and Your Baby

This 27-minute video explains how vaccines work, the science behind them, immunity, and 11 diseases that vaccines prevent. It also includes stories from parents of children who suffered from vaccine-preventable diseases.

Author: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Pentavalent Vaccine in the Uniject™ Injection System: Health Care Waste Management Considerations

This report details the findings of a quantitative and qualitative analysis on the health care waste produced using the Uniject™ injection system compared to standard syringes with fully liquid pentavalent vaccines (targeting diphtheria, tetanus, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Tanzanian Schoolgirls: Cluster-Randomized Trial Comparing 2 Vaccine-Delivery Strategies

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports on a study that compared vaccine coverage for the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in Tanzanian schoolgirls using two delivery strategies. The authors found that …

Author: Watson-Jones D, Baisley K, Ponsiano R, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Quantitative PCR for Detection of Shigella Improves Ascertainment of Shigella Burden in Children With Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Low-Income Countries

This article, published in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, reports on a study to estimate the prevalence of Shigella by using a new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect the bacteria in the stool samples of 3,533 children aged less than 59 …

Author: Lindsay B, Ochieng JB, Ikumapayi UN, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Keeping Track of Vietnam's Vaccines

This evidence brief describes how project Optimize worked in Vietnam with national, regional, and local partners to help introduce VaxTrak, a software program that allows users at various levels of the health system to track vaccine stock and report …

Author: PATH, Vietnam National Expanded Program on Immunization, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

High Disease Burden of Diarrhea Due to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Among Rural Egyptian Infants and Young Children

Published in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, this article examines the burden of diarrheal disease due to enterotoxigenic E. coli among rural Egyptian infants and young children, which has an incidence of 1.5 episodes per child per year and …

Author: Rao M, Abu-Elyazeed R, Savarino S, et al.

Publication date: 2003

Magnitude and Impact of Diarrheal Diseases

Published in The Archives of Medical Research, this article reviews the high costs of diseases of poverty, increasing diarrhea morbidity (despite decreasing mortality), and new emerging evidence for long-term consequences of early childhood …

Author: Guerrant RL, Kosek M, Moore S, et al.

Publication date: 2002

Voices for Vaccines

This organization advocates for sound vaccine policies and practices. It aims to provide clear, accessible, science-based information about vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases. This organizational website provides information about the …

Author: Voices for Vaccines

National Vaccine Program Office (NVPO)

This United States Federal office is responsible for coordinating and ensuring collaboration among the many United States Federal agencies involved in vaccine and immunization activities. NVPO provides leadership and coordination among Federal …

Author: US Department of Health & Human Services

Years Lived With Disability (YLDs) for 1160 Sequelae of 289 Diseases and Injuries 1990–2010: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

This article, published in The Lancet, reports on results of the Global Burden of Disease Study regarding non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional levels using years lived with disability (YLDs) as a …

Author: Vos T, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, et al.

Publication date: 2012

The Introduction of New Vaccines Into Developing Countries: IV: Global Access Strategies

This paper, published in Vaccine, offers a framework for managing a comprehensive Global Access Strategy for new vaccines in developing countries. It is aimed at strengthening the ability of public-sector entities to reach their goals. ABSTRACT …

Author: Mahoney RT, Krattiger A, Clemens JD, Curtiss R

Publication date: 2007

Monitoring Vaccine Wastage at Country Level: Guidelines for Program Managers

This document reviews the factors affecting vaccine wastage and discusses the tools available for reducing wastage and their relationships to each other, with the aim of providing assistance to program managers to establish a system for …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2003

Policymakers Views Regarding the Introduction of New-Generation Vaccines Against Typhoid Fever, Shigellosis, and Cholera in Asia

Published in Vaccine, this article disusses face-to-face interviews and meetings with more than 160 policymakers and other influential professionals in seven large Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Thailand and …

Author: DeRoeck D, Clemens JD, Nyamete A, Mahoney RT

Publication date: 2005

Reaching a Consensus on Management Practices and Vaccine Development Targets for Mitigation of Infectious Diarrhoea Among Deployed US Military Forces

Published in the Journal of Evalution in Clinical Practice, this study was part of a research effort to identify and quantify factors related to the cost-effectiveness of a vaccine acquisition strategy to reduce the burden of infectious diarrhea on …

Author: Riddle MS, Tribble DR

Publication date: 2008

The Value of Vaccination

Despite advances during the twentieth century, immunization coverage is far from universal and faces significant obstacles in both developing and developed countries. Weak policy emphasis on vaccination may be the result of the narrow view of its …

Author: Bloom D, Canning D, Weston M

Publication date: 2005

Variation in the Costs of Delivering Routine Immunization Services in Peru

This paper, published in Bulletin of the World Health Organization, presents information on the variations in the costs of delivering routine immunization services in the three diverse districts of Peru. The study shows …

Author: Walker D, Mosqueira NR, Penny ME, et al.

Publication date: 2004

Comparison of Cost-of-Illness with Willingness-to-Pay Estimates to Avoid Shigellosis: Evidence from China

Published in Health Policy and Planning, this compares cost-of-illness (COI) with stated preference estimates of willingness-to-pay associated with shigellosis in a rural area of China to evaluate the economic benefits of disease prevention. The …

Author: Guh S, Xingbao C, Poulos C, et al.

Publication date: 2008

A Cost Function Analysis of Shigellosis in Thailand

This article, published in Value in Health, discusses a study to develop a cost function model to estimate the public treatment cost of shigellosis patients in Thailand. The study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness analysis from a …

Author: Riewpaiboon A, Youngkong S, Sreshthaputra N, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, Second Edition

A comprehensive global health examination, this book contributes substantially to global initiatives to improve the health of all peoples by providing a multidisciplinary understanding of fundamental issues and challenges, as well as effective …

Author: Disease Control Priorities Project

Publication date: 2008

Summary of Optimize Activities Conducted With Vietnam's National Expanded Programme on Immunization

Between 2010 and 2012, project Optimize collaborated with Vietnam’s National Expanded Program on Immunization to demonstrate innovations in the vaccine supply chain that can help to meet the demands expected as Vietnam’s immunization program …

Author: PATH, Vietnam National Expanded Program on Immunization, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Clinical and Epidemiologic Features of Respiratory Syncytial Virus

This book chapter, published in Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, provides an overview of the symptoms and epidemiology for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and identifies four potential target populations for a vaccine—infants, …

Author: Hall CB, Simões EAF, Anderson LJ

Publication date: 2013

Reactive Arthritis Following Culture-Confirmed Infections with Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Minnesota and Oregon: A Population-based Study

This article, published in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, describes the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of reactive arthritis (ReA) following culture-confirmed infection with bacterial enteric pathogens in a population-based study in the …

Author: Townes JM, Deodhar AA, Laine ES, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Rotavirus Vaccination for Hong Kong Children: An Economic Evaluation From the Hong Kong Government Perspective

This article, published in Archives of Disease in Childhood, discusses an economic analysis of government-funded universal rotavirus vaccination in Hong Kong from the government's perspective. The study concludes that based on 2002 demographic, …

Author: Ho AM, Nelson EA, Walker DG

Publication date: 2008

Vaccination Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, A Cause of Travelers' Diarrhea

This review, published in The Journal of Travel Medicine, focuses on the strategies behind development and potential use of currently available vaccines and vaccine candidates against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection. As …

Author: Steffen R, Castelli F, Dieter Nothdurft H, Rombo L, Jane Zuckerman N

Publication date: 2005

Analysis of Strategies to Successfully Vaccinate Infants in Developing Countries Against Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) Disease

This article, published in Vaccine, outlines current candidates for a safe and effective vaccine against ETEC. The authors argue that a critical roadblock to achieving this goal has not been the science as much as the lack of a sufficiently funded …

Author: Walker RI, Steele D, Aguado T, Ad Hoc ETEC Technical Expert Committee

Publication date: 2007

DNA Vaccine Delivery by Densely-Packed and Short Microprojection Arrays to Skin Protects Against Vaginal HSV-2 Challenge

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study that investigates the tolerability, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the extracellular domain of gD2 using the Nanopatch™, a recently devised silicon …

Author: Kask AS, Chen X, Marshak JO, et al.

Publication date: 2010

RHO Cervical Cancer Library

This website is designed to provide easy access to science-based information for health program managers and decision-makers seeking to prevent cervical cancer in developing countries and low-resource settings. The wide range of materials appearing …

Author: PATH

Making Malaria History

Malaria is preventable and treatable, but to eliminate it requires political commitment, financial support, and a higher level of local ownership than ever before. This website is a resource for the global malaria community to provide updates on the …

Author: PATH

Community Perceptions of Malaria and Vaccines in Two Districts of Mozambique

Malaria is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Mozambique, with nearly three-quarters of the country’s malaria-related deaths occurring in children younger than five years. A malaria vaccine is not yet available, but planning is …

Author: Bingham A, Gaspar F, Lancaster K, Conjera J, Collymore Y, Ba-Nguz A

Publication date: 2012

Malaria Vaccine Initiative

The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative's (MVI) mission is to accelerate the development of malaria vaccines and ensure their availability and accessibility in the developing world. The website contains information on malaria and potential …

Author: PATH

Meningitis Vaccine Project

The Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP), a collaboration between PATH and the World Health Organization, works to eliminate epidemic meningitis as a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The MVP website includes information on …

Author: PATH and World Health Organization

Strategic Priorities for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Vaccine Development

This review article, published in Vaccine, examines the clinical and epidemiological features of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), highlights challenges and opportunities for RSV vaccine development, and identifies priority areas for future …

Author: Anderson LJ, Dormitzer PR, Nokes DJ, Rappuoli R, Roca A, Graham BS

Publication date: 2013

University of Liverpool Viral Brain Infections Group

The University of Liverpool’s Viral Brain Infections Group has provided advocacy, expertise, and support to the JE project in several additional areas, including the production of a teaching tool for diagnosis and investigation of clinical …

Author: University of Liverpool

Enteric Infections, Diarrhea, and Their Impact on Function and Development

Enteric infections, with or without overt diarrhea, have profound effects on intestinal absorption, nutrition, and childhood development as well as on global mortality. Oral rehydration therapy has reduced the number of deaths from dehydration …

Author: Petri Jr. WA, Miller M, Binder HJ, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Rotavirus

This web page provides general information about rotavirus from the CDC, including details on US and global surveillance, reports on currently available vaccines against rotavirus, and links to articles and news about rotavirus.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in the Americas: Progress and Lessons Learned

In this review, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, researchers evaluated the feasibility and sustainability of introducing the rotavirus vaccine in Latin America. They examined policy development, rotavirus surveillance, and the progress made …

Author: de Oliveira LH, Danovaro-Holliday MC, Matus CR, Andrus JK

Publication date: 2008

Integrating Diarrheal Disease and Pneumonia Control

This fact sheet describes PATH's integrated approach to tackling diarrheal disease and pneumonia, two of the leading killers of young children. This approach emphasizes overlapping protection, the scale-up of proven methods, and the development of …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Meeting of the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, December 2010: Rotavirus Vaccine and Intussusception

This article, from the Weekly Epidemiological Record, reports on the outcome of a meeting of the World Health Organization's independent, authoritative vaccine safety committee where they reviewed postmarketing surveillance that indicated the …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2011

Routine Laboratory Testing Data for Surveillance of Rotavirus Hospitalizations to Evaluate the Impact of Vaccination

Researchers used laboratory and hospital data of children admitted to two US hospitals with acute gastroenteritis to assess the need for routine rotavirus testing and determine disease burden. Findings confirmed the need for continued surveillance …

Author: Patel MM, Tate JE, Selvarangan R, et al.

Publication date: 2007

A School-Based Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program in Barretos, Brazil: Final Results of a Demonstrative Study

This article, published in PLoS ONE, reports on a study to evaluate the uptake and three-dose completion rates of a school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program in Brazil. The results showed high rates of vaccination uptake and …

Author: Fregnani JHTG, Carvalho AL, Eluf-Neto J, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Vaccine Redux

This issue of Global Health Magazine is focused on the topic of vaccines and immunization, and contains several expert-authored articles about different aspects of vaccine development and use worldwide. The issue includes an article co-authored by …

Author: Global Health Council

Publication date: 2010

A Multi-Center, Qualitative Assessment of Pediatrician and Maternal Perspectives on Rotavirus Vaccines and the Detection of Porcine circovirus

This article, published in BMC Pediatrics, reports on research that evaluated perceptions among physicians and mothers after the 2011 finding of DNA fragments of Porcine circovirus in rotavirus vaccines. Physicians expressed that the finding was of …

Author: Payne DC, Humiston S, Opel D, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Intussusception Following Rotavirus Vaccine Administration: Post-Marketing Surveillance in the National Immunization Program in Australia

This article, published in Vaccine, reports that surveillance conducted following routine rotavirus vaccination in Australia did not find an overall increase in intussusception with use of RotaTeq® (Merck & Co., Inc.) and Rotarix® …

Author: Buttery JP, Danchin MH, Lee KJ, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Trends in Intussusception Hospitalizations Among US Infants Before and After Implementation of the Rotavirus Vaccination Program, 2000-2009

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports on surveillance conducted following rotavirus vaccine introduction in 2006 that noted a small increase in intussusception among US infants aged 8 to 11 weeks, who would have …

Author: Yen C, Tate JE, Steiner CA, Cortese MM, Patel MM, Parashar UD

Publication date: 2012

Current Use and Development of Vaccines for Japanese Encephalitis

This literature review, published in Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, analyzes use of current JE vaccines and development of alternative vaccine candidates. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in developing countries can gain free access to …

Author: Beasley D, Lewthwaite P, Solomon T.

Publication date: 2008

PATH's Japanese Encephalitis Project

This fact sheet provides an overview of PATH's work on Japanese encephalitis, including information on the project team and its partners.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Cold Chain and Logistics Management: An Essential Part of Safe and Effective Vaccination Programs

This fact sheet provides information on cold chain and logistics for vaccine delivery, including challenges for managing the cold chain, examples of effective cold chain management, and the costs associated with the cold chain.

Author: IMMUNIZATIONbasics

Publication date: 2008

Effectiveness of Maternal Influenza Immunization in Mothers and Infants

Young infants and pregnant women are at increased risk for serious consequences of influenza infection. Inactivated influenza vaccine is recommended for pregnant women but is not licensed for infants younger than six months of age. This study …

Author: Zaman K, Roy E, Arifeen S, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Optimising the Use of Conjugate Vaccines to Prevent Disease Caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae

This article, published in Vaccine, reviews the state of the current evidence on conjugate vaccines and identifies important areas for further study, in order to inform the debate regarding the best use of these vaccines, which not only prevent …

Author: Trotter CL, McVernon J, Ramsay ME, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Optimal Intramuscular Needle-Penetration Depth

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has needle-length recommendations for intramuscular vaccinations in the thigh and shoulder on the basis of the age of the child. Underpenetration of the intramuscular layer with short needles …

Author: Lippert WC, Wall E

Publication date: 2008

Clinical Assessment of Children with Suspected Central Nervous System Infections

This PowerPoint presentation trains doctors and health care workers in areas where Japanese encephalitis is endemic on how to assess a patient presenting with acute encephalitis syndrome. This version has still images only; a version with video …

Author: Univerity of Liverpool Brain Infections Group

Publication date: 2008

Prospective Assessment of the Effect of Needle Length and Injection Site on the Risk of Local Reactions to the Fifth Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis Vaccination

Local reactions are relatively common after the fifth diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccination, but factors associated with an increased risk of those reactions are notwell defined. The objective of this study was to assess the …

Author: Jackson LA, Starkovich P, Dunstan M, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Survey of Rotavirus Surveillance, Laboratory Capacity and Disease Burden in the Eastern Part of the WHO European Region

This article, published in the journal Eurosurveillance, describes a survey conducted to determine country capacity for rotavirus surveillance and related activities, as well as intention to introduce rotavirus vaccines. The survey also identified …

Author: Williams CJ, Gray J, Pebody RG, Lobanov A

Publication date: 2008

Neutralizing Antibodies Against the Preactive Form of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein Offer Unique Possibilities for Clinical Intervention

The only specific treatment available today against human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a humanized monoclonal antibody (Palivizumab) directed against the F glycoprotein, administered prophylactically to children at very high risk of severe …

Author: Magro M, Mas V, Chappell K, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Kill or Cure: Japanese Encephalitis

This 25-minute BBC World documentary, produced by Rockhopper TV, provides a glimpse of the devastating toll of Japanese encephalitis in Southeast Asia and the tireless efforts of many partners dedicated to making a vaccine widely available. The …

Author: PATH; Rockhopper TV

Publication date: 2005

Framework for Conducting a Self-Assessment of National Progress in Injection Waste Management, Version 1

This tool was developed to provide a simple, efficient framework for conducting a self-assessment of health care waste-management (HCWM) planning at the national level. By collecting data on key achievements, knowledge, and practices at …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2008

Liverpool Outcome Score for Assessing Children at Discharge

A tool for doctors and health care providers to assess children at the time of discharge from the hospital to determine their level of disability and likelihood of leading an independent life after Japanese encephalitis.

Author: University of Liverpool Brain Infections Group

Publication date: 2006

Liverpool Outcome Score for Assessing Children at Follow-up

A tool for doctors and health care providers to assess children at a follow-up visit after being discharged from the hospital to determine their level of disability and likelihood of leading an independent life after Japanese …

Author: University of Liverpool Brain Infection Group

Publication date: 2006

Liverpool Outcome Score Teaching Presentation

This PowerPoint presentation trains health care staff on how to use the Liverpool Outcome Score to assess disability in patients with Japanese encephalitis. This version uses still images; a version with video clips is available from …

Author: University of Liverpool Brain Infections Group

Publication date: 2008

Liverpool Guide to Rehabilitation and Long Term Care of Patients with Encephalitis

A guide for physicians in resource-poor settings in Asia to help them in their follow-up of children recovering from acute brain injury, in particular Japanese encephalitis.

Author: University of Liverpool Brain Infection Group

Publication date: 2006

Kill or Cure: Meningitis

This 25-minute BBC World documentary, produced by Rockhopper TV, offers a poignant and revealing account of the devastating impact meningitis epidemics have on individuals, families, and communities. The film also takes viewers to Mali where PATH's …

Author: PATH; Rockhopper TV

Publication date: 2007

School Vaccination Readiness Assessment Tool

This assessment tool aims to assist countries with the implementation of country-wide school vaccination by: 1) Helping ministries of health and education determine, monitor, and improve their country’s overall readiness to conduct school …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Responses to Avian Influenza and State of Pandemic Readiness: Fourth Global Progress Report

This report focuses on progress with responses to avian influenza and with pandemic preparedness between June 2007 and June 2008. Where data allow, the report looks back over the last three years. It also: 1) describes international financial …

Author: United Nations System Influenza Coordinator, The World Bank

Publication date: 2008

Improving Global Health by Preventing Pneumococcal Disease

This report summarizes the results of a six-month inquiry by the UK All-Party Parliamentary Group for Pneumococcal Disease Prevention in the Developing World (APPG) on the global disease burden of pneumococcal disease and pneumonia, …

Author: UK All-Party Parliamentary Group on Pneumococcal Disease Prevention in the Developing World

Publication date: 2008

Prevention of Pneumococcal Disease Among Infants and Children --- Use of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine

This report, published by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), summarizes recommendations approved by the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on February 24, 2010, for the use of 13-valent …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2010

Economic Evaluation of Delivering Haemophilus influenzae type b Vaccine in Routine Immunization Services in Kenya

This study, published in Bulletin of the World Health Organization, discusses the introduction of Hib vaccine in Kenya, one of the first nine countries to receive financial support from GAVI for Hib vaccine introduction. The objective of this study …

Author: Oloo Akumu A, Englisha M, Scott JAG, Griffiths UK

Publication date: 2007

Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b Conjugate Vaccine on Prevention of Pneumonia and Meningitis in Bangladeshi Children: A Case-Control Study

Few Asian countries have introduced Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine because of its cost and uncertainty regarding disease burden. To estimate the effectiveness of Hib conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumonia and meningitis in …

Author: Baqui AH, El Arifeen S, Saha SK, et al.

Publication date: 2007

The Impact of Routine Infant Immunization With Haemophilus influenzae type b Conjugate Vaccine in Malawi, a Country With High Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence

Malawi has extreme poverty and high HIV prevalence. Following Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine introduction during 2002, this study evaluated vaccine impact by reviewing hospital surveillance data for acute bacterial …

Author: Daza P, Banda R, Misoya K, et al.

Publication date: 2006

Vaccine-Preventable Haemophilus influenzae type B Disease Burden and Cost-Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination in Indonesia

This article, published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, estimates total vaccine-preventable disease burden and the cost-effectiveness of Hib conjugate vaccine in Indonesia. The study concludes that routine infant Hib vaccination would …

Author: Gessner BD, Sedyaningsih ER, Griffiths UK, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Assessing Efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type b Combination Vaccines

Regulatory approval of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP)-based combination vaccines containing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) has been delayed in the United States because of difficulty in assessing the effect of …

Author: Granoff DM

Publication date: 2001

Haemophilus influenzae type b Conjugate Vaccine Impact Against Purulent Meningitis in Rwanda

Rwanda introduced Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine in January 2002 and simultaneously implemented pediatric bacterial meningitis surveillance at a major referral hospital in the capital Kigali. This study reviewed clinical and …

Author: Muganga N, Uwimana J, Fidele N, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Progress Introducing Haemophilus influenzae type b Vaccine in Low-Income Countries, 2004-2008

This report, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, discusses the progress of Hib vaccine use, as well as the strategies and collaborative efforts that have contributed to an increase in the number of countries that have accelerated …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Introduction of Hib Vaccine Into National Immunization Programmes: A Descriptive Analysis of Global Trends

This article, published in Vaccine, provides a descriptive analysis of the main characteristics of countries that have included Hib vaccine in their national immunization programs before 2006. It highlights the importance of regularly analyzing the …

Author: Rossi IA, Zuber PL, Dumolard L, Walker DG, Watt J

Publication date: 2007

SnapShots Archive

SnapShots was an electronic publication of the IMMUNIZATIONbasics project (which ran from 2004 to 2009) and was designed to provide busy public health professionals with references and periodic updates from the immunization world. Although the …

Author: IMMUNIZATIONbasics

Vaccine Introduction Guidelines: Adding a Vaccine to a National Immunization Programme: Decision and Implementation

This guide aims to help country-level decision-makers decide whether to add a new vaccine to the national immunization program, and national immunization program managers to implement the operational steps to add the vaccine. It can …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2005

GMP-Grade Pneumococcal Whole-Cell Vaccine Injected Subcutaneously Protects Mice From Nasopharyngeal Colonization and Fatal Aspiration-Sepsis

This article, which appeared in Vaccine, details research conducted at Children’s Hospital Boston to determine the performance of subcutaneous injection of pneumococcal whole-cell vaccine in preclinical studies. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in …

Author: Lu YJ, Leite L, Gonçalves VM, et al.

Publication date: 2010

The Potential for Respiratory Droplet-Transmissible A/H5N1 Influenza Virus to Evolve in a Mammalian Host

This article, published in Science, details a study to determine the potential for avian influenza A/H5N1 viruses to become transmissible via respiratory droplets between mammals in nature. From surveillance data, the researchers concluded that some …

Author: Russell CA, Fonville JM, Brown AEX, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of Hepatitis B: Operational Field Guidelines for Delivery of the Birth Dose of Hepatitis B Vaccine

This manual developed for the Western Pacific region provides a menu of programmatic options for improving timely delivery of the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine in different birth contexts to reduce mother-to-child transmission of the disease. …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2006

Hepatitis B Vaccines - WHO Position Paper

This position paper, published in Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes essential background information on hepatitis B disease and vaccines and provides the current World Health Organization position concerning hepatitis B vaccine use in the …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2009

Indian Academy of Pediatrics Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Immunization Practices

This website from the Indian Academy of Pediatrics provides up-to-date information on vaccination for the general public and heath care professionals. It provides a range of resources including information about the latest recommendations by the …

Author: Indian Academy of Pediatrics Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Immunization Practices

Landscape Analysis of Routine Immunization in Nigeria: Identifying Barriers and Prioritizing Interventions

This white paper provides an analysis of supply-side constraints and demand-side determinants of routine immunization coverage in Nigeria. It emphasizes that tackling the basic barriers to routine immunization in Nigeria—cold chain, transport, and …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Publication date: 2012

Sustained Decrease in Laboratory Detection of Rotavirus After Implementation of Routine Vaccination — United States, 2000–2014

This article, published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, compares data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System for pre-vaccine (2000 to 2006) and post-vaccine …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2015

Colonisation Endpoints in Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccine Trials

This article, published in Vaccine, reviews recent developments in the area of using colonization as an endpoint for evaluating vaccine efficacy against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The authors also provide practical guidelines for estimation methods …

Author: Auranen K, Rinta-Kokko H, Goldblatt D, et al.

Publication date: 2013

A Review of the Impact of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine (7-valent) on Pneumococcal Meningitis

This article, published in Advances in Therapy, reviews the impacts of 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal meningitis. The authors conclude that the results show PCV7 to have significant impact on …

Author: Tin Tin Htar M, Madhava H, Balmer P, Christopoulou D, Menegas D, Bonnet E

Publication date: 2013

Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines - WHO Position Paper

This report, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes essential background information on Japanese encephalitis (JE) disease and vaccines and gives the current World Health Organization (WHO) position on the use of JE vaccines in …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2006

The Burden of Pneumococcal Disease and Cost-Effectiveness of a Pneumococcal Vaccine in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Review of the Evidence and a Preliminary Economic Analysis

This report estimates the burden and costs of pneumococcal disease in Latin America and the Caribbean in order to inform national health authorities about disease burden and the economic value of implementing a pneumococcal …

Author: Sabin Vaccine Institute

Publication date: 2007

23-valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine - WHO Position Paper

This report, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, provides essential background information on pneumococcal disease and gives the current World Health Organization position concerning the use of the 23-valent pneumococcal …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Diarreas Causadas por Rotavirus

This Spanish-language document provides information on rotavirus disease and vaccines, including epidemiology and prevention and treatment of the disease.

Author: Pan American Health Organization

Publication date: 2007

Correlates of Protection: Novel Generations of Influenza Vaccines

This article, published in the journal Vaccine, reviews potential correlates of protection against influenza and discusses some of the vaccination strategies that could result in optimal protection against epidemic and pandemic influenza. ABSTRACT …

Author: Rimmelzwaan GF, McElhaney JE

Publication date: 2008

Vaccines Against Seasonal and Avian Influenza: Recent Advances

This editorial, published in the journal Vaccine, discusses the importance of advances in influenza vaccines in light of the emergence of the avian influenza strain.

Author: Osterhaus A, Poland GA

Publication date: 2008

The Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Challenge

This editorial, published in the journal Vaccine, discusses some of the challenges of meeting influenza vaccine demand in the event of a pandemic, including vaccine technology, manufacturing capacity, demand for seasonal influenza …

Author: Kieny MP, Fukuda K

Publication date: 2008

Influenza Vaccine Supply: Building Long-Term Sustainability

This article, published in the journal Vaccine, discusses the importance of building long-term sustainability for influenza vaccine supply. This is important for seasonal vaccination, as well as pandemic vaccine supply, which will rely on the same …

Author: Hehme N, Colegate T, Palache B, Hessel L

Publication date: 2008

Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in an Urban Slum Community

This article, published in the Journal of Infection, discusses a study of pneumococcal carriage among residents of a slum community in Salvador, Brazil. Inhabitants of slum settlements represent a significant proportion of the population at risk …

Author: Reis JN, Palma T, Ribeiro GS, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices consists of 15 experts in fields associated with immunization who provide advice and guidance to the US government on the control of vaccine-preventable diseases. This website provides their …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Survival: The Struggle to Breathe

Part of the groundbreaking series on global health, Survival, this 45-minute documentary, filmed in the Philippines, focuses on the infections that lead to pneumonia. The film also highlights interventions to improve access to antibiotics as well …

Author: BBC World News and Rockhopper TV

Publication date: 2008

Status of Research and Development of Pediatric Vaccines for Streptococcus pneumoniae

This article, published in Vaccine, provides an overview of the currently available vaccines against pneumococcal disease, their limitations, and outlines the status of research and development activities for new pneumococcal vaccines. It also …

Author: Alderson MR

Publication date: 2016

United States Government Support for a Fully Immunized World

This infographic outlines the vital role the US government plays in supporting immunization activities throughout the world, including investments in research and development, purchasing vaccines and supplies, strengthening vaccine delivery systems, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Introduction: A 1-Day Training Program

This ten-session lesson plan maps a one-day vaccine introduction training program using existing PATH materials on the SA 14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine. Topics include facts about JE, administering the SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine, possible …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2008

Setting the Immunization Agenda Through Advocacy and Communication

This document reports on a high-level meeting about setting the immunization agenda through advocacy and communication, held in London in January 2008. The meeting was held jointly by the United Kingdom Department of Health and the World Health …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap

The Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap was originally published in 2006 to establish a strategic plan for developing and distributing a safe, effective, and affordable vaccine to prevent malaria in children under five years of age in sub-Saharan …

Author: Malaria Vaccine Funders Group

Publication date: 2013

WHO Recommendations for Routine Immunization: Summary Tables

These summary tables are designed to assist program managers in developing optimal immunization schedules using key information from the World Health Organization (WHO). The first table summarizes recommended routine immunizations for all age …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

Malaria Vaccine Decision-Making Framework

As the development of malaria vaccines accelerates, work is also underway on the policy front to pave the way for decisions on possible malaria vaccine use. Early planning is crucial to the successful adoption and introduction of a vaccine. To …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

DOD and PATH: Collaborations Enhance Health for the World's Poorest People

This fact sheet describes how PATH and the US Department of Defense (DOD) collaborate to enhance the health of the world’s poorest people and presents a sampling of PATH projects, including work on vaccines to prevent diarrhea and vaccine …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Solutions That Save Lives: Health Technologies Give Mothers and Children the Chance for a Healthy Future

This fact sheet discusses PATH's work on the development and implementation of technologies, such as vaccines and vaccine delivery devices, to improve the health of women and children in poor and remote areas around the world.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2011

Generic Protocol for Monitoring Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination on Gastroenteritis Disease Burden and Viral Strains

This document outlines a uniform approach to monitoring the impact of rotavirus vaccines in national programs, including guidelines for monitoring disease trends and evaluating vaccine effectiveness and changes in strain patterns among …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Breaking the Cycle With Vaccines: The Malaria Life Cycle

This graphic displays the malaria parasite's life cycle and highlights where three different types of vaccines could interrupt various stages of the life cycle.

Author: PATH

World Malaria Report 2008

This report provides key information on the burden of malaria worldwide, as well as important data on efforts to prevent and control the disease. Also included are detailed profiles of 30 countries with a high burden of malaria. The report's …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Safety and Immunogenicity of RTS,S/AS02D Malaria Vaccine in Infants

This study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, assessed the feasibility of integrating the RTS,S/AS02D malaria vaccine into a standard expanded program on immunization (EPI) schedule for infants. The study, conducted in …

Author: Abdulla S, Oberholzer R, Juma O, et al.

Publication date: 2008

A Hopeful Beginning for Malaria Vaccines

This editorial, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, discusses the RTS,S vaccine against malaria and the significance of this being the first malaria vaccine to reach an advanced stage of development.

Author: Collins WE, Barnwell JW

Publication date: 2008

Efficacy of RTS,S/AS01E Vaccine Against Malaria in Children 5 to 17 Months of Age

This study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, evaluated the efficacy of the RTS,S malaria vaccine given with a more immunogenic adjuvant system (AS01E) than one used in a previous study (AS02A). The study was conducted in …

Author: Bejon P, Lusingu J, Olotu A, et al.

Publication date: 2008

A Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Bovine-Human Reassortant Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine in Indian Infants

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a Phase 3 clinical efficacy trial of a new vaccine against the five most common strains of rotavirus. The study, which was conducted at six study sites across India, showed the vaccine to be …

Author: Kulkarni PS, Desai S, Tewari T, et al.

Publication date: 2017

WHO Global Action Plan to Minimize Poliovirus Facility-Associated Risk After Type-Specific Eradication of Wild Polioviruses and Sequential Cessation of Oral Polio Vaccine Use

This is the third edition of the Global Action Plan for eradicating polio. It includes suggested guidelines for the safe handling and containment of poliovirus infectious and potentially infectious materials, with the goal of reduced risk of …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2015

Apical Membrane Antigen 1: A Malaria Vaccine Candidate in Review

This article, published in Trends in Parasitology, presents the current understanding of apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), particularly in relation to the potential of AMA1 as a malaria vaccine and the approaches being taken toward clinical …

Author: Remarque EJ, Faber BW, Kocken CH, Thomas AW

Publication date: 2008

Malaria: Progress, Perils, and Prospects for Eradication

This review, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, discusses the need to make new drugs, vaccines, and insecticides, as well as improved surveillance methods, research priorities for malaria control.

Author: Greenwood BM, Fidock DA, Kyle DE, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Maternal Immunization Safety Monitoring in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Roadmap for Program Development

Maternal immunization holds the promise of further reducing morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and infants, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where there is the greatest burden of vaccine-preventable disease. This …

Author: Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth (GAPPS)

Publication date: 2017

Malaria Vaccines

This review, published in Frontiers in Bioscience, discusses the life cycle of malaria parasites and the different vaccine candidates aimed at preventing malaria at various stages of the parasites' life cycle. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in …

Author: Komisar JL

Publication date: 2007

Safety of the RTS,S/AS02A Malaria Vaccine in Mozambican Children During a Phase IIb Trial

This study, published in the journal Vaccine, evaluated the safety of the RTS,S/AS02A malaria vaccine in a proof of concept Phase IIb trial in Mozambican children aged one to four years. Overall, the study results indicate that the …

Author: Sacarlal J, Aponte JJ, Aide P, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Clinical Trials: Steps in Malaria Vaccine Development

This fact sheet provides an overview of the development and testing of malaria vaccine candidates through clinical trials, including an explanation of why trials are important and descriptions of each clinical trial phase.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Hepatitis B Immunization Strategies: Timing is Everything

This article, published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, reviews the evidence for long-term effectiveness of vaccination programs for infants and adolescents against hepatitis B. Long-term observational data show that vaccinated …

Author: Mackie CO, Buxton JA, Tadwalkar S, Patrick DM

Publication date: 2009

Pandemic Planning Update VI: A Report from Secretary Michael O. Leavitt

This report provides an update on the US government's progress in energizing a national pandemic influenza preparedness movement over nearly three years. The report includes a timeline of pandemic preparedness events; monitoring and …

Author: US Department of Health and Human Services

Publication date: 2009

Getting Beyond Getting Ready for Pandemic Influenza

This US Congressional report provides an assessment of the US government's efforts under the Bush administration to conduct influenza pandemic preparedness activities. The report is based on Congressional hearings and meetings with public- …

Author: US House of Representatives Committee on Homeland Security

Publication date: 2009

Neuropsychological Performance 10 Years After Immunization in Infancy With Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines

This study, published in the journal Pediatrics, compares the neuropsychological performance, ten years after vaccination, of two groups of children exposed randomly to different amounts of thimerosal through immunization. The study concludes that, …

Author: Tozzi AE, Bisiacchi P, Tarantino V, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Optimize: Guatemala Report

This report presents the results and lessons learned from a collaborative effort between the Guatemala Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance, the Pan American Health Organization, and project Optimize. This demonstration project attempted …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Vaccines and Autism: A Tale of Shifting Hypotheses

This article, published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases, summarizes the many studies refuting the claim of a link between vaccines and autism. The review examines three main hypotheses of how vaccines are purported to cause autism and …

Author: Gerber J, Offit P

Publication date: 2009

Worldwide Implementation of Hepatitis B Vaccination of Newborns, 2006

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, assesses the implementation of vaccination of newborns with hepatitis B vaccine by examining data from the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF Joint Reporting Form. The …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Accelerating Introduction of New Vaccines: Barriers to Introduction and Lessons Learned From the Recent Haemophilus influenzae type b Vaccine Experience

This article, from the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, examines recent efforts to accelerate the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in developing countries, which resulted in a significant surge in …

Author: Hajjeh R

Publication date: 2011

2008 Estimate of Worldwide Rotavirus-Associated Mortality in Children Younger than 5 Years Before the Introduction of Universal Rotavirus Vaccination Programmes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This analysis, published in the The Lancet Infectious Diseases, applied data collected through the World Health Organization's Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network to update the estimate of childhood rotavirus mortality worldwide. The …

Author: Tate JE, Burton AH, Boschi-Pinto C, Steele AD, Duque J, Parashar UD

Publication date: 2011

Report of the Second WHO Consultation on the Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP)

This report of the second World Health Organization Consultation on the Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP-II) held July 12 to 14, 2011, summarizes the overview of GAP activities in the first five years and proposed action points …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Coordinated Surveillance and Detection of Pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Disease in Developing Countries

This supplemental issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases provides numerous articles on the surveillance and detection of pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in developing countries. Topics include progress and challenges in disease …

Author: Black S, Knoll MD, eds.

Publication date: 2009

Evaluation of Vaccines Against Enteric Infections: A Clinical and Public Health Research Agenda for Developing Countries

This article, from the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, provides a review of the enteric vaccines currently available and their lack of use in developing countries. The author purports that the reasons for this are multiple and …

Author: Clemens J

Publication date: 2011

NITAG Resource Center

This website provides information, tools, and training materials for National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) and the international immunization community to improve evidence-based decision-making at the national level. The site …

Author: Agence de Médecine Préventive

Development of a Freeze-Stable Formulation for Vaccines Containing Aluminum Salt Adjuvants

This article, published in Vaccine, describes an approach to minimize reliance on the proper implementation of the cold chain to protect vaccines from freeze-thaw inactivation. By including PEG 300, propylene glycol, or glycerol in a hepatitis B …

Author: Jones Braun L, Tyagi A, Perkins S, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Influenza (Seasonal)

This fact sheet provides information on seasonal influenza, including who is at risk, signs and symptoms of the disease, and prevention and treatment options.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

Progress with Human H5N1 Vaccines: A Perspective From Industry

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, offers an industry perspective on the progress made toward preparedness for a potential human influenza H5N1 pandemic, with a review of research, development, testing, and current …

Author: Palache B, Krause R

Publication date: 2009

Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed—Progress Report 2013

The annual number of deaths of children under five years of age fell from 12.6 million in 1990 to 6.6 million in 2012. But much faster progress is needed to reduce preventable diseases that cause child mortality. This report follows the 2012 …

Author: United Nations Children’s Fund

Publication date: 2013

Risk of Intussusception after Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccination

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, reports on a study that examined the risk of intussusception after monovalent rotavirus vaccination in a population in the United States. In this prospective postlicensure study of more …

Author: Weintraub ES, Baggs J, Duffy J, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Using a Protected Sharps Pit

Protected sharps pits reduce the risks of sharps injury due to improper disposal. This one-page illustrative guide provides steps for correctly using a protected sharps pit.

Author: Berman A

Publication date: 2006

Using a Protected Sharps Barrel

Protected sharps barrels reduce the risks of sharps injury due to improper disposal. This one-page illustrative guide provides steps for correctly using a protected sharps barrel.

Author: Berman A

Publication date: 2006

Setting Research Priorities to Reduce Global Mortality From Childhood Diarrhea by 2015

To assist donors in understanding the potential of different research avenues to contribute to reducing the burden of disease and disability, the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) of the Global Forum for Health Research recently …

Author: Fontaine O, Kosek M, Bhatnagar S, et al.

Publication date: 2009

An Introduction to the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy

This brochure describes the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS), which aims to protect more people against more diseases. It describes achievements in childhood immunization and the benefits of this key and cost-effective health …

Author: World Health Organization; United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2009

Cost-Effectiveness of Childhood Rotavirus Vaccination in Taiwan

This paper, published in the journal Vaccine, investigates whether routine infant immunization with either currently licensed rotavirus vaccine could be cost-effective in Taiwan. The authors modeled specific disease outcomes …

Author: Wu CL, Yang YC, Huang LM, Chen KT

Publication date: 2009

Eliminating Epidemic Group A Meningococcal Meningitis in Africa Through a New Vaccine

This article, published in Health Affairs, discusses a new affordable vaccine against Group A meningococcus, the most common cause of large and often fatal African epidemics of meningitis, that was introduced in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in …

Author: LaForce FM, Okwo-Bele J-M

Publication date: 2011

Guidelines for Collection, Analysis, and Presentation of Vaccine Safety Data in Pre- and Post-Licensure Clinical Studies

These guidelines, published in the journal Vaccine, seek to standardize vaccine safety assessment by improving the accuracy and completeness of collection, analysis, and presentation of information about Adverse Events Following Immunization in …

Author: Bonhoeffer J, Bentsi-Enchill A, Chen RT, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Optimum Dosing of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine For Infants: A Landscape Analysis of Evidence Supporting Different Schedules

This supplement of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal features nine articles on the considerations for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) dosing schedules. This systematic literature review and corresponding analyses support the dosing …

Author: O’Brien KL, Goldblatt D, Whitney CG, eds.

Publication date: 2014

The Rationale for Integrated Childhood Meningoencephalitis Surveillance: A Case Study From Cambodia

This paper, published in The Bulletin of the World Health Organization, provides an example of development of an integrated meningoencephalitis surveillance system in Cambodia and, on the basis of this case study, presents the rationale and …

Author: Touch S, Grundy J, Hills S, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Effectiveness of One Dose of SA 14-14-2 Vaccine Against Japanese Encephalitis

Correspondence, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, about a small case control study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on the efficacy of a single dose of the SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine within six months of its administration. Effectiveness was …

Author: Kumar R, Tripathi P, Rizvi A

Publication date: 2009

Report on "Consultative Meeting on Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Prevention and Control"

The Consultative Meeting on JE Prevention and Control was convened by the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, on February 12. This official meeting record includes participants, objectives, and …

Author: Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control & Research

Publication date: 2009

Emergence of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in Humans

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, describes the findings of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A(H1N1) Virus Investigation Team from their assessment of the …

Author: Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Investigation Team

Publication date: 2009

Moving the Needle

This quarterly e-newsletter provides updates from PATH’s Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access on its vaccine development efforts, as well as related supporting work, such as developing human challenge models, building capacity of …

Author: PATH

Japanese Encephalitis Morbidity, Mortality, and Disability: Reduction and Control by 2015

This strategic plan, prepared by PATH from the contributions of 17 partner organizations, provides details on priority activities that must be sustained for continued momentum in Japanese encephalitis (JE) control, including improved …

Author: PATH, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, BIKEN, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Increasing Uptake of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Among Children in the United States, 2008–2014

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study to examine the use of live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) in US children aged two to eight years. The authors found increased LAIV usage over inactivated influenza vaccines in all sites …

Author: Rodgers L, Pabst LJ, Chaves SS

Publication date: 2015

Advancing New Technologies Against Influenza

This fact sheet highlights PATH's work to advance the development of new vaccines against influenza that are affordable and accessible for the developing world.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Increasing Access to Lifesaving Vaccines: PATH Closes the Immunization Gap Through Innovation and Collaboration

This fact sheet outlines PATH's work on vaccines and immunization. Topic areas include developing affordable vaccines, designing innovative vaccine technologies, and expanding uptake of existing vaccines. These efforts reduce the burden of malaria, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

A History of Vaccines

This fact sheet on the history of vaccines gives a brief overview of disease rates before and after the development of vaccines.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Investing in Vaccines for the Developing World

This fact sheet on investing in vaccines for the developing world details the cost of developing and distributing vaccines, and it outlines the innovative funding solutions designed to address these issues.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

The Road to Safe and Effective Vaccines

This fact sheet highlights the development of new vaccines through clinical trials and their role in providing safe and effective vaccines.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Understanding Vaccines

This fact sheet on understanding vaccines describes how vaccines work and lists the different types of vaccines.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Diarrheal Disease: Solutions to Defeat a Global Killer

Diarrheal Disease: Solutions to Defeat a Global Killer presents scientific evidence to support strategies to scale up use of interventions, including safe water, improved sanitation and hygiene, breastfeeding and optimal complementary feeding, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Innovation for a Healthier World: How the Research-Based Vaccine Manufacturers are Contributing to the Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan

This report describes how research-based vaccine manufacturers are innovating beyond the traditional research and development model by working with partners to optimize their production to meet growing demand, improving the supply chain to reach …

Author: International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations

Publication date: 2015

The Burden of Pneumococcal Disease Among Latin American and Caribbean Children: Review of the Evidence

This article, published in the Pan American Journal of Public Health, estimates the annual burden of pneumonia, meningitis, and acute otitis media caused by pneumococcus in children less than five years of age in Latin America and the Caribbean …

Author: Valenzuela MT, O'Loughlin R, De La Hoz F, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Potential Impact of Accelerating the Primary Dose of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Infants

This article, published in Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, estimates the potential effect of the acceleration of administration of the first dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine from two months to six weeks of age. The study …

Author: Stancil JM, Peters TR, Givner LB, Poehling KA

Publication date: 2009

Video: Childhood Immunizations

This video series features Heidi Murkoff, the author of the What to Expect When You're Expecting prenatal and parenting books, and Dr. Jay M. Lieberman, pediatrician and professor of pediatrics at the University of California School of Medicine, …

Author: What to Expect Foundation

Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV): CDC Answers Your Questions

This fact sheet provides information for healthcare professionals on the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, including vaccination recommendations from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Author: Immunization Action Coaltion

Publication date: 2011

Aluminum in Vaccines: What You Should Know

This fact sheet, intended for patients, parents, and healthcare providers, answers the most frequently asked questions about the use and safety of aluminum in vaccines.

Author: Vaccine Education Center at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Publication date: 2012

Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infections in Three Pregnant Women--United States, April to May 2009

During seasonal influenza epidemics and previous pandemics, pregnant women have been at increased risk for complications related to influenza infection. In addition, maternal influenza virus infection and accompanying hyperthermia place fetuses at …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2009

Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance--African Region, 2002 to 2008

This article, published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, analyzes data for 2002 to 2008 from the Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis (PBM) Surveillance Network, which collects information on laboratory-confirmed bacterial meningitis cases among …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2009

Preparing for Malaria Vaccines: African Scientists Speak Out

In this five-minute video, scientist-advocates describe their critical role in closing the gap between the availability of lifesaving interventions and developing countries' access to them. A malaria vaccine could be available in just a few short …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Post-Marketing Surveillance of Rotavirus Vaccine Safety

This manual provides a review of current knowledge related to the safety of rotavirus vaccine and suggests approaches for monitoring safety after vaccine introduction in a country.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2009

A Broken Trust: Lessons from the Vaccine–Autism Wars

This article, published in PLoS Biology, discusses Sharon Kaufman's investigation into the forces fueling the growing divide between scientists and citizens, with the vaccine–autism link as her example. Kaufman aimed to …

Author: Gross L

Publication date: 2009

Understanding Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Senegal

This fact sheet describes a Phase 4, post-licensure influenza vaccine effectiveness study that PATH and its partners are conducting in Senegal. The study seeks to better understand the extent of the influenza disease burden in tropical Africa, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2011

Supporting Influenza Vaccine Production in Vietnam

This fact sheet describes a project that PATH is implementing in collaboration with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority within the US Department of Health and Human Services. The project is supporting the enhancement of …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Global Pandemic Influenza Action Plan to Increase Vaccine Supply: Progress Report 2006 - 2008

This progress report is a follow on to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Pandemic Influenza Action Plan (GAP) released in May 2005 to address the global shortage of influenza vaccines for epidemics and potential pandemics. It summarizes …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2009

A Dose-Escalation Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Live Attenuated Oral Rotavirus Vaccine 116E in Infants: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

This study, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, tested the neonatal rotavirus candidate vaccine 116E in a double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-escalation trial in India. Two doses of the Vero cell-adapted vaccine were evaluated in …

Author: Bhandari N, Sharma P, Taneja S, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Strategic Advisory Group of Experts Recommendations: Rotavirus Vaccination

This issue of the Weekly Epidemiological Record reports on the World Health Organization's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts' recommendation for inclusion of rotavirus vaccines in all national immunization programs. The new …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2009

Association Between Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine and Severe Rotavirus Diarrhea Among Children in Nicaragua

This article, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, summarizes the first study to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccination in a developing country. The authors concluded that the vaccine could have a substantial impact on …

Author: Patel M, Pedreira C, De Oliveira LH, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Safety and Immunogenicity of Concomitant Vaccination With the Cell-Culture Based Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine IC51 and the Hepatitis A Vaccine HAVRIX1440 in Healthy Subjects: A Single-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Phase 3 Study

In travelers often several pre-departure immunizations are indicated, thus data are needed about possible interactions between vaccines. This Phase 3 study investigated the immunogenicity and safety of IC51 (JE vaccine) and HAVRIX1440 (hepatitis A …

Author: Kaltenböck A, Dubischar-Kastner K, Eder G, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Economic Impact of a Rotavirus Vaccination Program in Mexico

This article, published in the Pan American Journal of Public Health, examines a national rotavirus vaccination program in Mexico and evaluates its costs and benefits. The article concludes that the program would be highly cost-effective and …

Author: Constenla D, Velázquez FR, Rheingans RD, Antil L, Cervantes Y

Publication date: 2009

Cool Innovations for Vaccine Transportation and Storage

Keeping heat-sensitive vaccines and other drugs at the right temperature is crucial yet often difficult in areas with limited or no electrical power. This fact sheet describes a response to this challenge, where a group of public- and private-sector …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Infants Despite Prior Administration of Antigenic Inactivated Vaccine

This article, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, details studies conducted to determine the ability of a formalin inactivated vaccine candidate to protect against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease. Results from the study …

Author: Kim HW, Canchola JG, Brandt CD, et al.

Publication date: 1969

Vaccines for the Future

Published from 2007 to 2015, this quarterly e-newsletter provided updates on PATH’s efforts to accelerate the development of innovative, safe, effective, and affordable vaccines against the leading causes of childhood deaths in developing-world …

Author: PATH

Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

This study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, compares the efficacies of two treatments--oral artesunate and artesunate followed by mefloquine--for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Pailin, western Cambodia, and Wang Pha, …

Author: Dondorp AM, Nosten F, Yi P, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Live Attenuated H7N7 Influenza Vaccine Primes for a Vigorous Antibody Response to Inactivated H7N7 Influenza Vaccine

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of two candidate H7 pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccines (pLAIVs) and their ability to prime for responses to an unadjuvanted H7 pandemic …

Author: Babu TM, Levine M, Fitzgerald T, et al.

Publication date: 2014

A Heat-Stable Hepatitis B Vaccine Formulation

This article, published in Human Vaccines, discusses a study to develop a formulation of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine with improved stability at elevated temperatures. A new vaccine formulation has the potential to be used outside the cold chain …

Author: Jezek J, Chen D, Watson L, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Characterization of a Thermostable Hepatitis B Vaccine Formulation

This article, published in the journal Vaccine, reports on the development of a new hepatitis B vaccine formulation that is stable against repeated freezing at -20°C and is also stable for 12 months at 37°C. The improved stability of this …

Author: Braun LJ, Jezek J, Peterson S, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Vaccine Presentation Assessment Tool

The vaccine presentation assessment tool (VPAT) is designed to model the logistical and financial impact of adding a new vaccine to an immunization schedule. The output from the tool will provide an analytical basis to support collaborative …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2010

Logistics of Health Care Waste Management: Information and Approaches for Developing Country Settings

This publication, produced by the US Agency for International Development's Deliver Project, considers the reality of health care waste management practices in resource-limited settings, and offers solutions based on actual experience …

Author: USAID Deliver Project

Publication date: 2009

Influenza Vaccine Manufacture: Keeping Up With Change

This editorial, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, discusses challenges in influenza vaccine development, including the characteristics of the virus and vaccine production.

Author: Neuzil KM, Bright RA

Publication date: 2009

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Novel Influenza Subunit Vaccine Produced in Mammalian Cell Culture

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, describes a novel cell culture-derived influenza vaccine (CCIV) produced in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The Phase 3, multicenter study in Poland observed that CCIV was well …

Author: Szymczakiewicz-Multanowska A, Groth N, Bugarini R, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Subunit Influenza Vaccines Produced From Cell Culture or in Embryonated Chicken Eggs: Comparison of Safety, Reactogenicity, and Immunogenicity

This study, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, assessed the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of an injectable cell culture-derived influenza vaccine, compared with those of an injectable egg-based trivalent inactivated …

Author: Reisinger KS, Block SL, Izu A, Groth N, Holmes SJ

Publication date: 2009

Burden of Disease and Circulating Serotypes of Rotavirus Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

To assess the potential impact of rotavirus vaccines in sub-Saharan Africa, researchers reviewed recent published data on rotavirus burden among children aged five years old and circulating serotypes in sub-Saharan Africa. Though many countries …

Author: Sanchez-Padilla E, Grais RF, Guerin PJ, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Response to a Monovalent Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Vaccine

This article, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, describes the methods, results, and conclusions from a randomized observer-blind, parallel-group trial evaluating two doses of an inactivated, split-virus 2009 influenza A(H1N1) vaccine …

Author: Greenberg ME, Lai MH, Hartel GF, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Trial of Influenza A(H1N1) 2009 Monovalent MF59-Adjuvanted Vaccine -- Preliminary Report

This article, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, describes the methods, results, and conclusions from a single-center study to test the monovalent influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) surface-antigen vaccine. The study, conducted in the …

Author: Clark TW, Pareek M, Hoschler K, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Cross-Reactive Antibody Responses to the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

This article, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, describes a study to assess preexisting immunity in humans to the new pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus in order to evaluate seasonal vaccine strategies. Researchers used a …

Author: Hancock K, Veguilla V, Lu X, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Policy -- Considering the Early Evidence

This editorial, published in The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), comments on two articles released through NEJM (Greenberg et al. and Clark et al.) that describe preliminary data on the immunogenicity of the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 …

Author: Neuzil KM

Publication date: 2009

Burden of Disease Caused by Streptococcus Pneumoniae in Children Younger than 5 Years: Global Estimates

This article, published in The Lancet, releases new global burden of disease data for Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis in children worldwide. The results also include data at the …

Author: O'Brien KL, Wolfson LJ, Watt JP, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Manual of Rotavirus Detection and Characterization Methods

This manual, published by the World Health Organization, explains the most common procedures for rotavirus strain surveillance. It describes the methods and techniques used for the detection and characterization of rotaviruses.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2009

Diarrhoea: Why Children Are Still Dying and What Can Be Done

This joint report from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) focuses attention on the prevention and management of diarrheal diseases. It examines the latest available information on the burden of childhood …

Author: World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2009

Epidemiology and Burden of Disease From Japanese Encephalitis in Cambodia: Results From Two Years of Sentinel Surveillance

This article, published in Tropical Medicine & International Health, describes the results of two years of surveillance for Japanese encephalitis (JE) disease in Cambodian children aged 15 years and under at six sentinel meningoencephalitis …

Author: Touch S, Hills S, Sokhal B, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Meningococcal Meningitis

This fact sheet provides an overview of meningococcal meningitis, including information about the features and epidemiology of the disease. Details about prevention, treatment, and vaccination, as well as the African Meningitis Belt are also …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Global Alert and Response Disease Outbreak News: Meningococcal Disease

This web page provides regular updates on meningococcal disease outbreaks around the world as reported to the World Health Organization. It also serves as an archive, housing links to outbreak news alerts dating back to 1999.

Author: World Health Organization

Meningitis

This web page provides a wealth of information on meningitis, including causes of the disease, how to prevent its transmission, and important information about meningococcal vaccination. Also included are links to more detailed web pages on topics …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Global Epidemiology of Meningococcal Disease

This article, published in the journal Vaccine, reviews meningococcal disease epidemiology and its variability across geographic area and time. The review summarizes the current status of meningococcal disease epidemiology by region, but notes that …

Author: Harrison LH, Trotter CL, Ramsay ME

Publication date: 2009

Prevalence of Severe Acute Rotavirus Gastroenteritis and Intussusceptions in Ghanaian Children Under 5 Years of Age

This article, published in the Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, reports on a study that conducted pre-vaccine surveillance of the burden of rotavirus disease, prevalent rotavirus genotypes, and the association between rotavirus disease …

Author: Enweronu-Laryea CC, Sagoe KWC, Glover-Addy H, Asmah RH, Mingle JA, Armah GE

Publication date: 2012

PubMed Searches: Meningococcus

These pre-formatted PubMed searches will retrieve journal citations and available abstracts that address relevant issues related to meningococcus. Documents may be ordered through Loansome Doc if you have established an agreement with a …

Author: Various

Neisseria.org

This website aims to provide an electronic resource for all individuals interested in research and clinical aspects of the Neisseria, including Neisseria meningitidis. It includes information for scientists and clinicians on diagnosis and …

Author: University of Oxford

Meningococcal Disease

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, provides an overview of meningococcal disease, including a discussion of the epidemiologic and microbiologic features, diagnosis, prevention, and management of the disease. ABSTRACT …

Author: Rosenstein NE, Perkins BA, Stephens DS, Popovic T, Hughes JM

Publication date: 2001

Is it Exposure to Cigarette Smoke or to Smokers Which Increases the Risk of Meningococcal Disease in Teenagers?

This article, published in the International Journal of Epidemiology, reports on a study that aimed to determine whether passive smoking, which appears to increase the risk of meningococcal disease in adolescents, is attributable to …

Author: Coen PG, Tully J, Stuart JM, et al.

Publication date: 2006

Manson Lecture. Meningococcal Meningitis in Africa

This article, published in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, covers the history of meningococcal meningitis in Africa since epidemics of the infection were first described around 100 years ago. The article also …

Author: Greenwood B

Publication date: 1999

Feasibility of Delivering HPV Vaccine to Girls Aged 10 to 15 Years in Uganda

This article, published in African Health Sciences, reports on a study that explored the feasibility of two human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine delivery strategies in Uganda—a stand-alone, school-based strategy that selected girls based on their …

Author: Mugisha E, LaMontagne DS, Katahoire AR, et al.

Publication date: 2015

African Meningitis Belt

This map of the African continent displays the location of the Meningitis Belt, an area in Africa where a large number of meningitis epidemics occur.

Author: United Nations Country Team in Ethiopia

Publication date: 2001

Risk of Epidemic Meningitis in Africa: A Cause for Concern

This article, featured in the World Health Organization's Weekly Epidemiological Record, presents what the potential scenarios were for meningitis epidemics in Africa in the 2007-2008 seasons and provides information on the expected availability of …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2007

From Genomics to Surveillance, Prevention and Control: New Challenges for the African Meningitis Belt

This article, published in the Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique, summarizes an international conference held in Niamey, Niger, that brought together more than 100 delegates to assess the current meningitis situation in Africa, …

Author: Alonso JM, Bertherat E, Perea W, et al.

Publication date: 2006

Detecting Meningococcal Meningitis Epidemics in Highly-Endemic African Countries

This article, published in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Weekly Epidemiological Record, provides the WHO recommendation for detecting and responding to meningococcal meningitis epidemics in highly-endemic countries in Africa. In each …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2000

Surveillance of Meningococcal Disease in Burkina Faso

This poster, presented at the 2008 International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference, displays the results of a study that gathered epidemiologic and laboratory data on meningitis cases in Burkina Faso, determined the causal pathogens of these cases, …

Author: Badolo O, Tiendrebeogo E, Novak RT, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Implementation of Standard Operating Procedures for Enhanced Meningitis Surveillance in 13 Countries of the African Meningitis Belt from 2003 to 2008

This poster, presented at the 2008 International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference, displays the results of a study to determine the effectiveness of the Standard Operating Procedures that were developed in 2001 to 2002 to codify and enhance …

Author: Djingarey MH, Konde K, Kandolo D, et al.

Publication date: 2008

A 20-year Retrospective Analysis of Epidemic Meningitis Surveillance Data in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger

This poster, presented at the 2008 International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference, displays a detailed analysis of long-term surveillance data from Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger during the past 20 years in order to understand the dynamics of …

Author: Djingarey MH, Noazin S, Préziosi MP, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Emergency Vaccination Against Epidemic Meningitis in Ghana: Implications for the Control of Meningococcal Disease in West Africa

This article, published in The Lancet, assessed the potential effects of different vaccination strategies against meningococcal disease using data from the 1997 meningococcal outbreak in northern Ghana. Using a simple mathematical model, …

Author: Woods CW, Armstrong G, Sackey SO, et al.

Publication date: 2000

Emergency or Routine Vaccination Against Meningococcal Disease in Africa?

This comment, published in The Lancet, is based on a review of the study "Emergency Vaccination Against Epidemic Meningitis in Ghana: Implications for the Control of Meningococcal Disease in West Africa." The author concludes that meningococcal …

Author: Peltola H

Publication date: 2000

Control of Epidemic Meningococcal Disease. WHO Practical Guidelines. 2nd Edition

These guidelines, designed for physicians, laboratory workers, and health care administrators, provide comprehensive information on epidemiology and standard techniques for diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of meningococcal disease …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 1998

Infectious Disease: An Ill Wind, Bringing Meningitis

This commentary, published in the journal Science, discusses meningococcal meningitis epidemics in Africa that come with the onset of the dry season, and the vaccines in development that could limit the disease's impact. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how …

Author: Roberts L

Publication date: 2008

Intradermal Delivery of Vaccines: A Review of the Literature and the Potential for Development for Use in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

The purpose of this report is: (1) to summarize the clinical evidence supporting the intradermal route for vaccine administration and the devices being developed for this purpose; (2) to determine whether intradermal delivery broadly holds promise …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Infectious Disease: Hitting Early, Epidemic Meningitis Ravages Nigeria and Niger

This commentary, published in the journal Science, discusses one of the worst meningococcal meningitis epidemics in years in Nigeria and Niger. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in developing countries can gain free access to journal articles.)

Author: Roberts L

Publication date: 2009

Evaluation of the Meningitis Epidemics Risk Model in Africa

This study, published in Epidemiology and Infection, evaluated an ecological model based on absolute humidity and land cover type to predict the location of meningitis epidemics in the Sahelian region known as the African Meningitis Belt. The model …

Author: Savory EC, Cuevas LE, Yassin MA, et al.

Publication date: 2006

Environmental Risk and Meningitis Epidemics in Africa

This study, published in Emerging Infectious Diseases, provides evidence that the relationship between the environment and the location of meningitis epidemics is quantifiable. The study proposes a model based on environmental …

Author: Molesworth AM, Cuevas LF, Connor SJ, Morse AP, Thomson MC

Publication date: 2003

Meningococcal Disease in Africa

This article, published in Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, discusses the different serotypes of meningococcus that cause disease in Africa, including group-A meningococci, which cause meningococcal epidemics in the African Meningitis …

Author: Hart CA, Cuevas LE

Publication date: 1997

Climate Drives the Meningitis Epidemics Onset in West Africa

This study, published in PLoS Medicine, provides a clear, quantitative demonstration of the connections that exist between major meningococcal meningitis (MCM) epidemics and regional climate variability in Africa. This statistically robust …

Author: Sultan B, Labadi K, Guégan JF, Janicot S

Publication date: 2005

Clonal Waves of Neisseria Colonisation and Disease in the African Meningitis Belt: Eight-Year Longitudinal Study in Northern Ghana

This study, published in PLoS Medicine, aimed to determine how levels of colonization with different bacterial meingococcal serogroups change over time, and how the patterns of disease relate to such changes in the Kassena-Nankana District of …

Author: Leimkugel J, Hodgson A, Forgor AA, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Intercountry Meningitis Meeting: Preparing for the Next Epidemic Seasons, Mali, October 2006

This article, published in the World Health Organization's Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes an intercountry meeting on enhanced surveillance and responses to meningitis epidemics held in October 2006 in Bamako, Mali. More than 80 …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2007

Reading Time-Temperature Indicators With the Uniject™ Device

This job aid illustrates how to read time-temperature indicators with the Uniject™ device, which is an autodisable, prefilled, single-use syringe that can be used with vaccines.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Reading Time-Temperature Indicators With the Uniject™ Device: Worksheet

This worksheet can be used during trainings to help health workers learn how to read time-temperature indicators on the Uniject™ device, which is an autodisable, prefilled, single-use syringe that can be used with vaccines.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Meningococcal Serogroup W135 in the African Meningitis Belt: Epidemiology, Immunity, and Vaccines

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, summarizes the existing data on Neisseria meningitidis W135 epidemiology, immunology, and vaccines as they relate to meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. Public health approaches to meningitis …

Author: Mueller JE, Borrow R, Gessner BD

Publication date: 2006

Clonal Properties of Meningococci From Epidemic Meningitis

This article, published in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, reviews the classification of epidemic strains of Neisseria meningitidis and the expression by meningococci of both constant and highly variable …

Author: Achtman M

Publication date: 1991

Molecular Surveillance of Meningococcal Meningitis in Africa

This article, published in the journal Vaccine, reviews the data of meningococcal strains recovered from outbreaks and epidemics in the African meningitis belt, which can provides important insights on the biology and epidemiology of this pathogen. …

Author: Caugant DA, Nicolas P

Publication date: 2007

Sequelae of Epidemic Meningococcal Meningitis in Africa

This article, published in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, reviews audiological and other long-term neurological sequelae in 157 cases and their controls 6 to 12 months after an epidemic of group A meningococcal …

Author: Smith AW, Bradley AK, Wall RA, et al.

Publication date: 1988

A Study of Deafness in West Africa

This article, published in the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, assessed profoundly deaf children from Nigeria in an attempt to identify the causes of deafness in this part of West Africa. The study found that measles, …

Author: Holborow C, Martinson F, Anger N

Publication date: 1982

A Study of Deafness in West Africa: The Gambian Hearing Health Project

This article, published in the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, reviews data collected from several studies conducted in The Gambia to discover the incidence and causes of severe to profound hearing loss. The data shows that …

Author: McPherson B, Holborow CA

Publication date: 1985

Meningococcal Vaccines: Polysaccharide and Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccines - WHO Position Paper

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes essential background information on meningococcal meningitis and vaccines against the disease. It also includes the current World Health Organization (WHO) position …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2002

A Review of Vaccine Research and Development: Meningococcal Disease

This article, published in the journal Vaccine, reviews the status of research and development of vaccines against meningococcal disease due to Neisseria meningitidis as of 2006. The paper discusses the widespread vaccination with Group C conjugate …

Author: Girard MP, Preziosi MP, Aguado MT, Kieny MP

Publication date: 2006

Improving Timely Immunization Rates in Vietnam With a Digital Immunization Registry—ImmReg

This fact sheet describes PATH’s work to improve immunization rates for women and young children in Vietnam through the introduction of a digital immunization registry. The new system, known as ImmReg, is saving time, reducing errors, and …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

An Integrated Approach to Confronting Diarrheal Disease

This briefing paper provides an overview of the tools and interventions involved with an integrated approach to diarrheal disease control, including vaccines, oral rehydration therapy, breastfeeding, and zinc treatment. The document also advocates …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2011

13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: A Review of Its Use in Infants, Children, and Adolescents

This article, published in Pediatric Drugs, reviews the use of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in infants, children, and adolescents. The author states the safety and reactogenicity of PCV13 to be generally similar to that of …

Author: Plosker GL

Publication date: 2013

Evaluation of Out-of-the-cold-chain Approaches for Improving On-time Delivery of the Hepatitis B Birth Dose in Rural Areas of China

This document summarizes the results of a study of out-of-the-cold-chain approaches for improving on-time delivery of birth doses of the hepatitis B vaccine in rural areas of China. The study concluded that this is a safe and effective way to …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2005

Increasing Hepatitis B Vaccine Coverage Rates by Implementing an Out-of-the-cold-chain Strategy

In areas such as Southeast Asia with a high incidence of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B, the World Health Organization recommends a birth dose of the vaccine for all children. Hepatitis B vaccine is typically kept refrigerated, within …

Author: PATH; National Expanded Program on Immunization, Vietnam

Publication date: 2007

Out-of-cold-chain Delivery of the Hepatitis B Birth Dose in Four Districts of Vietnam

This document summarizes the results of a study of out-of-the-cold-chain approaches for improving on-time delivery of birth doses of the hepatitis B vaccine in four districts of Vietnam.

Author: PATH; National Expanded Program on Immunization, Vietnam

Publication date: 2006

Protecting Children for a Healthy Tomorrow: Lessons From the Andhra Pradesh Partnership Project on Immunization

This publication outlines the activities undertaken in the five-year Partnership Project on Immunization by the Indian state government of Andhra Pradesh and PATH to strengthen routine immunization by introduction of the hepatitis B vaccine in …

Author: PATH; Government of Andhra Pradesh, India

Publication date: 2006

Analysis of World Health Organization Policy Development Processes for a New Intervention: Malaria Vaccines

This document aims to elucidate the World Health Organization (WHO) process for developing policy guidelines for a malaria vaccine. The analysis considered past WHO recommendations on new interventions and assessed potential implications …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2008

Fighting Malaria Today and Tomorrow

This fact sheet describes PATH's work in malaria control and prevention, including its work under the Malaria Control and Evaluation Partnership in Africa and the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Malaria Vaccine: WHO Position Paper – January 2016

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes essential background information on malaria and on GlaxoSmithKline's malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S (also known as Mosquirix™). It provides the World Health Organization's …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2016

Projected Health and Economic Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination in GAVI-Eligible Countries: 2011–2030

This article, published in Vaccine, projects the cost-effectiveness and health impact of rotavirus vaccines in countries eligible for support from the GAVI Alliance. The authors used a decision-analytic model to project the health outcomes and …

Author: Atherly DE, Lewis KDC, Tate J, Parashar UD, Rheingans RD

Publication date: 2012

Global Epidemiology of Invasive Meningococcal Disease

Neisseria meningitidis is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis globally and can also cause sepsis, pneumonia, and other manifestations. The worldwide epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) varies markedly by region and …

Author: Jafri RZ, Ali A, Messonnier NE, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Current Progress in Developing Subunit Vaccines Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-Associated Diarrhea

This article, published in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, reports on the development status of subunit vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Currently, there are no available vaccines against ETEC-associated diarrhea. …

Author: Zhang W, Sack DA

Publication date: 2015

Improving Immunization Through Supportive Supervision

This fact sheet describes PATH's training of 70 immunization program supervisors in Vietnam's Ha Tinh Province to use supportive supervision methods, leading to immediate and significant improvements in performance.

Author: PATH; National Expanded Program on Immunization, Vietnam

Publication date: 2007

Landscape Analysis: Analysis of EVSM Indicators

The Effective Vaccine Stores Management (EVSM) assessment tool was created to help countries and agencies evaluate critical components of the country’s primary vaccine store. To date, 57 countries have completed the EVSM assessment. This …

Author: PATH; World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Landscape Analysis: Cool Chain Technologies

Technologies related to the temperature control of vaccines during the distribution process are essential to the cool chain. This report provides a landscape analysis of these technologies and their appropriateness for use with vaccines in …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Landscape Analysis: Trends in Vaccine Availability and Novel Vaccine Delivery Technologies: 2008–2025

This landscape analysis identifies trends in the availability of vaccines and novel vaccine delivery technologies that are and will be of relevance to low- and middle-income countries from the present through 2025.

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Opportunities and Challenges of Developing Thermostable Vaccines

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, reviews approaches being used to develop thermostable vaccine formulations that are resistant to damage caused by freezing or excessive heat and could reduce dependence on the cold …

Author: Chen D, Kristensen D

Publication date: 2009

Optimizing Vaccine Supply Chains

This document describes the urgent need for vaccine supply chain reform, new ideas, and innovative technologies. It also demonstrates the increasing consequences of supply-chain failure in today's environment as the number …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2009

Streamlining Immunization Logistics in the Provinces of Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia

This document reports on results from the Streamlining Immunization Logistics project, implemented between April 2005 and March 2006 in eight districts of Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The project successfully demonstrated qualitative …

Author: PATH, Indonesia Ministry of Health

Publication date: 2006

Strengthening Vietnam's Immunization Program

PATH, in close partnership with Vietnam's National Expanded Program on Immunization, has worked to increase the quality, safety, and efficiency of immunization services through the Improving Routine Immunization Services (IRIS) project. This fact …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Summary of Vaccine Stability Data

These documents provide stability data as of November 2012 on commonly used, licensed vaccines and stability data as of May 2012 from available data on novel, investigational vaccine formulations. Data are sorted by vaccine in a table format in both …

Author: PATH, Working in Tandem Ltd.

Publication date: 2012

Fulfilling the Promise of Rotavirus Vaccines: How Far Have We Come Since Licensure?

This review, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, summarizes the role of rotavirus vaccination in reducing childhood hospitalizations and deaths due to severe diarrhea. The authors also highlight insights revealed through routine …

Author: Patel MM, Glass R, Desai R, Tate JE, Parashar UD

Publication date: 2012

Bacterial Diarrhea

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, provides a description of bacterial diarrhea and evidence supporting various strategies to combat this problem. Also included are a list of pathogens that cause bacterial diarrhea and …

Author: DuPont HL

Publication date: 2009

State of the World's Vaccines and Immunization, Third Edition

This report focuses on the major developments in vaccines and immunization since 2000. Part 1 examines the impact of immunization on efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals. It looks at the development and use of vaccines and the …

Author: World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, World Bank

Publication date: 2009

Development of a Low-Dose Challenge Model for Evaluation of Vaccines for Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in Volunteers

This presentation from the Vaccines for Enteric Diseases conference provides results from a clinical trial that found the human challenge model currently being used to test vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is utilizing a …

Author: Harro C, DeNearing B, Marcum A, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Rapid Pneumococcal Evolution in Response to Clinical Interventions

This article, published in Science, describes a study detailing how genomic plasticity within lineages of recombinogenic bacteria can permit adaptation to clinical interventions over remarkably short time scales. ABSTRACT ONLY: (Learn how users in …

Author: Croucher NJ, Harris SR, Fraser C, et al.

Publication date: 2011

RTS,S/AS01E Malaria Vaccine Induces Memory and Polyfunctional T Cell Responses in a Pediatric African Phase III Trial

This article, published in Frontiers in Immunology, describes a comprehensive evaluation of cellular responses to the RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine containing circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The study found that …

Author: Moncunill G, De Rosa SC, Ayestaran A, Nhabomba AJ, Mpina M, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Development of Vaccines Against Meningococcal Disease

This article, published in the Lancet, reviews the currently available vaccines against meningococcal disease, as well as research and development efforts toward the development of additional vaccines against the disease. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn …

Author: Jódar L, Feavers IM, Salisbury D, Granoff DM

Publication date: 2002

Recent Developments in Neisseria Meningitidis Group A Conjugate Vaccines

This article, published in Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, focuses on the development of meningococcal conjugate vaccines for serogroup A, with special emphasis on the needs of Africa. The author discusses the currently available conjugate …

Author: Frasch CE

Publication date: 2005

Achieving Effective Sharps Waste Management in GAVI Host Countries: A Proposed Approach With Estimates of Costs

This document presents an analysis of safer sharps-waste management activities, including practical options using available or emerging technologies. The analysis includes an estimate of the baseline burden of disease from unsafe injection …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccines

This article, published in Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, reviews the conjugate meningococcal vaccines currently available and under development and their potential for disease prevention. The article also includes a discussion of the successful …

Author: Zimmer SM, Stephens DS

Publication date: 2004

Conjugate Vaccines

This review, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, looks at what has been learned from developing conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and group C Neisseria meningitidis that could be useful for the …

Author: Lockhart S

Publication date: 2003

Meningococcal Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccines

This article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, reviews the global use of serogroup C meningococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines with particular reference to the range of immunization strategies used internationally. ABSTRACT …

Author: Snape MD, Pollard AJ

Publication date: 2005

Can Successful Vaccines Teach Us How to Induce Efficient Protective Immune Responses?

This article, published in Nature Medicine, reviews current successful vaccines and identifies their mechanisms of protection in the hopes of tackling the challenges posed by those infectious targets that have thus far escaped successful …

Author: Lambert PH, Liu M, Siegrist CA

Publication date: 2005

Workshop on Vaccine Pressure and Neisseria Meningitidis, Annecy, France, 9-11 March 2005

This article, published in the journal Vaccine, summarizes a 2005 three-day workshop held in Annecy, France, that reviewed the current state of knowledge regarding Neisseria meningitidis capsule switching and vaccine pressure from capsular …

Author: Alonso JM, Gilmet G, Rouzic EM, et al.

Publication date: 2007

USAID and PATH: Working Together to Improve Global Health

This fact sheet describes the partnership between PATH and the US Agency for International Development (USAID) to improve global health around the world. It covers work supported by USAID across several of PATH’s platforms, including the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Effectiveness of Meningococcal Serogroup C Vaccine Programmes

Since the introduction of monovalent meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) glycoconjugate (MCC) vaccines and the implementation of national vaccination programs, the incidence of MenC disease has declined markedly as a result of effective short-term …

Author: Borrow R, Abad R, Trotter C, van der Kils FRM, Vazquez JA

Publication date: 2013

Global Epidemiology of Meningococcal Disease and Vaccine Efficacy

This article, published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, reviews outbreaks of meningococcal disease across the globe and the serotypes associated with these outbreaks. The author also discusses the different vaccines available for the …

Author: Pollard AJ

Publication date: 2004

Immune Response to Revaccination With Meningococcal A and C Polysaccharides in Gambian Children Following Repeated Immunization During Early Childhood

This article, published in the journal Vaccine, discusses a study of 42 Gambian children revaccinated at age five with meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccine (MPS) after receiving two doses of MPS in infancy and either MPS, meningococcal A/C …

Author: MacLennan J, Obaro S, Deeks J, et al.

Publication date: 1999

Global Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Pneumonia

This document outlines a global action plan to support countries in controlling pneumonia, providing a framework for action around which partners can coordinate their efforts. The document summarizes the global situation with respect to pneumonia, …

Author: World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2009

Helping PEPFAR Partners Manage Health Care Waste: Practical Approaches and Lessons Learned From Uganda and Nigeria

This paper describes the process, tools, and strategies used in the Making Medical Injections Safer project to successfully engage the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) implementing partners in Uganda and Nigeria to improve …

Author: PATH, John Snow Inc.

Publication date: 2009

Rotavirus in Asia: Updates on Disease Burden, Genotypes, and Vaccine Introduction

This special edition of the journal Vaccine broadens understanding of rotavirus disease burden, which is responsible for almost half of acute diarrhea hospitalizations among Asian children under five. In addition to documenting rotavirus …

Author: Nelson AS, Widdowson MA, Kilgore PE, Steele D, Parashar U, eds.

Publication date: 2009

Optimize: Immunization Systems and Technologies for Tomorrow

Optimize, a collaboration between the World Health Organization and PATH, has been given a unique mandate to think far into the future: to put technological and scientific advances to work, helping define the ideal characteristics and …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2009

Effect of a Serogroup A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PsA—TT) on Serogroup A Meningococcal Meningitis and Carriage in Chad: A Community Study

A serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide—tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA—TT, MenAfriVac) was licensed in India in 2009, and prequalified by the World Health Organization in 2010, on the basis of its safety and immunogenicity. This …

Author: Daugla DM, Gami JP, Gamougam K, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Serogroup W135 Meningococcal Disease, The Gambia, 2012

This article, published in Emerging Infectious Diseases, reports on a 2012 outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 which occurred in The Gambia. The attack rate was highest among young children. The associated risk factors were male sex, …

Author: Hossain MJ, Roca A, Mackenzie GA, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Protection From Routine Vaccination at the Age of 14 Months With Meningococcal Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine in the Netherlands

This article, published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, reviews routine vaccination with a single dose of conjugated meningococcal C vaccine at 14 months and a catch-up campaign, which has reduced the incidence of meningococcal C …

Author: de Greeff SC, de Melker HE, Spanjaard L, Schouls LM, van Derende A

Publication date: 2006

Prospects for Vaccine Prevention of Meningococcal Infection

This article, published in Clinical Microbiology Reviews, reviews the changing epidemiology of meningococcal disease in the United States, issues related to vaccine prevention, and recommendations on the use of the polysaccharide conjugate …

Author: Harrison LH

Publication date: 2006

Invasive Meningococcal Disease Epidemiology and Control Measures: A Framework for Evaluation

This article, published in BMC Public Health, describes a discrete event simulation of the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease to quantify the potential impact of implementing routine vaccination of adolescents in the United States with a …

Author: Caro JJ, Möller J, Getsios D, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Cost-effectiveness of Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccination Strategies in the United States

This article, published in the journal Pediatrics, discusses a study to evaluate and compare the projected health and economic impact of meningococcal conjugate A/C/Y/W-135 (MCV-4) vaccination of adolescents, toddlers, and infants in the United …

Author: Shepard CW, Ortega-Sanchez IR, Scott RD 2nd, Rosenstein NE; ABCs Team

Publication date: 2005

Expanding Prevention of Invasive Meningococcal Disease

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, discusses morbidity and mortality due to meningococcal serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 and the ability of monovalent meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccines to reduce the burden of …

Author: Pelton SI, Gilmet GP

Publication date: 2009

Human Immunity to the Meningococcus: The Role of Humoral Antibodies

This article, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, reviews an earlier study of the age-specific incidence of meningococcal meningitis in the United States that found that the proportion of individuals with serum bactericidal …

Author: Goldschneider I, Gotschlich EC, Artenstein MS

Publication date: 1969

Human Immunity to the Meningococcus: Development of Natural Immunity

This article, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, discusses a study in the United States that suggests that natural immunity to meningococcal disease is initiated, reinforced, and broadened by intermittent carriage of different …

Author: Goldschneider I, Gotschlich EC, Artenstein MS

Publication date: 1969

Human Immunity to the Meningococcus: Preparation and Immunochemical Properties of the Group A, Group B, and Group C Meningococcal Polysaccharides

This article, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, describes a new method for the isolation of the meningococcal group-specific polysaccharides that make it possible to produce highly purified group A and group C polysaccharides.

Author: Gotschlich EC, Liu TY, Artenstein MS

Publication date: 1969

Human Immunity to the Meningococcus: Immunogenicity of Group A and Group C Meningococcal Polysaccharides in Human Volunteers

This article, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, provides a reinvestigation of the immunogenicity in human beings of the meningococcal group A and C antigens based on previous studies of the molecular weights of these polysaccharides …

Author: Gotschlich EC, Goldschneider I, Artenstein MS

Publication date: 1969

Rotavirus Vaccines: An Update - WHO Position Paper

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes the World Health Organization's recommendations on rotavirus vaccines and related activities, including vaccine introduction, surveillance of rotavirus disease, and studies to …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2009

Impact of Meningococcal Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccines on Carriage and Herd Immunity

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, investigates the impact of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine introduction in the United Kingdom on asymptomatic carriage of meningococci to establish whether …

Author: Maiden MCJ, Ibarz-Pavón AB, Urwin R, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Report of the Informal Consultation on Meningococcal Carriage Studies in Africa

This report summarizes a meeting organized by the World Health Organization to discuss meningococcal carriage studies in Africa that could provide data to support the introduction of the meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in the region. The …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2005

Human Immunity to the Meningococcus: The Effect of Immunization With Meningococcal Group C Polysaccharide on the Carrier State

This article, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, discusses a small-scale field trial that was carried out in United States military recruits to test the effect of immunization with meningococcal C polysaccharide upon the …

Author: Gotschlich EC, Goldschneider I, Artenstein MS

Publication date: 1969

Meningococcal Carriage in the African Meningitis Belt

This article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, reviews published studies of meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt in order to better understand the potential impact of meningococcal conjugate vaccines. The review …

Author: Trotter CL, Greenwood BM

Publication date: 2007

Systematic Review: Impact of Meningococcal Vaccination on Pharyngeal Carriage of Meningococci

This article, published in Tropical Medicine and International Health, investigates the effect of meningococcal vaccines on pharyngeal carriage of meningococci through a systematic review. The review determines that only a few well-designed trials …

Author: Dellicour S, Greenwood B

Publication date: 2007

Lessons From Meningococcal Carriage Studies

This article, published in FEMS Microbiology Reviews, reviews previous meningococcal carriage studies in European countries in order to learn more about the disease and the potential impact of mass vaccination with meningococcal vaccines. The …

Author: Caugant DA, Tzanakaki G, Kriz P

Publication date: 2007

Neisseria Meningitidis: An Overview of the Carriage State

This article, published in The Journal of Medical Microbiology, reviews currently available information about the meningococcal carriage state and identifies where gaps exist in the body of knowledge. The authors conclude that studies of the …

Author: Yazdankhah SP, Caugant DA

Publication date: 2004

Prevention of Secondary Cases of Meningococcal Disease in Household Contacts by Vaccination

This article, published in The British Medical Journal, describes a study of secondary meningococcal disease infection in which researchers used either meningococcal or tetanus toxoid vaccine to immunize household contacts of patients with …

Author: Greenwood BM, Hassan-King M, Whittle HC

Publication date: 1978

Dynamic Models of Meningococcal Carriage, Disease, and the Impact of Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccination

The authors of this article, published in The American Journal of Epidemiology, use data on immunization with serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccines in England and Wales to develop and apply a mathematical model that investigates the …

Author: Trotter CL, Gay NJ, Edmunds WJ

Publication date: 2005

Vaccines for the Unvaccinated: Protecting the Herd

This editorial, published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, provides commentary on the effect of vaccines in protecting the unvaccinated through herd immunity and using this effect as an important consideration in strategies for vaccine …

Author: Stephens DS

Publication date: 2008

Trial of 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Monovalent MF59-Adjuvanted Vaccine

This article, published by The New England Journal of Medicine, details the findings of a single-center study in the United Kingdom to test the monovalent influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) surface-antigen vaccine, in both MF59-adjuvanted and …

Author: Clark TW, Pareek M, Hoschler K, et al.

Publication date: 2009

A Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine in Various Age Groups

This article, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, details a randomized clinical trial conducted in China to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a split-virus, inactivated vaccine candidate against the 2009 pandemic influenza A …

Author: Zhu F, Wang H, Fang H, et al.

Publication date: 2009

2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Monovalent Vaccines for Children

This editorial, published in The Journal of the American Medical Association, comments on new immunogenicity data on 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccines for children. The data suggest that a single dose of the vaccine offers protection for at …

Author: Fiore AE, Neuzil KM

Publication date: 2010

Immunogenicity of a Monovalent 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) Vaccine in Infants and Children: A Randomized Trial

This article, published in The Journal of the American Medical Association, details a randomized, observer-blind, age-stratified, parallel group study assessing two doses of an inactivated, split-virus 2009 influenza A(H1N1) vaccine in healthy …

Author: Nolan T, McVernon J, Skeljo M, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Risk and Protective Factors for Meningococcal Disease in Adolescents: Matched Cohort Study

This article, published in The British Medical Journal, discusses a study examining biological and social risk factors for meningococcal disease in adolescents in six regions of England. The study finds that significant independent risk factors …

Author: Tully J, Viner RM, Coen PG, et al.

Publication date: 2006

Carriage of Neisseria Meningitidis in 2 - 29 Years Old in Mali, Senegal and The Gambia

This poster, presented at the 16th International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference in the Netherlands, discusses a study that aimed to provide preliminary information regarding meningococcal carriage in West Africa and on the effect on carriage of …

Author: Caugant DA, Tamboura B, Tapia M, et al.

Publication date: 2008

Meningococcal Vaccines and Herd Immunity: Lessons Learned From Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccination Programs

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, reviews the herd immunity effects achieved following the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccines in the United Kingdom. The authors note that immunizing teenagers is …

Author: Trotter CL, Maiden MC

Publication date: 2009

Meningitis Vaccine Project News Digest

MVP News Digest provides a quarterly update of activities at the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP), a partnership between the World Health Organization and PATH. MVP works to eliminate epidemic meningitis as a public health problem in sub-Saharan …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Saving Children’s Lives: USAID’s Support for Immunization

This factsheet outlines how immunization has been a priority for US Agency for International Development (USAID) development assistance for over thirty years. It describes how USAID works closely with partners around the world, including national …

Author: US Agency for International Development

Publication date: 2016

Investigation of Different Group A Immunoassays Following One Dose of Meningococcal Group A Conjugate Vaccine or A/C Polysaccharide Vaccine in Adults

This article, published in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, details further analysis of the sera from a previous Phase 1 study to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and antibody persistence of a new group A conjugate vaccine, using four additional …

Author: Findlow H, Plikaytis BD, Aase A, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Evaluation of Serogroup A Meningococcal Vaccines in Africa: A Demonstration Project

This article, published in The Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, summarizes the general steps required for meningococcal vaccine development, reviews the use of immunogenicity criteria as a licensing strategy for new meningococcal …

Author: Soriano-Gabarró M, Rosenstein N, LaForce FM

Publication date: 2004

Meningococcal Meningitis

This article, published in Nature Reviews Microbiology, provides an overview of meningococcal meningitis. Topics include meningococcal global disease burden, tools and interventions to combat the disease, and partnerships focused on alleviating the …

Author: Aguado T, Bertherat E, Djingarey M, et al.

Publication date: 2005

Yaounde Declaration on Elimination of Meningococcal Meningitis Type A Epidemics as a Public Health Problem in Africa

This document outlines a pledge made by the ministers of health of African meningitis belt countries at the 58th session of the World Health Organization Regional Committee in Cameroon in 2008 to combat meningococcal disease in the region.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

World Health Organization Podcast, Episode 45: A New Meningitis Vaccine is Being Introduced to Prevent Epidemics in Sub-Saharan Africa

This podcast discusses the introduction of a new vaccine to prevent epidemics of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. The podcast features Dr. Eric Bertherat, from the World Health Organization (WHO) department of Epidemic Pandemic Alert and …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Introducing New Vaccines Into Developing Countries: Obstacles, Opportunities, and Complexities

This commentary, published in Nature Medicine, reviews current trends that may affect whether the most promising of the 350 vaccine candidates under development will eventually be used in programs for the poor in developing countries. It also …

Author: Clemens J, Jodar L

Publication date: 2005

Vaccine Advance-Purchase Agreements for Low-Income Countries: Practical Issues

This article, published in Health Affairs, considers the practical economic and legal arrangements for advance-purchase commitments to increase incentives for the development and production of vaccines for diseases concentrated in low-income …

Author: Berndt ER, Hurvitz JA

Publication date: 2005

The Problems and Promise of Vaccine Markets in Developing Countries

This article, published in Health Affairs, discusses a number of promising and innovative approaches that are being explored to increase the incentives and reduce the risks of investing in vaccines for developing countries. These approaches aim …

Author: Batson A

Publication date: 2005

Acceptability of HPV Vaccine Among Young Adolescent Girls in Uganda: Young People’s Perspectives Count

This article, published in the International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health, presents the perspectives of girls aged 10 to 15 years on the acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. The authors found that the adolescent girls …

Author: Katahoire AR, Arube-Wani J, Murokara D, Mugisha E, LaMontagne DS

Publication date: 2013

Rotavirus Vaccine—A Powerful Tool to Combat Deaths From Diarrhea

This editorial, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, comments on recent efficacy trials of rotavirus vaccine in South Africa and Malawi and a postmarketing study in Mexico. Based on the data, the author recommends the introduction …

Author: Santosham M

Publication date: 2010

Costs for Households and Community Perception of Meningitis Epidemics in Burkina Faso

This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, discusses an anthropologic and economic study in Burkina Faso to understand perceptions and behavior relative to meningitis and to determine the cost of illness from bacterial …

Author: Colombini A, Bationo F, Zongo S, et al.

Publication date: 2009

16th International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference: Recent Progress Toward Effective Meningococcal Disease Vaccines

This report, published in Human Vaccines, describes developments in meningococcal disease vaccines presented at the 16th International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference in Rotterdam in September 2008. It includes progress on an …

Author: Gorringe AR, van Alphen L

Publication date: 2009

Safety, Immunogenicity, and Antibody Persistence of a New Meningococcal Group A Conjugate Vaccine in Healthy Indian Adults

This article, published in the journal Vaccine, discusses a double-blind, randomized, controlled Phase 1 study in India to assess safety, immunogenicity, and antibody persistence of the new meningococcal group A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) in …

Author: Kshirsagar N, Mur N, Thatte U, et al.

Publication date: 2007

Epidemic Meningitis Due to Group A Neisseria Meningitidis in the African Meningitis Belt: A Persistent Problem With an Imminent Solution

This article, published in the journal Vaccine, emphasizes Group A Neisseria meningitidis as a health problem in Africa and disccuses the potential for a proactive control strategy for epidemic meningitis with the use of a meningococcal A …

Author: LaForce FM, Ravenscroft N, Djingarey M, et al

Publication date: 2009

Vaccine Safety Net

While many quality web sites offer science-based information about vaccine safety, others may provide unbalanced and misleading information. This can lead to undue fears, particularly among parents and patients. This website provides information …

Author: World Health Organization

Disease Burden of Group B Streptococcus Among Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading neonatal sepsis pathogen, and investment in disease prevention, such as maternal vaccination, requires evidence of disease burden. This article, published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, reports …

Author: Sinha A, Russell LB, Tomczyk S, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Effect of Human Rotavirus Vaccine on Severe Diarrhea in African Infants

This article, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, discusses a study on the efficacy of rotavirus vaccine in Africa. Results showed 30.2 percent efficacy against all-cause severe gastroenteritis. The study concluded that rotavirus …

Author: Madhi SA, Cunliffe NA, Steele D, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Effect of Rotavirus Vaccination on Death From Childhood Diarrhea in Mexico

This article, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, discusses a study on the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in Mexico. The study examined the impact of vaccination on diarrheal deaths in Mexican children between 2008 and 2009 …

Author: Richardson V, Hernandez-Pichardo J, Quintanar-Solares M, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Pathogenesis, Treatment, and Prevention of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

This article, published in The Lancet, summarizes the past ten years of research on pneumococcal pneumonia. The article includes a review of the epidemiology, genetics, and immunology of the disease, as well as approaches to clinical diagnosis, …

Author: van der Poll T, Opal SM

Publication date: 2009

Development and Implementation of a National Programme for the Management of Severe and Very Severe Pneumonia in Children in Malawi

This article, published in PLoS Medicine, provides an overview of the development and implementation of a national program for the management of severe and very severe childhood pneumonia in Malawi. Based on a successful delivery model used by the …

Author: Enarson PM, Gie R, Enarson DA, Mwansambo C

Publication date: 2009

Sustained Reductions in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in the Era of Conjugate Vaccine

This article, published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, discusses a study examining invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases from 1998 to 2007 from eight sites across the United States to assess the impact of 7-valent …

Author: Pilishvili T, Lexau C, Farley MM, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Developing New Vaccines Against Pneumonia and Other Pneumococcal Diseases

This fact sheet, issued by PATH, outlines PATH's pneumococcal vaccine project from a technical perspective, including an overview of PATH's vaccine development portfolio, research activities, and partners to support the development of vaccines …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Global Health Technologies Coalition

The Global Health Technologies Coalition's website highlights the coalition's work to advocate for the development of global health tools for the developing world. The website serves as a clearinghouse for information and resources on research …

Author: Global Heath Technologies Coalition

GAVI's Advance Market Commitment

This article, published in The Lancet, details how the GAVI Alliance's pilot Advance Market Commitment financing mechanism works to stimulate the manufacture of affordable pneumococcal vaccines for developing countries. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how …

Author: Schwalbe N, El-Ziq I

Publication date: 2010

Expanding Vaccine Solutions Against Influenza

This fact sheet highlights PATH's multifaceted approach to expanding vaccine solutions against pandemic and seasonal influenza that are optimal for the developing world. It describes our efforts to advance the development of promising new influenza …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

BioVentures for Global Health

BioVentures for Global Health (BVGH) is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to save lives by accelerating the development of novel biotechnology-based drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics to address the unmet medical needs of the developing world. …

Author: BioVentures for Global Health

Clinical Aspects of Pandemic 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, offers a comprehensive review of virologic, epidemiologic, and clinical data on influenza A(H1N1) virus infections during the 2009 pandemic and summarizes key issues for clinicians …

Author: Writing Committee of the WHO Consultation on Clinical Aspects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza

Publication date: 2010

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP): Summary Report, June 19-20, 2013

This meeting report includes the recommendations of the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the issue of intussusception and rotavirus vaccines. ACIP reviewed recent data on the issue and discussed trends in …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2013

Rotavirus Vaccine Safety

This web page provides a thorough review of rotavirus vaccine safety, with a particular focus on monitoring for the possibility of intussusception after vaccination. It includes links to numerous technical resources with rotavirus vaccine safety …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Center for Vaccine Ethics & Policy

The Center for Vaccine Ethics & Policy is a program of the New York University Medical School's Division of Medical Ethics, The Wistar Institute Vaccine Center, and the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia's Vaccine Education Center. Formed in …

Author: Center for Vaccine Ethics & Policy

Special Report: 7th International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases

This special report offers an overview of the proceedings at the 7th International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases held in Tel Aviv, Israel, from March 14 to 18, 2010. The meeting brought together pneumococcal experts from around …

Author: PATH, Sabin Vaccine Institute, Pneumococcal Awareness Council of Experts

Publication date: 2010

PATH's Japanese Encephalitis Project: Collaboration and Commitment to Protect Asia's Children

A final report on the focused efforts of PATH and its partners to provide technical support to JE-endemic countries to improve data for decision-making, advance the availability of an improved vaccine, introduce vaccine to immunization systems, and …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Exploitation of Physiology and Metabolomics to Identify Pneumococcal Vaccine Candidates

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, summarizes ways in which genome-wide techniques can help decipher factors associated with the fitness, metabolism, and virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae that could help lead to the …

Author: Schulz C, Hammerschmidt S

Publication date: 2013

Addition of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency as a Contraindication for Administration of Rotavirus Vaccine

In response to reported cases of vaccine-acquired rotavirus infection in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) following rotavirus vaccine administration, both Merck & Co. and GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals have revised …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2010

New Vaccine Post-Introduction Evaluation (PIE) Tool

This post-introduction evaluation (PIE) tool provides a systematic method for evaluating the impact of the introduction of a vaccine on the existing immunization system in a country. The PIE tool is designed for immunization managers in countries …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2010

Global Production of Seasonal and Pandemic (H1N1) Influenza Vaccines in 2009-2010 and Comparison with Previous Estimates and Global Action Plan Targets

This article, published in Vaccine, summarizes results from a World Health Organization (WHO) survey assessing global influenza vaccine production in the context of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic.  The authors compare results from …

Author: Partridge J, Kieny MP, World Health Organization H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Task Force

Publication date: 2010

Efficacy of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Against Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Infants in Developing Countries in Asia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

This article, published in The Lancet, assesses the clinical efficacy of the pentavalent, live oral rotavirus vaccine for the prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in Bangladesh and Vietnam. Study results demonstrated vaccine …

Author: Zaman K, Dang DA, Victor JC, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Efficacy of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Against Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Infants in Developing Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

This article, published in The Lancet, shares results of an efficacy study of the pentavalent, live oral rotavirus vaccine in Ghana, Kenya, and Mali. Results showed 39.3 percent efficacy against  severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. The authors …

Author: Armah GE, Sow SO, Breiman RF, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Rotavirus Infection in Africa: Epidemiology, Burden of Disease, and Strain Diversity

This supplemental issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases illustrates the continued expansion of knowledge on rotavirus circulation, strain diversity, and disease patterns in Africa. The supplement contains articles on regional perspectives from …

Author: Steele AD, Armah GE, Page NA, Cunliffe NA, eds.

Publication date: 2010

Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of the Human Papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine in Women Older Than 25 Years: 7-Year Follow-Up of the Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled VIVIANE Study

Although the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is greatest in young women, women older than 25 years of age remain at risk. This article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a 7-year follow-up study of the …

Author: Wheeler CM, Skinner SR, Del Rosario-Raymundo MR, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Effectiveness of HPV Vaccination in Women Reaching Screening Age in Italy

This study, published in the Journal of Clinical Virology, reports the results of a study that evaluated the effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for 25 year old women, immune responses post-vaccination, and the impact of …

Author: Carozzi FM, Ocello C, Burroni E, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Incidence of New-Onset Autoimmune Disease in Girls and Women With Pre-Existing Autoimmune Disease After Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Cohort Study

This article, published in the Journal of Internal Medicine, reports the results of a study to assess whether the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine is associated with increased incidence of autoimmune disease in girls and women with …

Author: Grönlund O, Herweijer E, Sundström K, Arnheim-Dahlström L

Publication date: 2016

Fighting for Breath: A Call to Action on Childhood Pneumonia

This report outlines the burden of pneumonia and identifies solutions to reduce pneumonia-related deaths including improvements in immunization coverage with vaccines that protect against the most common bacterial strains that cause the disease, …

Author: Save the Children

Publication date: 2017

The Burden of Group B Streptococcus Worldwide for Pregnant Women, Stillbirths, and Children

This supplement to Clinical Infectious Diseases contains a collection of 11 articles related to group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease burden and surveillance among pregnant women and children globally. The articles within this supplement discuss …

Author: Seale A, Lawn J, eds.

Publication date: 2017

Finding Efficiencies in Zambia’s Immunisation Supply Chain

This report discusses the current state of Zambia's immunization supply chain and outlines goals related to improving vaccine delivery—thereby increasing childhood immunization coverage and reducing costs. According to this report, opportunities …

Author: VillageReach

Publication date: 2017

WHO Preferred Product Characteristics for Group B Streptococcus Vaccines

This report provides guidance on vaccine development strategies and targets for group B Streptococcus vaccines. It includes key clinical research and development considerations as well as preferred product characteristics such as indication, target …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

Group B Streptococcus Vaccine Development Technology Roadmap

This report provides a strategic framework for group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccine development. It identifies priority activities in four key categories—research; vaccine development; key capacities; and policy, commercialization, and …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

Subnational Immunization Coverage Data

National immunization coverage data often conceals large inequalities in coverage and access within the country, which can be discovered through subnational monitoring. This data visualization tool enables users to review subnational immunization …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

Stop the Cycle of Diarrheal Disease: A State of the Field Report

This report discusses current progress in reducing deaths due to diarrhea and illustrates strategies to scale up the use of existing interventions, including safe water, improved sanitation and hygiene, breastfeeding and optimal complementary …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

Update: Information on Rotarix - Labeling Revision Pertaining to Intussusception

This web page provides an overview of the rotavirus vaccine Rotarix® and concerns regarding the potential side effect of intussusception. It includes a review of data regarding intussusception cases after vaccination, and shares updates on changes …

Author: US Food and Drug Administration

Publication date: 2012

Update on Intussusception Following Rotavirus Vaccine Administration

This web page provides an extract of a report on the World Health Organization's Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (GACVS) meeting held in December 2013 where the committee reviewed new data from Australia and the United States regarding …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Infections and Vaccines: Burden of Illness and Potential Impact of Vaccination

This article, published in Pediatric Drugs, reviews the current status of rotavirus disease burden and vaccination coverage and effectiveness in the developed and developing worlds. The authors conclude that a successful rotavirus vaccination …

Author: Grimwood K, Lambert SB, Milne RJ

Publication date: 2010

Burden of Paediatric Rotavirus Gastroenteritis (RVGE) and Potential Benefits of a Universal Rotavirus Vaccination Programme with a Pentavalent Vaccine in Spain

This study, published in BMC Public Health, assesses the health outcomes and the economic impact of a universal rotavirus vaccination program with RotaTeq, a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, against a no vaccination program in Spain. The study …

Author: Diez-Domingo J, Surinach NL, Alcalde NM, Betegon L, Largeron N, Trichard M

Publication date: 2010

WHO Prequalified Vaccines

This web page provides a database of vaccines prequalified by the World Health Organization which allows the user to search by manufacturer, vaccine, or country of manufacture. The database is tailored to support immunization program managers, …

Author: World Health Organization

Vaccine Position Papers

This web page provides links to all of the World Health Organization's position papers on specific vaccines. In addition to linking to these resources in English, it also provides links to translations of the papers into other languages, as well as …

Author: World Health Organization

Structure-Based Design of a Fusion Glycoprotein Vaccine for Respiratory Syncytial Virus

This article, published in Science, describes research to engineer a respiratory synctial virus (RSV) viral antigen that focuses on antigenic site ø, a metastable site specific to the prefusion state of the RSV fusion glycoprotein. ABSTRACT ONLY. …

Author: McLellan JS, Chen M, Joyce MG, et al.

Publication date: 2013

The History of Vaccines

This website aims to provide a living resource detailing the history, current state, and future direction of vaccination. The goal of the site is to increase public knowledge about vaccines by explaining how they work, the challenges associated with …

Author: The College of Physicians of Philadelphia

Typhoid in Africa and Vaccine Deployment

This article, published in The Lancet Global Health, summarizes the findings of the Typhoid Surveillance in Africa Programme (TSAP), current limitations with diagnostics and surveillance, and the need for new diagnostics and vaccines in the face of …

Author: Dougan G

Publication date: 2017

Efficacy of a Novel, Protein-Based Pneumococcal Vaccine Against Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Infants: A Phase 2, Randomized, Controlled, Observer-Blind Study

This article, published in Vaccine, assessed the efficacy of two formulations of a pneumococcal vaccine candidate against nasopharyngeal carriage (NPC) prevalence in infants in The Gambia. It examined the impact of the two vaccine formulations on …

Author: Odutola A, Ota MOC, Antonio M, et al.

Publication date: 2017

The Epidemiology of Meningococcal Disease and the Impact of Vaccines

Neisseria meningitidis causes meningococcal disease, a severe bacterial infection of the bloodstream or meninges, worldwide. The disease is most common among young children, but the existing polysaccharide vaccines have been sparsely used because …

Author: Khatami A, Pollard AJ

Publication date: 2010

The Implications of Vaccines for Prevention of Bacterial Meningitis

Although existing conjugate vaccines protect against some types of bacterial meningitis, new vaccines are needed to broaden protection against the disease. Published in Current Opinion in Neurology, this article posits new uses for existing vaccines …

Author: Riordan A

Publication date: 2010

Prevention of Meningococcal Disease: Current Use of Polysaccharide and Conjugate Vaccines

Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a serious public health threat, characterized by rapid symptom onset and high fatality rate, even after treatment. Efforts to prevent IMD remain challenging, because there is neither an immunogenic vaccine for …

Author: Poland GA

Publication date: 2010

Epidemiological Profile of Meningococcal Disease in the United States

Published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, this article discusses the current epidemiological profile of meningococcal disease and the vaccines that are currently available in the United States. The article also outlines what would be required for a …

Author: Harrison LH

Publication date: 2010

A Hypothetical Explanatory Model for Meningococcal Meningitis in the African Meningitis Belt

Currently, no explanation exists for the epidemic pattern of meningitis in the African meningitis belt, in spite of recent progress in disease surveillance. Such a model would be conducive to mathematically mapping vaccine strategies or predicting …

Author: Mueller JE, Gessner BD

Publication date: 2010

Changes in Neisseria meningitidis Disease Epidemiology in the United States, 1998-2007: Implications for Prevention of Meningococcal Disease

This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, describes the epidemiologic landscape of meningococcal disease in the United States from 1998 to 2007, including an analysis of the disease before and during the implementation of adolescent …

Author: Cohn AC, MacNeil JR, Harrison LH, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Pneumonia-Prone Age Groups in Semarang, Java Island, Indonesia

This article, published in PLOS One, presents results from a population-based survey conducted to investigate nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Semarang, Indonesia. The authors conclude that the limited coverage of commercially …

Author: Farida H, Severin JA, Gasem MH, et al.

Publication date: 2014

WHO Policy Development Processes for a New Vaccine: Case Study of Malaria Vaccines

This article, published in Malaria Journal, analyzed the World Health Organization policy development process to predict its course for a malaria vaccine. Data needs for a malaria vaccine include safety; the demonstration of efficacy in a range of …

Author: Milstien J, Cardenas V, Cheyne J, Brooks A

Publication date: 2010

World Malaria Report 2009

This report summarizes information received from 108 malaria endemic countries and other sources and updates the analysis presented in the 2008 Report. It highlights progress made in meeting the World Health Assembly targets for malaria to be …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2009

Community Perceptions of Malaria and Vaccines in the South Coast and Busia Regions of Kenya

Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years in Kenya. Within the context of planning for a vaccine to be used alongside existing malaria control methods, this study, published in Malaria …

Author: Ba-Nguz A, Bingham A, Collymore Y, et al.

Publication date: 2011

World Malaria Report 2010

This report summarizes information received from 106 malaria-endemic countries and other sources and updates the analyses presented in the 2009 Report. It highlights continued progress made towards meeting the World Health Assembly targets for …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2010

Ensuring That Developing Countries Have Access to New Healthcare Products: The Role of Product Development Partnerships

According to this article published in the eJournal Innovation Strategies Today, product development partnerships (PDPs) are generating an increasing flow of health products, including vaccines, for diseases prevalent in developing countries. …

Author: Brooks AD, Wells WA, McLean TD, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Advocacy for Japanese Encephalitis

This fact sheet summarizes PATH's efforts toward raising awareness about Japanese encephalitis vaccination among stakeholders at local, national, regional, and global levels. The fact sheet is an excerpt from a larger, comprehensive document that …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

PATH Pneumococcal Vaccine Project

This paper, published in Pediatric Health, provides an overview of the efforts that PATH is undertaking to advance the development of new vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae that can be low-cost and accessible for the developing world. …

Author: Alderson MA, Maisonneuve J, Newhouse LC, Boslego JW

Publication date: 2010

Scientific Barriers to Developing Vaccines Against Avian Influenza Viruses

This review, published in Nature Reviews Immunology, discusses gaps in the knowledge of how avian influenza viruses work in humans and the the status of influenza vaccine development as of 2007. It also provides a general overview of the features of …

Author: Subbarao K, Joseph T

Publication date: 2007

Influenza Vaccines for the Future

This review article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, provides an overview of currently available influenza vaccines and new technologies in influenza vaccine production. The authors further offer a perspective on the …

Author: Lambert LC, Fauci AS

Publication date: 2010

What Do the Next 100 Years Hold for Pneumococcal Vaccination?

This editorial article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, provides a brief historical overview of vaccination against pneumococcal disease and offers a perspective on the future of pneumococcal vaccines. The authors describe the …

Author: Rijkers GT, van Mens SP, van Velzen-Blad H

Publication date: 2010

Respiratory Virus Immunization: A Field Trial of Two Inactivated Respiratory Virus Vaccines; an Aqueous Trivalent Parainfluenza Virus Vaccine and an Alum-Precipitated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine

This article, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, describes a field trial conducted to evaluate an inactivated, alum-precipitated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine and an aqueous trivalent parainfluenza virus vaccine. Study …

Author: Fulginiti VA, Eller JJ, Sieber OF, Joyner JW, Minamitani M, Meiklejohn G

Publication date: 1969

Staying the Course? Malaria Research and Development in a Time of Economic Uncertainty

This technical report from the Roll Back Malaria Partnership and partners shines a spotlight on recent trends in investments in malaria research and development (R&D). The report follows up on a 2005 study by the Malaria R&D Alliance to …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2011

Field Evaluation of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine and a Trivalent Parainfluenza Virus Vaccine in a Pediatric Population

This article, published the American Journal of Epidemiology, describes a field study conducted in California, United States, that evaluated two formalin inactivated respiratory virus vaccines, a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine and a …

Author: Chin J, Magoffin RL, Shearer LA, Schieble JH, Lennette EH

Publication date: 1969

Prevention of Serious Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Related Illness. I: Disease Pathogenesis and Early Attempts at Prevention

This article, published in Advances in Therapy, provides an overview of the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the historical challenges facing RSV vaccine development, and current technologies being explored to prevent RSV disease. …

Author: Groothuis JR, Hoopes JM, Hemming VG

Publication date: 2011

Stabilization of Vaccines: Lessons Learned

This editorial, published in Human Vaccines, explores the key logistical, regulatory, procurement, and policy issues associated with the development and use of temperature-stabilized vaccines. The authors reflect on nearly 8 years of work to …

Author: Kristensen D, Chen D

Publication date: 2010

Vaccine Stabilization: Research, Commercialization, and Potential Impact

This article, published in Vaccine, discusses the challenges of different approaches to developing and producing thermostable vaccines. Topics include the technical feasibility of improving vaccine thermostability and thus vaccine effectiveness …

Author: Kristensen D, Chen D, Cummings R

Publication date: 2011

Vaccine Stabilization

This fact sheet describes PATH's work on vaccine stabilization, including the development of a method to protect vaccines containing an aluminum adjuvant from freeze damage, the identification of a technology to improve the heat stability of certain …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Generic Preferred Product Profile for Vaccines

This document provides guidance and recommendations to the vaccine industry and other vaccine development groups on preferred presentations and packaging for vaccines intended for public‐sector use in developing countries. This generic preferred …

Author: Vaccine Presentation and Packaging Advisory Group

Publication date: 2015

Heat-Stable Measles Vaccine Produced by Spray Drying

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on the development of a heat-stable measles vaccine powder using a combination of unique stabilizers and mild spray-drying process conditions. The researchers identified spray drying as the optimal …

Author: Ohtake S, Martin RA, Yee L, et al.

Publication date: 2010

WHO Best Practices for Injections and Related Procedures Toolkit

This toolkit covers elements of standard precautions relevant to the transmission of bloodborne pathogens through unsafe injection practices in health-care settings. It aims to help to increase health workers’ awareness of the importance of …

Author: World Health Organization, Safe Injection Global Network

Publication date: 2010

An Economic Evaluation of Thermostable Vaccines in Cambodia, Ghana, and Bangladesh

This article, published in Vaccine, evaluates the incremental health and programmatic cost impacts of theoretical new vaccine products as compared to the standard vaccine products in multi-dose vials in Cambodia, Ghana, and Bangladesh. The authors …

Author: Levin A, Levin C, Kristensen D, Matthias D

Publication date: 2007

Evidence of Vaccine Freezing in the Cold Chain: Literature Review

This document provides a literature review of articles about evidence of vaccine freezing in the cold chain. The document is part of a series that describes the serious risk of freezing vaccines and World Health Organization-recommended …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2003

Accelerating the Development of New Rotavirus Vaccines

This fact sheet provides a technical perspective of PATH's work on rotavirus vaccines for children in the developing world. It includes an overview of PATH's efforts to increase access to and effectiveness of existing rotavirus vaccines, as well as …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

A Vaccine Cold Chain Freezing Study in PNG Highlights Technology Needs for Hot Climate Countries

Emphasis has long been placed on keeping vaccines cold, with less attention devoted to prevention of vaccine damage from freezing. Published reports and field evidence now demonstrate that freezing of vaccines in the cold chain is commonplace, …

Author: Wirkas T, Toikilik S, Miller N, Morgan C, Clements CJ

Publication date: 2006

Exposure to Heat and Freezing in the Vaccine Cold Chain in Thailand

Good cold chain practice is essential to maintain full immunogenicity of vaccines. This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study that aimed to identify the likelihood and extent of exposure to inappropriate temperatures in the vaccine cold …

Author: Techathawat S, Varinsathien P, Rasdjarmrearnsook A, Tharmaphornpilas P

Publication date: 2006

Pragmatic Management of Programmatic Vaccination Errors—Lessons Learnt from Incidents in London

Correct storage, handling, and administration of vaccines are vital components of a successful immunization program. However, with the large number of different healthcare professionals now involved in delivering vaccine programs on a daily basis, …

Author: Craig L, Elliman D, Heathcock R, Turbitt D, Walsh B, Crowcroft N

Publication date: 2010

Too Hot, Too Cold: Issues with Vaccine Storage

This article, published in Pediatrics, describes the importance of following recommendations for vaccine storage and outlines specific steps immunization providers should take to prevent storage of vaccines outside of their required temperatures.

Author: Pickering LK, Wallace G, Rodewald L

Publication date: 2006

Effects of Freezing on Vaccine Potency: Literature Review

This document provides a literature review of articles about the effects of freezing on vaccine potency of hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccines. Also included is a review of stability data of these vaccines at …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2003

Protocol for Evaluating Freezing in the Vaccine Cold Chain

This protocol is designed to document the level of freezing in the cold chain and identify specific problem areas where corrective actions are warranted. It can be tailored to an individual program’s resources: a simple, low-cost study can be done …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2003

Malaria

This web page provides information on malaria as well as links to relevant malaria resources.

Author: World Health Organization

MMV at a Glance

This document provides an overview of Medicines for Malaria Venture's activities and achievements.

Author: Medicines for Malaria Venture

Publication date: 2016

Stability of Vaccines – Bridging From Stability Data to Continuous Safety and Efficacy Throughout Shelf Life – An Always Reliable Approach?

This article, published in Biologicals, discusses why stability studies are important tools to reliably ensure that the efficacy and safety of medicinal products remain unchanged from release of drug product until the end of shelf life. The author …

Author: Pfleiderer M

Publication date: 2009

Cost-Effectiveness of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination

This fact sheet summarizes methods and results of cost-effectiveness analyses performed by PATH and its partners to determine the economic implications of introducing JE vaccine programs. The fact sheet is an excerpt from a larger, comprehensive …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Japanese Encephalitis Disease Surveillance

This fact sheet summarizes efforts to develop and apply standardized surveillance methods to estimate the burden of JE disease in endemic regions. Reliable disease burden data will help policymakers as they consider JE vaccine introduction to …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Introduction

This fact sheet summarizes PATH’s collaboration with governments and local partners to help bring JE vaccines to endemic, developing countries, including Cambodia, India, Nepal, and North Korea. The fact sheet is an excerpt from a larger, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Characterization of the Freeze Sensitivity of a Hepatitis B Vaccine

This article, published in Human Vaccines, reports on a study that aimed to characterize the immediate qualitative changes of hepatitis B vaccine caused by freeze exposure. The vaccine was subjected to freezing temperatures ranging from 0°C to …

Author: Chen D, Tyagi A, Carpenter J, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Protecting Public Trust in Immunization

This article, published in Pediatrics, discusses the issue of public trust in the safety and efficacy of vaccines and how it is one key to the success of immunization programs within the United States and globally. Allegations of harm from …

Author: Cooper LZ, Larson HJ, Katz SL

Publication date: 2008

Addressing the Vaccine Confidence Gap

This article, published in The Lancet, discusses some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outlines some of the specific determinants of public trust. The …

Author: Larson HJ, Cooper LZ, Eskola J, Katz SL, Ratzan S

Publication date: 2011

Monitoring Visualization Tool for the Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD)

This data visualization tool enables users to monitor progress against GAPPD targets for 2025/2030/2040, as well as the progress made by 136 low- and middle-income countries in averting childhood diarrhea and pneumonia deaths. The data are also …

Author: World Health Organization

Public Health Response to Influenza A(H1N1) as an Opportunity to Build Public Trust

This commentary, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, reviews the public health response to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic and suggests how this situation provided an opportunity to build public trust in vaccines. …

Author: Larson HJ, Heymann DL

Publication date: 2010

Comparative Review of Three Cost-Effectiveness Models for Rotavirus Vaccines in National Immunization Programs: A Generic Approach Applied to Various Regions in the World

This article, published in BMC Medicine, critically reviews available cost-effectiveness models for rotavirus vaccination, comparing their designs using a standardized approach and studying the similarities and differences in cost-effectiveness …

Author: Postma MJ, Jit M, Rozenbaum MH, Standaert BA, Tu HA, Hutubessy RCW

Publication date: 2011

The Polio Endgame

In 1988 the World Health Assembly initiated a global effort to eradicate poliovirus. Although there is still much distance to cover to eradicate the remaining wild polioviruses, recent progress has generated new confidence in the eradication effort. …

Author: Aylward B, Yamada T

Publication date: 2011

Fractional Doses of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine in Oman

This article, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, reports on a clinical trial comparing fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine administered intradermally with full doses of vaccine given intramuscularly, with respect to …

Author: Mohammed AJ, AlAwaidy S, Bawikar S, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Rotavirus Vaccine and Intussusception: Report from an Expert Consultation

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, reports on the key issues discussed at a March 2011 meeting of technical experts and public health officials to review emerging data on intussusception related to current rotavirus …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2011

Landscape Analysis Synopsis: An Initial Investigation of the Drivers of Routine Immunization System Performance in Africa

The Africa Routine Immunization System Essentials (ARISE) project documents successful interventions that drive strong routine immunization system performance in Africa and analyzes their potential for diffusion throughout the region. ARISE …

Author: John Snow, Inc.

Publication date: 2011

Vaccine Production, Distribution, Access, and Uptake

For human vaccines to be available on a global scale, complex production methods, meticulous quality control, and reliable distribution channels are needed to ensure that the products are potent and effective at the point of use. In this article, …

Author: Smith J, Lipsitch M, Almond JW

Publication date: 2011

New Decade of Vaccines

In December 2010, global health leaders committed to making the next 10 years the Decade of Vaccines - to ensure discovery, development, and delivery of lifesaving vaccines globally, especially to the poorest countries. This special series of …

Author: Horton R, ed.

Publication date: 2011

Will the Decade of Vaccines Mean Business as Usual?

The authors of this article, published in The Lancet, argue that anticipated advances in vaccinology during this new Decade of Vaccines (named by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in January 2010) will only translate into reductions in …

Author: Rees H, Madhi SA

Publication date: 2011

The Vaccine Paradox

This article, which serves as an introduction to The Lancet's series New Decade of Vaccines, discusses the opportunity that the vaccine community has to rewrite the terms of engagement between vaccines and communities threatened with …

Author: Horton R, Das P

Publication date: 2011

A Call to Action for the New Decade of Vaccines

This article, published in The Lancet, argues that there is a moral imperative to make vaccines widely available on an equitable basis. The authors lay out a call to action for the new decade of vaccines, which embraces four key elements. First, …

Author: Moxon ER, Das P, Greenwood B, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Is Immunisation Child Protection?

This article, published in The Lancet, argues that the failure of parental acceptance of safe and effective vaccination could be the biggest hurdle to realization of successful development and implementation of vaccines in the coming decades. The …

Author: Finn A, Savulescu J

Publication date: 2011

The Next Decade of Vaccines: Societal and Scientific Challenges

This article, published in The Lancet, aims to provide a deeper understanding of the societal factors that threaten to compromise realization of the public health gains that immunization can achieve in the next decade and beyond. Also discussed are …

Author: Moxon ER, Siegrist CA

Publication date: 2011

Public-Private Collaboration in Vaccine Research

Published in The Lancet, this article argues that vaccine companies need partnerships with the public sector to develop new vaccines that benefit public health. Also discussed are suggested criteria for vaccine research projects when public health …

Author: Eskola J, Kilpi T

Publication date: 2011

Vaccine Discovery and Translation of New Vaccine Technology

An unprecedented increase in new vaccine development has occurred over the past three decades. This article, published in The Lancet, discusses new methods of discovery, such as reverse vaccinology, structural biology, and systems biology, which …

Author: Rappuoli R, Black S, Lambert PH

Publication date: 2011

Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality

Though generally very rare or minor, there are side effects, or “adverse effects,” associated with some vaccines. This report provides an analysis of more than 1,000 research articles that were reviewed to assess the risk of specific adverse …

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publication date: 2011

Infant Rotavirus Vaccination May Provide Indirect Protection to Older Children and Adults in the United States

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports on a study which found that vaccinating infants in the United States against rotavirus appears to prevent severe disease in older children and adults. The authors examined data …

Author: Lopman BA, Curns AT, Yen C, Parashar UD

Publication date: 2011

Response to the 2009 Pandemic: Effect on Influenza Control in Wealthy and Poor Countries

The authors of this article, published in Vaccine, address the hard choices that must be made early in a pandemic and explore the context in which these decisions were made during the 2009 influenza pandemic. They argue that the only way to assure …

Author: Monto AS, Black S, Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA

Publication date: 2011

Safety and Immunogenicity of ASO3(B) Adjuvanted Split Virion Versus Non-adjuvanted Whole Virion H1N1 Influenza Vaccine in UK Children Aged 6 Months-12 Years: Open Label, Randomised, Parallel Group, Multicentre Study

This article, published through Online First of the British Medical Journal, details a study wherein researchers evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an AS03(B)/oil-in-water emulsion-adjuvanted (AS03(B)) split-virion versus …

Author: Waddington CS, Walker WT, Oeser C, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Induction of Unnatural Immunity: Prospects for a Broadly Protective Universal Influenza Vaccine

This article, published in Nature Medicine, is a commentary on new vaccine approaches that have the potential to provide pathways for the development of universal influenza vaccines that could protect across all influenza strains. ABSTRACT ONLY. …

Author: Nabel GJ, Fauci AS

Publication date: 2010

Protecting Newborns From Hepatitis B in Vietnam: Expanding Coverage of the Hepatitis B Vaccine Birth Dose

This fact sheet describes PATH's project to increase the coverage and timeliness of hepatitis B birth dose vaccination in Vietnam.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Building Next-Generation Vaccine Supply Systems: Supply Chain Modeling and Optimization

This fact sheet describes how Project Optimize—a collaboration between the World Health Organization and PATH—and their partners are working with countries to model the impact of changes to vaccine logistics and supply systems on vaccine …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Hope for Less Than 50 Cents a Dose: A Revolutionary Model for Developing Low-Cost Vaccines

This fact sheet describes the model employed by the Meningitis Vaccine Project to develop a safe, affordable, and long-lasting vaccine to combat Group A meningococcal epidemics in Africa, as well as the contributions of the key partners who made the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2011

Collaborating With Countries to Improve Supply Chains

Optimize—a collaboration between the World Health Organization and PATH—aims to employ technological and scientific advances by defining ideal specifications for health products and creating a flexible and robust vaccine supply chain that can …

Author: PATH; World Health Organization

Publication date: 2010

Tunisia: Demonstrating Innovative Health Supply Chain Solutions

This document describes how project Optimize and the Tunisian Ministry of Public Health are collaborating to explore new logistics and supply chain solutions that can optimize the vaccine supply chain.

Author: PATH; World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Innovating to Improve Health: PATH Develops and Delivers Novel Solutions for Those Who Need Them Most

This fact sheet provides an overview of PATH's work to develop and deliver innovative health solutions for those who need them most. These solutions range from developing and introducing affordable, appropriate technologies to creating conditions …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Senegal: Integrating and Streamlining Health Supply Chains

This document describes how project Optimize is collaborating with the Senegalese Ministry of Health to demonstrate innovations in the supply chain that can help to increase efficiency and improve performance, preparing the country for the …

Author: PATH; World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

An Integrated Approach to Health Information Systems in Guatemala

This document describes an effort by the World Health Organization, PATH, the Pan American Health Organization, and the Guatemala Ministry of Public Health and Social Services to address challenges related to vaccine introduction. The goal is …

Author: PATH; World Health Organization

Publication date: 2010

Albania: Demonstrating the Benefits of an Online Immunization Registry

This document describes how project Optimize is collaborating with the Albanian Institute of Public Health to transform the way immunization data and vaccine stock are managed. The two-year collaboration aims to evaluate the benefits of a supply …

Author: PATH; World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Epidemiology of Meningococcal Disease in Latin America: Current Situation and Opportunities for Prevention

This article, published in Neurological Research, discusses the changes in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Latin America and comments on the development and potential impact of new vaccines for the prevention of the disease. The authors …

Author: Sáfadi MA, Cintra OA

Publication date: 2010

Incentives and Innovative Financing for Global Health Product Development

This fact sheet explores different incentives and innovative financing mechanisms and their role in the development of global health products, including vaccines. In addition to providing an overview of the different options available, it also …

Author: Global Health Technologies Coalition

Publication date: 2010

The Cornerstone of Public Health

This fact sheet makes the case for why vaccines are a critical, cost-effective investment for improving global health and saving children's lives.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Prospective Cohort Study of Disabling Sequelae and Quality of Life in Children With Bacterial Meningitis in Urban Senegal

This article, published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, describes a study to investigate disabling sequelae among a cohort of children diagnosed with bacterial meningitis in urban Dakar, Senegal. Data from the study suggest that …

Author: Edmond K, Dieye Y, Griffiths UK, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Global and Regional Risk of Disabling Sequelae From Bacterial Meningitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, provides an overview of a systematic review and meta-analysis of published papers from 1998 to 2008 to estimate the risks of major and minor sequelae caused by bacterial meningitis,  …

Author: Edmond K, Clark A, Korczak VS, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Increased Incidence of Meningococcal Disease in HIV-Infected Individuals Associated With Higher Case-Fatality Ratios in South Africa

This article, published in AIDS, describes a cohort surveillance study conducted in South Africa to compare the incidence of meningococcal disease among HIV-infected individuals versus uninfected individuals. The authors also evaluated the extent to …

Author: Cohen C, Singh E, Wu HM, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Clones of Neisseria meningitidis Strains in Mali

This article, published in Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses, provides an overview of a cross-sectional, descriptive study to identify strains of Neisseria meningitidis isolated from 2005 to 2007 in Mali. Neisseria meningitidis appeared in 144 of …

Author: Guindo I, Coulibaly A, Dao S, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Meningitis in Chad, Niger and Nigeria: 2009 Epidemic Season

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, details the 2009 meningitis epidemic season in Chad, Niger, and Nigeria. It includes an overview of meningococcal disease, surveillance results for the season, and outbreak response …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2010

Real World Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination

This special supplement of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal presents a collection of studies on the impact of rotavirus vaccines. The data demonstrate dramatic and rapid reductions in childhood hospitalizations in several countries after …

Author: Patel MM, Parashar UD, eds.

Publication date: 2011

Updated Estimation of the Impact of a Japanese Encephalitis Immunization Program With Live, Attenuated SA 14-14-2 Vaccine in Nepal

This article, published in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, describes the impact of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) immunization program in Nepal using SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine from 2006 to 2011. A previous assessment after the initial program …

Author: Upreti SR, Lindsey NP, Bohara R, et al.

Publication date: 2017

The Promise of Conjugate Vaccines for Africa

This article, published in Vaccine, emphasizes the importance of capsular polysaccharide vaccines for preventing disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae in Africa, reiterating that these vaccines have been proven safe …

Author: Kieny MP, LaForce FM

Publication date: 2007

Use of Vaccines Outside of the Cold Chain: A Literature Review

This review compiles the literature available on the use of vaccines outside of the cold chain. Most of the studies analyzed in this review focus on hepatitis B, except one that examines meningococcal Group C vaccine. Most showed that there are no …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

A Review of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vaccine Management Business Improvement Project

This report details the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Vaccine Management Business Improvement Project, which was an end-to-end reengineering of the US public-sector vaccine supply chain—from vaccine budgeting through …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2010

Reconstitution Technologies

This fact sheet provides an overview of single-dose, prefilled reconstitution devices (SPRDs), which can make reconstitution of critical vaccines safer and more economical. SPRDs can help eliminate adverse events or wastage that can occur with …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Sociocultural Issues in the Introduction of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Low-Resource Settings

This article, published in Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, reports results of a study that aimed to better understand vaccine decision-making in low-resource settings in order to identify strategies for successful human …

Author: Bingham A, Drake JK, LaMontagne DS

Publication date: 2009

TH17-Based Vaccine Design for Prevention of Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization

This article, published in Cell Host & Microbe, gives an overview of preclinical research showing specific T cell antigens to be strong candidates for a protein subunit vaccine designed to prevent colonization of Streptococcus …

Author: Moffitt KL, Gierahn TM, Lu Y, et al.

Publication date: 2011

The Case for Investment in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Vaccines

This market assessment aims to increase the awareness of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies worldwide about the opportunities and potential markets that exist for low-cost and effective vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli …

Author: PATH; BIO Ventures for Global Health

Publication date: 2011

Pandemic Influenza in Africa, Lessons Learned From 1968: A Systematic Review of the Literature

This article, published in Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, reviews published data on pandemic influenza virus infection in Africa from January 1950 through August 2008, a time period covering the influenza A(H2N2) pandemic of 1957 and the …

Author: Ortiz JR, Lafond KE, Wong, TA, Uyeki TM

Publication date: 2011

World Malaria Report 2013

This report, launched in December 2013, summarizes information from malaria-endemic countries and additional sources to provide the latest update on malaria around the world. It highlights progress made and challenges ahead for global malaria …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Using a Needle Remover

Safely managing infectious sharps waste is one of the critical challenges facing health systems in low-resource settings and is an important component of an injection safety strategy. This training material provides instructions for safe use of a …

Author: Berman A

Publication date: 2006

Vaccines.gov

This website is a gateway to information from the United States government on vaccines and immunization for infants, children, teenagers, adults, and seniors. It provides resources from US federal agencies for the general public and their …

Author: US Department of Health and Human Services

Immunization Logistics and Supply Systems: From Vision to Action

This report summarizes workshops held in July 2010 by Project Optimize (a collaboration between PATH and the World Health Organization) in Washington, DC, and Seattle to engage stakeholders from a wide variety of organizations related to …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2010

Pull Mechanisms for Value-Added Technologies for Vaccines

Project Optimize, a collaboration between PATH and the World Health Organization, commissioned this white paper to examine the issues influencing vaccine producer willingness to advance, adopt, and commercialize value-added technologies for …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2009

Mucosal Immunization Technologies

PATH developed a mucosal immunization technology platform--viable in two formats--that builds on several proven formulation, adjuvant, and delivery technologies that enable the efficient sublingual administration of subunit vaccines. Part of PATH's …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Op.ti.mize

The Op.ti.mize e-newsletter is a quarterly publication that highlights advances and innovations in health care logistics, technologies, and policy. Developed by Project Optimize, a collaboration between the World Health Organization and PATH, this …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Laboratory-Based Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Pneumonia: State of the Art and Unmet Needs

This article, published in Clinical Microbiology and Infection, summarizes a meeting organized by PATH and Fondation Mérieux from October 18 to 20, 2009 in Les Pensiéres, France, during which participants evaluated current pneumococcal diagnostics …

Author: Vernet G, Saha S, Satzke C, et al.

Publication date: 2011

New Conjugate Vaccines for the Prevention of Pneumococcal Disease in Developing Countries

This article, which appeared in Drugs of Today, provides an overview of currently available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and outlines several new approaches in the pipeline for PCVs designed to meet needs in the developing world. ABSTRACT …

Author: Ginsburg AS, Alderson MR

Publication date: 2011

Development of Strategies to Overcome Barriers to Effective Mucosal Immunization of Infants in Developing Countries

This issue of the Old Herborn University Seminar Monograph provides a summary of the discussions at an expert workshop hosted by the Old Herborn University Foundation in June 2010. The discussions were held to examine the mechanisms that may …

Author: Heidt PJ, Walker RI, Rusch V, eds.

Publication date: 2011

Outpatient Upper Respiratory Tract Viral Infections in Children With Malaria Symptoms in Western Kenya

This article, which appeared in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, describes a cross-sectional study conducted in Kenya’s Nyanza Province to investigate the burden of viral respiratory disease, including influenza, in …

Author: Waitumbi JN, Kuypers J, Anyona SB, et al.

Publication date: 2010

2009 H1N1 Influenza and Pregnancy — 5 Years Later

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, provides the authors' perspective on lessons learned from the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic that can be applied to better protect pregnant women against the virus, which continued to …

Author: Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ

Publication date: 2014

Projecting the Effectiveness of RotaTeq® Against Rotavirus-Related Hospitalizations and Deaths in Six Asian Countries

This article, published in Human Vaccines, describes the projected effectiveness of RotaTeq®, which is an oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5), against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE)-related hospitalizations and deaths in six Asian …

Author: El Khoury AC, Mast TC, Ciarlet M, Markson LE, Goveia MG

Publication date: 2011

The Value of Investing in Vaccines

This infographic illustrates the economic benefits of immunization. It is specifically focused on how delivering three childhood vaccines—Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal, and rotavirus—in the world's 73 poorest countries could result …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Publication date: 2012

RotaFlash News Alert

These alerts are distributed periodically via email to provide information on breaking news related to rotavirus disease and vaccines and to provide the latest news on progress made by PATH and its partners toward increasing global access to …

Author: PATH

Japanese Encephalitis—Questions and Answers

This web page provides answers to some of the most common questions about Japanese encephalitis.

Author: PATH

Strategies for the "Decade of Vaccines"

This issue of Health Affairs covers a variety of strategies for the "Decade of Vaccines." The articles included in the issue cover topics such as the business and economic benefits of vaccines, the moral case for vaccination, the importance of equal …

Author: Dentzer S, ed.

Publication date: 2011

Global, Regional, and National Causes of Child Mortality in 2008: A Systematic Analysis

This article, published in The Lancet, reports new estimates for 2008 of the major causes of death in children younger than five years. The authors estimated proportional causes of death for 193 countries, and by application of these proportions to …

Author: Black RE, Cousens S, Johnson HL, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Ask the Experts: Update on the Safety of Rotavirus Vaccines

This article, published by the American Pharmacists Association, addresses the safety of rotavirus vaccines, including the latest information on possible contamination issues. The authors indicate that the documented benefits of RotaTeq and …

Author: Mojica B, Hess K

Publication date: 2011

Developing a Vision for Immunization Supply Systems in 2020: Landscape Analysis Summaries

Facilitated by project Optimize and conducted by a multidisciplinary group of partners, these landscape analyses highlight ongoing work related to five priority areas that comprise the vision for immunization supply systems in 2020. The analyses …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2011

Intussusception Risk and Health Benefits of Rotavirus Vaccination in Mexico and Brazil

This article, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, assesses the association of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) with intussusception after routine immunization of infants in Mexico and Brazil. The authors found that RV1 was …

Author: Patel MM, López-Collada VR, Bulhões MM, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Meningitis

This web page provides general information about meningitis, as well as links to a variety of general and technical resources on the disease and related vaccines.

Author: World Health Organization

Immunogenicity and Safety of a Meningococcal A Conjugate Vaccine in Africans

This article, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, discusses the methods and results of two studies conducted in Africa to evaluate a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine. The conclusion of the studies is that the new vaccine has a …

Author: Sow SO, Okoko BJ, Diallo A, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Innovation in Enteric Vaccine Development: Addressing Bacterial Causes of Diarrhea

This fact sheet describes PATH's enteric vaccine project from a technical perspective. It includes an overview of PATH's vaccine development portfolio, research activities, and partners to support the development of effective and affordable vaccines …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Designing Vaccines for Developing-Country Populations: Ideal Attributes, Delivery Devices, and Presentation Formats

This article, published in Procedia in Vaccinology, discusses the importance of designing vaccines with traits that will minimize complications for immunization programs and increase the likelihood of successful adoption. The article also summarizes …

Author: Kristensen D, Zaffran M

Publication date: 2010

Experiences, Challenges, and Lessons Learned From an Immunization Demand Generation Project in Afar, Ethiopia

This report describes a pilot project that PATH conducted in the Afar Region of Ethiopia that aimed to increase vaccination coverage through social mobilization committees and communication activities. It examines the challenges to achieving …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV)

This web page provides a wide spectrum of information about respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in the United States. It offers a general overview of the disease as well as clinical, research, and surveillance information. Specific topics include, …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Global Burden of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections Due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Young Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This article, published in The Lancet, describes research to estimate the global incidence of and mortality from episodes of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children younger than five years of …

Author: Nair H, Nokes DJ, Gessner BD, et al.

Publication date: 2010

Biological Challenges and Technological Opportunities for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Development

This article, published in Immunological Reviews, provides an overview of the barriers that have challenged and delayed the development of vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and identifies opportunities that could help overcome these …

Author: Graham B

Publication date: 2011

Prevention of Serious Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Related Illness. II: Immunoprophylaxis

This article, published in Advances in Therapy, reviews the development and use of palivizumab, the only drug approved for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease. Palivizumab is a monoclonal antibody that …

Author: Groothuis JR, Hoopes JM, Hemming VG

Publication date: 2011

An Epidemiologic Study of Altered Clinical Reactivity to Respiratory Syncytial (RS) Virus Infection in Children Previously Vaccinated With an Inactivated RS Virus Vaccine

This article, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, describes a study that evaluated altered clinical reactivity to a formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidate administered to healthy infants and children …

Author: Kapikian AZ, Mitchell RH, Chanock RM, Shvedoff RA, Stewart CE

Publication date: 1969

Reasons Related to Non-Vaccination and Under-Vaccination of Children in Low and Middle Income Countries: Findings from a Systematic Review of the Published Literature, 1999–2009

Despite increases in routine vaccination coverage during the past three decades, the percent of children completing the recommended vaccination schedule remains below expected targets in many low- and middle-income countries. This literature review …

Author: Rainey JJ, Watkins M, Ryman TK, Sandhu P, Bo A, Banerjee K

Publication date: 2011

Vaccines: Harnessing Opportunity in the 21st Century

This report highlights key discussions from the 2011 Pacific Health Summit, held in Seattle, Washington, on June 21 to 23, 2011. The event brought together global leaders from science, industry, and policy to discuss how to realize the dream of a …

Author: The National Bureau of Asian Research

Publication date: 2011

Efficacy and Safety of the RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine During 18 Months After Vaccination: A Phase 3 Randomized, Controlled Trial in Children and Young Infants at 11 African Sites

This article, published in PLoS Medicine, reports on follow-up data from a Phase 3 trial conducted to test the effectiveness of the malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S/AS01 in children and young infants. RTS,S/AS01 prevented many cases of clinical and …

Author: RTS,S Clinical Trials Partnership

Publication date: 2014

Cost-Effectiveness of a New Rotavirus Vaccination Program in Pakistan: A Decision Tree Model

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on the expected public health impact of a national rotavirus vaccination program in Pakistan by performing a cost-effectiveness study from the perspective of the health care system. Across a range of …

Author: Patel HD, Roberts ET, Constenla DO

Publication date: 2013

Cold Chain Equipment Inventories

This fact sheet describes PATH’s work to develop and deploy a software tool called Cold Chain Equipment Manager to help vaccination programs manage equipment requirements, forecast equipment needs, and generate procurement lists. It includes a …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

G-FINDER

This website is a public search tool that provides open access to G-FINDER survey data. The G-FINDER survey tracks annual global investments into neglected disease product research and development, including vaccines. The tool allows easy creation …

Author: Policy Cures

Building Next Generation Immunization Supply Chains

This supplement to Vaccine contains 31 articles addressing the role of immunization supply chains (iSC) in expanding vaccine coverage, as well as current challenges, successful pilots, and innovative upstream solutions towards next-generation iSC. …

Author: Lee BY, Schreiber B, Rao R, eds.

Publication date: 2017

Oral Delivery Technologies

Vaccines against some pathogens can be more efficacious when delivered by the oral route, particularly if these are the routes of infection. This fact sheet describes PATH's approach to technologies for the oral delivery of vaccines and their …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Intranasal Delivery Devices

Intranasal delivery devices deliver vaccines or medications directly to the nasal cavity or lungs, where they can be absorbed directly by the appropriate tissues. This fact sheet describes PATH's work on intranasal delivery devices to administer …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2011

First Results of Phase 3 Trial of RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine in African Children

A malaria vaccine, deployed in combination with current malaria-control tools, could play an important role in future control and eventual elimination of malaria in Africa. This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, reports the …

Author: The RTS,S Clinical Trials Partnership

Publication date: 2011

Outsourcing the Vaccine Supply Chain and Logistics System to the Private Sector: The Western Cape Experience in South Africa

More and more countries are engaging the private sector in vaccine supply chain and logistic functions. As a part of this review, a case study was conducted in the Western Cape of South Africa whereby the Biovac Institute (a third-party, …

Author: World Health Organization, PATH

Publication date: 2011

An Assessment of Vaccine Supply Chain and Logistics Systems in Thailand

Improper storage and transportation can put vaccine products at risk of degradation. Therefore, an effective vaccine supply chain and logistics system is essential to ensure product quality. In 2009, the government of Thailand launched a pilot …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization, Health Systems Research Institute, Mahidol University

Publication date: 2011

A Combination Vaccine Consisting of Three Live Attenuated Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Expressing a Range of Colonization Factors and LTB is Well Tolerated and Immunogenic in a Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Phase 1 Trial in Healthy Adults

This article, published in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, describes the results of a Phase 1 trial of a trivalent, live attenuated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine candidate, ACE527. The study indicated that ACE527 had a strong safety …

Author: Harro C, Sack D, Bourgeois AL, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Characterization and Standardization of Sabin Based Inactivated Polio Vaccine: Proposal for a New Antigen Unit for Inactivated Polio Vaccines

To prepare for the post-eradication period of polio and meet expected demand for inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), the production capacity of wild-type IPV needs to increase. However, the strains used for this process require stringent containment …

Author: Westdijk J, Brugmans D, Martin J, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Establishment of a New Human Pneumococcal Standard Reference Serum 007sp

This article, published in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, reports on a study that resulted in the development of a new pneumococcal reference serum to replace the dwindling stocks of Lot 89SF, the reference standard serum pool used since 1990. The …

Author: Goldblatt D, Plikaytis BD, Akkoyunlu M, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Formulation of a Killed Whole Cell Pneumococcus Vaccine—Effect of Aluminum Adjuvants on the Antibody and IL-17 Response

This article, published in the Journal of Immune Based Therapies and Vaccines, describes preclinical research which demonstrates that a vaccine composed of killed whole cell, nonencapsulated pneumococci and formulated with aluminum hydroxide induces …

Author: HogenEsch H, Dunham A, Hansen B, Anderson K, Maisonneuve JF, Hem SL

Publication date: 2011

Refinement of a Human Challenge Model for Evaluation of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Vaccines

This article, published in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, reports on a study which found that a lower dose than used previously of the human challenge model for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea using strain H10407 is sufficient for …

Author: Harro C, Chakraborty S, Feller A, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Polio Vaccination

This web page provides information and resources for health professionals and the public about polio, vaccines against the disease, and eradication initiatives.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Assessing the Potency of Oral Polio Vaccine Kept Outside of the Cold Chain During a National Immunization Campaign in Chad

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study of the potency of monovalent oral polio vaccine type 3 kept at ambient temperatures during a polio immunization campaign in Chad. The results of the study show that post-campaign laboratory …

Author: Zipursky S, Boualam L, Cheikh DO, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Polio

This web page provides information about the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's efforts in the eradication of polio, as well as links to more resources on the disease and vaccination.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Health Topics: Poliomyelitis

This web page provides information about poliomyelitis including general and technical information, data on the disease, and information about the World Health Organization's work to eradicate it.

Author: World Health Organization

Poliomyelitis

This web page provides an overview of poliomyelitis and vaccines against it. This page also provides links to World Health Organization (WHO) position papers on the disease and other related WHO resources.

Author: World Health Organization

Poliomyelitis

This fact sheet about poliomyelitis provides information about the disease and an overview of the work of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to eradicate it.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is a public-private partnership led by national governments and spearheaded by the World Health Organization, Rotary International, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the United Nations …

Author: Global Polio Eradication Initiative

A HealthTech Historical Profile: Vaccine Vial Monitors

A major problem in immunization programs throughout the world has been the challenge of monitoring and managing the temperature of vaccines as they travel through the distribution chain to the destinations where they are used. This report provides …

Author: PATH, US Agency for International Development

Publication date: 2005

Global Post-Eradication IPV Supply and Demand Assessment: Integrated Findings

This report summarizes the findings from a global post-eradication inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) supply and demand assessment conducted from 2007 to 2008. The goal of the study was to inform ongoing IPV discussions and potential policy development …

Author: Oliver Wyman, Inc.

Publication date: 2009

A Case Study Using the United Republic of Tanzania: Costing Nationwide HPV Vaccine Delivery Using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

This article, published in BMC Medicine, reports on a study to determine the cost of establishing a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction in Tanzania. It …

Author: Hutubessy R, Levin A, Wang S, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Communication for Polio Eradication and Routine Immunization: Checklists and Easy Reference Guides

This document provides a collection of checklists that serve as a quick-reference communications and social mobilization guide on aspects of routine immunization and disease surveillance, in addition to supplementary immunization for polio …

Author: World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, US Agency for International Development

Publication date: 2002

Challenges Faced by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative

After the World Health Assembly resolved in 1988 to eradicate wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission globally by 2000, dramatic progress in reducing polio cases and increasing the number of countries that interrupted indigenous WPV transmission was …

Author: Wassilak S, Orenstein W

Publication date: 2010

Meningococcal Vaccines: WHO Position Paper, November 2011

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes the World Health Organization's recommendations on meningococcal vaccines. It incorporates the most recent developments in the field of meningococcal vaccines, including …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2011

Global Burden of Respiratory Infections Due to Seasonal Influenza in Young Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This article, published in The Lancet, details a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global incidence of and mortality from lower respiratory infections associated with influenza in children younger than five years of age. Based on …

Author: Nair H, Brooks WA, Katz M, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Provision in 157 Countries (2004-2009) and the Potential Influence of National Public Health Policies

This article, published in Vaccine, details the results of a survey of global influenza vaccine supply covering 157 countries from 2004 to 2009. The authors find that global annual vaccine provision increased 72 percent to 449 million doses during …

Author: Palache A

Publication date: 2011

Understanding How Vaccines Work

Diseases that vaccines prevent can be dangerous, or even deadly. Vaccines greatly reduce the risk of infection by working with the body’s natural defenses to safely develop immunity to disease. This fact sheet explains how the body fights …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2013

World Malaria Report 2011

This report summarizes information received from 106 malaria-endemic countries and a range of other sources. It analyzes prevention and control measures according to a comprehensive set of indicators, and highlights continued progress towards global …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2011

The Childhood Immunization Schedule

This fact sheet explains how the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention develops their recommended childhood immunization schedule and provides answers to several frequently asked questions about the schedule. This document is intended for …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2013

Diseases and the Vaccines That Prevent Them: For Parents of Infants and Young Children (Birth Through Age 6)

This series of fact sheets describes symptoms of infection as well as the benefits and risk of vaccination for 14 diseases, specifically for vaccines recommended for children from birth through the age of six years. There are two versions of each …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Understanding Thimerosal, Mercury, and Vaccine Safety

This fact sheet explains what thimerosal is and why it is used as a preservative in some multi-dose vials of influenza vaccine, and highlights conclusions from studies examining thimerosal safety in vaccines.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2012

Making New Vaccines Affordable: A Comparison of Financing Processes Used to Develop and Deploy New Meningococcal and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

Two innovative mechanisms have been used to accelerate the development of low-price supply lines for conjugate vaccines. The Meningitis Vaccine Project is a so-called push mechanism that facilitated technology transfer to an Indian company to …

Author: Hargreaves JR, Greenwood B, Clift C, et al.

Publication date: 2011

The Future of Global Immunization: Will the Promise of Vaccines be Fulfilled?

Childhood immunization is one of the most successful and cost-effective of all health interventions, especially for reducing infant and child morbidity and mortality globally. Still, nearly two million children die of vaccine-preventable deaths each …

Author: Cochi SL

Publication date: 2011

Addition of History of Intussusception as a Contraindication for Rotavirus Vaccination

This article, published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, reports on the revision that the US Food and Drug Administration has approved for the prescribing information and patient labeling for rotavirus vaccines manufactured by …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2011

Pneumococcal Disease Manifestation in Children Before and After Vaccination: What's New?

This article, published in Vaccine, asserts that contrary to the common belief held by many pediatricians, the most important pneumococcal infections are of the respiratory tract and not invasive diseases. The authors explain that development of …

Author: Andrade AL, Toscano CM, Minamisava R, Costa PS, Andrade JG

Publication date: 2011

Inferior Quantitative and Qualitative Immune Responses to Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Infants With Nasopharyngeal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae During the Primary Series of Immunization

This study, published in Vaccine, corroborates previous hypotheses that infant nasopharyngeal colonization at any stage before completing the primary series of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was associated with inferior quantitative and …

Author: Madhi SA, Violari A, Klugman KP, et al.

Publication date: 2011

VIEW-hub – Vaccine Information and Epidemiology Window

This web page provides a link to the most recent VIEW-hub Report, as well as an archive of earlier reports. This quarterly report provides data and figures on the introduction status of Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal conjugate, …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Delivering the Money: The Importance of Efficient Financial Flows for Vaccine Distribution

This policy paper explores the impact of adequate and reliable flows of funding all the way to the point of care as a critical component of effective immunization supply chains. It illuminates the root causes of funding flow challenges and …

Author: VillageReach, William Davidson Institute

Publication date: 2016

Role(s) of Vaccines and Immunization Programs in Global Disease Control: Mind the Nitty-Gritty Details

This report, published by the Center for Strategic and International Studies Global Health Policy Center, focuses on the details of the complex biological, epidemiologic, and risk-management concepts that are the foundations of global and …

Author: Nieburg P, McLaren NM

Publication date: 2011

Stop Pneumonia

This website is focused on pneumonia, the world’s leading infectious killer of children under the age of five. It includes information and resources on how to protect, prevent, and treat pneumonia, including available vaccines. It also provides …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Assessment of a Remote Alarm System for Vaccine Storage in Albania

This report summarizes a study conducted between March and December 2010 to assess the marginal managerial advantages of using a global system for mobile communications/short message service messaging to transmit vaccine storage temperature data in …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2011

Assessment of the Vaccine Supply Chain for Fee-Based Immunization in Hanoi Capital and Ho Chi Minh City

This report summarizes an assessment conducted to understand the structure, scope, and quality of the vaccine supply chain for fee-based immunization services in two locations in Vietnam. It also provides recommendations for strengthening management …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2011

Bringing Online Immunization Registries to Low-Resource Countries

Today, most health workers at the service‐delivery level in developing countries use paper‐based systems to track the individuals who have been vaccinated and the vaccines and other resources used during the process. This fact sheet describes …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Point-of-Service Data to Drive Vaccine Supply Chains

This fact sheet outlines the different approaches that Project Optimize is testing to demonstrate that a consumption‐based system that uses service-delivery-level data can have a beneficial impact on inventory management, stock levels, and vaccine …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Reducing the Need for Parallel Supply Chains

Project Optimize aims to provide national immunization programs with recommendations to build integrated health supply systems, including strategic linkages with the parastatal and private sector. This fact sheet describes the benefits of and …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

The Future of Pneumococcal Disease Prevention

This article, published in Vaccine, reviews the most recently developed pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) that are now approved for use in children, a 10-valent vaccine and a 13-valent vaccine, as well as other new PCVs in development. In view …

Author: Rodgers GL, Klugman KP

Publication date: 2011

The Pharmacoeconomics of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in Latin America

This article, published in Vaccine, aims to provide a framework for the global evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines by reviewing the pharmacoeconomic perspective in Latin America, highlighting both the strengths and weaknesses, while also …

Author: Giglio N, Micone P, Gentile A

Publication date: 2011

Prevenar Experience

This article, published in Vaccine, reviews the history of pneumococcal vaccines with a focus on the first heptavalent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7), which was first licensed in the United States in 2000, followed by many other countries. …

Author: Arguedas A, Soley C, Abdelnour A

Publication date: 2011

Prevention of Pneumococcal Disease Through Vaccination

This article, published in Vaccine, reviews background information on the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia and pneumococcal disease in children, as well as the history and benefits of vaccination against pneumococcal disease. The authors …

Author: Gentile A, Bazán V

Publication date: 2011

Taking Advantage of the True Heat Stability of Vaccines

This fact sheet describes work that Project Optimize is doing to enable immunization programs to take advantage of the true stability of vaccines by labeling them for use at ambient temperatures in a controlled temperature chain for limited periods …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Temperature Monitoring for Vaccine Quality

This fact sheet describes a collaboration between the Albanian Ministry of Health and Project Optimize to install a short message service–based system that monitors and logs temperature conditions in peripheral cold chain equipment. The team aims …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Vaccine Vial Monitors: FAQs

Vaccine vial monitors (VVMs) are small stickers that adhere to vaccine vials and change color as the vaccine is exposed to heat, letting health workers know whether the vaccine can be safely used for immunization. This fact sheet answers the most …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2011

Incremental Costs of Introducing Jet Injection Technology for Delivery of Routine Childhood Vaccinations: Comparative Analysis From Brazil, India, and South Africa

This article, published in Vaccine, describes a study that estimated the incremental costs of transitioning from needles and syringes to delivering childhood vaccines with disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJIs) in Brazil, India, and South Africa. …

Author: Griffiths UK, Santos AC, Nundy N, Jacoby E, Matthias D

Publication date: 2011

Hospitalizations for Intussusception Before and After the Reintroduction of Rotavirus Vaccine in the United States

This article, published in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, reports on a study that examined hospital discharges for intussusception among infants in the United States before and after the introduction of RotaTeq® and Rotarix® …

Author: Zickafoose JS, Benneyworth BD, Riebschleger MP, Espinosa CM, Davis MM

Publication date: 2012

Improving the Reach of Vaccines to Low-Resource Regions, With a Needle-Free Vaccine Delivery Device and Long-Term Thermostabilization

In this article, published in the Journal of Controlled Release, the authors describe how dry-coated microprojections, a needle-free vaccine delivery device, can deliver vaccine to abundant antigen-presenting cells in the skin and induce efficient …

Author: Chen X, Fernando GJP, Crichton ML, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health

The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study will characterize the etiologic distribution of pathogens that are causing severe pneumonia among children under five years of age who have been hospitalized for their illness in seven …

Author: Feikin DR, Deloria-Knoll M, Murdoch DR, eds.

Publication date: 2012

Vaccines in Fast-Dissolving Tablets: Novel Product Format to Ensure Vaccine Effectiveness, Affordability, and Ease of Use

This fact sheet provides an overview of PATH's work in developing fast-dissolving tablet vaccine formulations that are manufactured using a standard lyophilization process. The small tablets are packaged in unit-dose blisters offering an …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Rotavirus Resources

This web page provides a comprehensive list of links to various resources related to rotavirus. It includes resources on disease surveillance, use of rotavirus vaccines, and training modules for health care workers involved in rotavirus vaccine …

Author: World Health Organization

Pneumococcal Vaccines: WHO Position Paper - 2012

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes the World Health Organization's (WHO's) recommendations on pneumococcal vaccines and related issues, including disease surveillance, epidemiology, and studies to evaluate …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Meningococcal Disease

This web page provides a summary of meningococcal disease, including information about prevention and treatment. It also provides numerous links to further information related to meningococcal vaccination, global disease burden and epidemics, …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Policy Making for New Vaccines in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

This supplement published by Health Policy and Planning is devoted to issues related to new vaccine introduction. It includes a number of articles examining the decision-making process that low- and middle-income countries must go through when …

Author: Mounier-Jack S, Burchett H, eds.

Publication date: 2012

World Immunization Week

To underscore the importance of immunization in saving lives and to encourage families to vaccinate their children against deadly diseases, the World Health Organization (WHO) aims to unite countries across the globe for a week each year through …

Author: World Health Organization

Rotavirus Vaccines for Children in Developing Countries

This supplemental issue of Vaccine summarizes data on the performance of rotavirus vaccines to help maximize their impact in developing countries and adds to the body of evidence demonstrating that rotavirus vaccines are a safe, proven, …

Author: Steele AD, Neuzil KM, Parashar UD, eds.

Publication date: 2012

Influenza Vaccines: More Options and More Opportunities

This article, published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, discusses the value of comparative studies of influenza vaccines, which provide a uniform way to evaluate the relative performance of different vaccines. The author argues that such …

Author: Neuzil KM

Publication date: 2012

Statistical Methods for Standard Membrane-Feeding Assays to Measure Transmission Blocking or Reducing Activity in Malaria

Transmission blocking vaccines for malaria are not designed to directly protect vaccinated people from malaria disease, but to reduce the probability of infecting other people by interfering with the growth of the malaria parasite in …

Author: Swihart BJ, Fay MP, Miura K

Publication date: 2017

Issues and Challenges in the Development of Pneumococcal Protein Vaccines

In view of the increasing licensure and use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the relatively high cost, and growing issues with serotype emergence, there is a need to re-evaluate the role of pneumococcal protein vaccines (PPVs) and pathways to …

Author: Ginsburg AS, Nahm MH, Khambaty FM, Alderson MR

Publication date: 2012

The Right Shot: Extending the Reach of Affordable and Adapted Vaccines

Lack of information on both the price and the different product characteristics of vaccines limits countries’ ability to operate affordable and effective immunization programs. This report aims to remedy some of the existing knowledge gaps by …

Author: Médecins Sans Frontières

Publication date: 2012

10 Tips for Successful Malaria Vaccine Advocacy

Slow decision-making by policymakers can contribute to a substantial lag between the availability of lifesaving interventions, such as vaccines, and developing countries’ access to them. This booklet presents a set of advocacy tips, success …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Impact of Withholding Breastfeeding at the Time of Vaccination on the Immunogenicity of Oral Rotavirus Vaccine—A Randomized Trial

This article, published in PLOS One, reports on the results of a study that examined the immune effect of withholding breastfeeding one hour before and after administration of the live, oral, monovalent rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix®, in infants in …

Author: Ali A, Kazi AM, Cortese MM, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Vaccines for Children - A Guide for Parents and Caregivers

This online guide for parents and caregivers provides information on the benefits and risks of vaccination, the types of routinely administered vaccines for children, steps to take when your child is vaccinated, and common questions about vaccines.

Author: US Food and Drug Administration

HPV Vaccination

This web page contains extensive information and resources on HPV and cervical cancer. It includes numerous links to more information about the disease, available vaccines, and immunization recommendations, as well as links to materials specifically …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Cervical Cancer, Cervical Dysplasia, Genital Warts: The Pathogenesis and Clinical Outcomes of HPV Anogenital Infections

This technical six-minute animation explains what HPV is, shows how it infects human tissue, and how disease progresses. It also provides disease burden information specific to HPV and cervical cancer.

Author: Sanofi Pasteur MSD

Publication date: 2006

Comprehensive Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control: A Healthier Future for Girls and Women

This World Health Organization Guidance Note advocates for a comprehensive approach to cervical cancer prevention and control and is aimed at senior policy makers and programme managers. It describes the need to deliver effective interventions …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

New Guidelines for the Screening and Treatment of Cervical Cancer

This web page provides information on the World Health Organization's guidelines on screening and treating cervical cancer and links to various related resources, including data on cervical cancer incidence and mortality worldwide and a fact sheet …

Author: World Health Organization

Development of a Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine, MenAfriVac™

Group A meningococcal disease has been an important public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa for over a century. From 2003 to 2009 a monovalent group A conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac™, was developed through an innovative public/private …

Author: Frasch C, Preziosi M-P, LaForce FM

Publication date: 2012

Country Ownership and Gavi Transition: Comprehensive Approaches to Supporting New Vaccine Introduction

This article, published in Health Affairs, outlines countries' increasing emphasis on cost-effectiveness analysis, program costing, and financial flows—particularly for the introduction of newer, more expensive vaccines. While this is critical to …

Author: Shen AK, Weiss JM, Andrus JK, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Critical Episodes in the Understanding and Control of Epidemic Meningococcal Meningitis

Epidemic meningococcal meningitis continues to be an important worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. Throughout its history, a number of "critical episodes" have occurred that have enhanced understanding of …

Author: Artenstein AW, LaForce FM

Publication date: 2012

Coalition Building: A Cornerstone of National Advocacy, Policymaking and Effective Cervical Cancer Prevention Programs

This issue brief is written for civil society leaders seeking to expand access to cervical cancer prevention and control resources in their communities. These resources include HPV vaccines for young adolescents and established and new screening and …

Author: Cervical Cancer Action

Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020

The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP)—endorsed by the 194 Member States of the World Health Assembly in May 2012—is a roadmap to prevent millions of deaths by 2020 through more equitable access to vaccines for people in all communities. The GVAP …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC): Vaccine Effectiveness Study Designs: Accelerating the Introduction of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines and Reducing the Global Burden of Enteric Fever. Report From a Meeting Held on 26–27 October 2016, Oxford, UK

This article, published in Vaccine, summarizes the results of a meeting held in October 2016 to initiate planning of typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) effectiveness studies that will provide the data required by policymakers and stakeholders to …

Author: Meiring JE, Gibani M, TyVAC Consortium Meeting Group

Publication date: 2017

HPV Vaccine Safety

This issue brief provides important new evidence on the safety of HPV vaccines, including information on vaccine safety reporting systems, the safety profile of HPV vaccines, and the use of HPV vaccines in special populations. This brief is designed …

Author: Cervical Cancer Action

New Options for Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in Low-Resource Settings

This issue brief examines screening in the era of HPV vaccination and provides the latest evidence on new screening and treatment modalities for developing countries. It summarizes the current evidence on various options, namely cervical cytology …

Author: Cervical Cancer Action

Strategies for HPV Vaccination in the Developing World

Developing strategies to effectively reach adolescent girls with HPV vaccines—a population not typically the focus of public health programs—is essential to achieving high coverage rates and reducing the cervical cancer burden. This issue brief …

Author: Cervical Cancer Action

Cervical Cancer Prevention Action Planner

This interactive tool is designed for public health officials seeking guidance and resources related to developing evidence-based cervical cancer prevention programs in their countries. It includes video mini-lectures and other films, impact models, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Cervical Cancer Prevention and the Millennium Development Goals

This article, published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, explores how scaled-up cervical cancer prevention activities, including introduction of the new HPV vaccines and increased access to precancer screening and treatment, can …

Author: Wittet S, Tsu V

Publication date: 2008

Cervical Cancer Prevention at PATH: Two Decades of Progress Toward a World Free of HPV-Related Cancers

This report describes PATH's key cervical cancer prevention initiatives, which include providing technical assistance with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine program strategy and planning to low- and middle-income countries.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Indirect Protection of Adults From Rotavirus by Pediatric Rotavirus Vaccination

Pediatric vaccination has resulted in declines in disease in unvaccinated individuals through decreasing pathogen circulation in the community. About two years after the implementation of pediatric rotavirus vaccination in the United States, …

Author: Anderson EJ, Shippee DB, Weinrobe MH, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Implementing HPV Vaccination Programs: Practical Experience from PATH

From 2006 to 2011, PATH conducted demonstration projects in four low- and middle-income countries—India, Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam—to provide evidence for decision-making about public-sector introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2011

Strategic Planning and Situation Assessment for Cervical Cancer Prevention: Practical Experience from PATH

From 2006 to 2011, PATH conducted demonstration projects in four low- and middle-income countries—India, Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam—to provide evidence for decision-making about public-sector introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2011

Conducting Formative Research for HPV Vaccination Program Planning: Practical Experience from PATH

From 2006 to 2011, PATH conducted demonstration projects in four low- and middle-income countries—India, Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam—to provide evidence for decision-making about public-sector introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Assessment of Eight HPV Vaccination Programs Implemented in Lowest Income Countries

This article, published in BMC Public Health, reports results of a study that evaluated eight human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs that were developed, implemented, and managed by local institutions in seven low-income countries as part …

Author: Ladner J, Besson M-H, Hampshire R, Tapert L, Chirenje M, Saba J

Publication date: 2012

Delivering Cervical Cancer Prevention in the Developing World

This report highlights new partnerships and innovations in cervical cancer prevention and treatment. It also provides profiles of success in increasing access to HPV vaccines and treatment from around the world, with country spotlights on Mexico, …

Author: Women Deliver

Publication date: 2011

Chapter 25: Education, Training, and Communication for HPV Vaccines

The authors of this article, which is a chapter in a monograph published in Vaccine, purport that as HPV vaccines come to market, they will face education and training challenges similar to those of other new vaccines, along with HPV-specific …

Author: Sherris J, Friedman A, Wittet S, Davies P, Steben M, Saraiya M

Publication date: 2006

The Benefits of Redesigning Benin’s Vaccine Supply Chain

New vaccine introductions have put strains on vaccine supply chains around the world. This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a project with the Republic of Benin’s Ministry of Health that explored ways to improve their vaccine supply …

Author: Brown ST, Schreiber B, Cakouros BE, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Pneumococcus

This article, published in Medical Clinics of North America, summarizes the risk factors, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of the spectrum of disease caused by pneumococcus with particular emphasis on antibiotic resistance as well as …

Author: Ash SY, Sheffield JV

Publication date: 2013

Polio Eradication Resource Library

This online library gathers links to resources specifically related to polio, including eradication strategy plans, resources specifically for polio eradicators, relevant declarations and resolutions, and post-eradication policy documents, among …

Author: Global Polio Eradication Initiative

Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization, October 2014 – Conclusions and Recommendations

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE). The article includes sections with SAGE recommendations regarding …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Delivery Strategies That Achieved High Coverage in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

This article, published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, documents human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage after the demonstration projects conducted in India, Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam by PATH and national governments. …

Author: LaMontagne DS, Barge S, Nga TL, et al.

Publication date: 2011

The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen (VACCS) Project: Acceptance of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in a School-Based Programme in Two Provinces of South Africa

This article, published in the South African Medical Journal, investigated the acceptance of a school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination delivery strategy. The results demonstrated that HPV vaccination is practical and safe in South …

Author: Botha MH, van der Merwe FH, Snyman LC, Dreyer G.

Publication date: 2015

Pentavalent Vaccine in the Uniject™ Injection System: A Time and Motion Study

This report delivers the results of a time and motion study conducted in Kenya to understand the perceived benefits and challenges of a fully liquid pentavalent vaccine (which combines five antigens for protection against diphtheria, tetanus, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Stakeholder Perceptions of Pentavalent Vaccine (DTwP-HepB-Hib) in the Uniject™ Injection System

This report discusses stakeholder attitudes towards pentavalent vaccine (which combines five antigens for protection against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenzae type B) in the Uniject™ injection system. The …

Author: PATH, Peruvian Ministry of Health, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Cervical Cancer: The Real Lady Killer

This film in the BBC’s "Kill or Cure?" series uncovers the challenges of preventing and treating cervical cancer in Africa and highlights exciting new opportunities for dramatically reducing the toll of disease. The BBC crew follows Sarah …

Author: PATH, Rockhopper Productions

Publication date: 2009

Maternal Immunization: Country Priorities and Market Requirements

Maternal immunization is an approach of vaccinating during pregnancy to enhance immunity for both mother and baby. This report provides insight into country priorities for maternal immunization and characterizes the market for adult immunizations in …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Improved Cervical Cancer Prevention: Planning Now for a Better Future

This report documents an African regional conference on cervical cancer prevention held in September 2010 in Kampala, Uganda. Representatives from nine African countries met to share updates on cervical cancer vaccination and screening programs, and …

Author: PATH, Association of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Uganda, Uganda Ministry of Health

Publication date: 2010

Rotavirus Vaccine Impact Data

Swift and significant declines in hospitalization and deaths due to rotavirus and all-cause diarrhea have been observed in many of the countries that have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Researchers also have …

Author: PATH

Evidence of Support for Improved Cervical Cancer Prevention in Developing Countries

This web page contains a dossier that includes statements of support for improved cervical cancer control from governments, organizations, and individuals in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and other regions. The letters, video messages, editorials, …

Author: Cervical Cancer Action, International Union Against Cancer, PATH

Publication date: 2008

Guidelines to Assure the Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Recombinant Human Papillomavirus Virus-Like Particle Vaccines

The World Health Organization convened two meetings in Geneva in 2006 where scientific experts, regulatory professionals, and other stakeholders met to develop guidelines for prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. This technical document …

Author: World Health Organization Expert Committee on Biological Standardization

Publication date: 2006

Obstacles to Vaccines for AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Cervical Cancer

Despite advances in prevention and treatment, AIDS, tuberculosis, and cervical cancer remain among the most serious and costly threats to world health. This article, published by the Population Reference Bureau, outlines the potential impact of …

Author: Khan M

Publication date: 2006

National HPV and Cervical Cancer Prevention Resource Center

This resource center was created to address the lack of nationally available human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer prevention information and resources. The center is dedicated to addressing the multiple issues and challenges associated …

Author: American Social Health Association

HPV Vaccines and Cancer in the U.S.

This issue module provides access to the most recent research and information available on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine utilization, costs, and policies, with a specific focus on the United States. It provides overviews on cervical cancer, HPV …

Author: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

Publication date: 2012

Progress in Preventing Cervical Cancer: Updated Evidence on Vaccination and Screening

This issue of Outlook provides information on opportunities for preventing cervical cancer through vaccination and screening. It summarizes evidence on the safety and efficacy of human papillomavirus vaccines as well as successful approaches for …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2010

HPV and Cervical Cancer Curriculum

This e-learning tool is intended to be used as a basis for courses, workshops, and self-learning to improve individual knowledge about human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. It includes PowerPoint presentations with speaker notes and …

Author: Union for International Cancer Control

The Vaccine Confidence Project

This project was formed to build a multi-disciplinary network of biomedical scientists, decision scientists, psychologists, and social scientists to examine the influences and decision-making processes as individuals around the world, including …

Author: London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Yellow Fever Vaccination: The Potential of Dose-Sparing to Increase Vaccine Supply and Availability

This report aimed to evaluate whether dose-sparing, possibly through the intradermal (ID) route, could improve the availability of yellow fever vaccine globally. The report identifies and discusses potential benefits, possible obstacles, and …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

HPV Vaccination in Africa: Lessons Learned From a Pilot Program in Uganda

This report summarizes a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program implemented in Uganda where the HPV vaccine was made available to almost 10,000 girls in select parts of the country. The purpose of the study was to investigate operational …

Author: PATH, Child Health and Development Centre, Uganda National Expanded Program on Immunization

Publication date: 2011

HPV Vaccination in Latin America: Lessons Learned From a Pilot Program in Peru

This report summarizes a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program implemented in Peru where HPV vaccine was made available to all girls aged nine years or older in fifth grade in selected parts of the country. The purpose of the study was to …

Author: PATH, Instituto de Investigación Nutricional, Ministerio de Salud de Peru, Estrategia Sanitaria Nacional de Inmunizaciones

Publication date: 2010

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Recommendations

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices consists of 15 experts in fields associated with immunization who provide advice and guidance to the United States government on the control of vaccine-preventable diseases. This web page provides …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Nigeria: Breaking Down Barriers to Immunization Coverage

This infographic highlights key interventions that can help Nigeria scale up its immunization coverage and save children's lives.

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Publication date: 2012

Influenza: Options to Improve Pandemic Preparation

This commentary, published in Science, reviews the options available in the short term to protect humans from influenza epidemics and pandemics. The authors also briefly discuss the solutions that research may make available in the long term.

Author: Rappouli R, Dormitzer PR

Publication date: 2012

Procurement and Pricing of New Vaccines for Developing Countries

Several vaccines that have come to market, including the rotavirus, pneumococcal conjugate, and human papillomavirus vaccines, have the potential to bring large public health benefits to developing countries. This eight-page policy brief explains …

Author: International AIDS Vaccine Initiative

Publication date: 2008

Progress in Cervical Cancer Prevention: The CCA Report Card

This report assesses global readiness to fight cervical cancer using new approaches and new technologies, especially in regions where the disease is a common killer. It underscores the urgent need for the global community to prioritize cervical …

Author: Cervical Cancer Action

Publication date: 2012

Shaping a Strategy to Introduce HPV Vaccines in Vietnam—Formative Research Results From the HPV Vaccines: Evidence for Impact Project

This report summarizes results from formative research in Vietnam regarding the health systems and policy context that will affect human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine introduction, as well as beliefs, values, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Shaping a Strategy to Introduce HPV Vaccines in India—Formative Research Results From the HPV Vaccines: Evidence for Impact Project

This report summarizes results from formative research in two states of India—Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat—regarding the health systems and policy context that will affect human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine introduction, as well as …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

PubMed Searches: Cervical Cancer and HPV

These pre-formatted PubMed searches will retrieve journal citations and available abstracts on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus, as well as specifically for Africa and Asia. Documents may be ordered through Loansome Doc if you have …

Author: Various

Cold Chain Temperature Monitoring in Vietnam: Monitoring Ambient and Cold Chain Temperatures During Delivery of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

This report summarizes findings from a temperature-monitoring study that gathered ambient temperature data during human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine delivery in Vietnam. These data are compared to the known heat stability profile of the HPV vaccine …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2010

ICO (Institut Català d'Oncologia) Information Centre on HPV and Cancer

This information center was developed to accelerate the development and introduction of prophylactic HPV vaccines in countries with the highest burden of cervical cancer and reduce the incidence of this disease and related lesions among women. It …

Author: Institut Català d’Oncologia

Shaping a Strategy to Introduce HPV Vaccines in Peru—Formative Research Results From the HPV Vaccines: Evidence for Impact Project

This report summarizes results from formative research in Peru regarding the health systems and policy context that will affect human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine introduction, as well as beliefs, values, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors related …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Shaping a Strategy to Introduce HPV Vaccines in Uganda—Formative Research Results From the HPV Vaccines: Evidence for Impact Project

This report summarizes results from formative research in Uganda regarding the health systems and policy context that will affect human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine introduction, as well as beliefs, values, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Breakeven Analysis for Various Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Presentations in Vietnam and Uganda

This report highlights a study that uses a breakeven cost analysis to compare potential prices, wastage rates, and cold chain requirements for various human papillomavirus vaccine presentations. The results of this study provide insight into …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2010

WHO HPV Laboratory Network

The mission of the World Health Organization (WHO) global human papillomavirus (HPV) Laboratory Network (LabNet) is to contribute to improving quality of laboratory services for effective surveillance and monitoring of HPV vaccination impact, …

Author: World Health Organization

Can We Defeat Meningococcal Disease in Low and Middle Income Countries?

This article, published in Vaccine, discusses the challenges of achieving control of meningococcal disease in low- and middle-income countries. The authors argue that in low-income countries the main challenge is a lack of sufficient epidemiological …

Author: Greenwood B, Chiarot E, MacLennan CA, O'Ryan M

Publication date: 2012

Stabilization of HAC1 Influenza Vaccine by Spray Drying: Formulation Development and Process Scale-Up

This article, published in Pharmaceutical Research, reports on a study that aimed to develop a stable formulation of a recombinant H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin vaccine candidate using spray-drying production. The study results demonstrated the …

Author: Zhu C, Shoji Y, McCray S, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Human Papillomavirus Vaccines: WHO Position Paper

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, is the first World Health Organization (WHO) position paper on vaccines against diseases caused by human papillomaviruses (HPV). It provides essential background information on HPV and …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2009

Estimated Global Mortality Associated With the First 12 Months of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 Virus Circulation: A Modelling Study

This article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, estimates the global mortality associated with the first 12 months of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 virus pandemic. Results of the analysis estimate that respiratory and cardiovascular …

Author: Dawood FS, Iuliano AD, Reed C, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Monitoring Ambient and Cold Chain Temperatures During Delivery of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Vietnam and Uganda: Summary Report

This report summarizes the design and key findings of temperature monitoring studies that gathered ambient temperature data during different HPV vaccine delivery strategies and in multiple geographic settings and seasons.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2010

Pneumonia and Diarrhoea: Tackling the Deadliest Diseases for the World’s Poorest Children

This report focuses on the huge potential to narrow the child survival gap between the richest and the poorest by focusing on pneumonia and diarrhea—the two primary killers of children under the age of five. It includes a review of the current …

Author: United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2012

Results From a Survey of Immunization Stakeholders in Vietnam Regarding the Presentation, Packaging, and Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Vaccines

This report summarizes results from a survey which obtained input from stakeholders within the Expanded Programme on Immunization in Vietnam about issues and perceptions related to the storage, distribution, and delivery of the current and potential …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2009

Recent Evidence on Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Resource Settings

This fact sheet summarizes evidence published since 2009 on cervical cancer screening and treatment approaches for both low- and high-resource settings. The information provided supports the use of human papillomavirus DNA technologies …

Author: Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention

Publication date: 2011

Effectively Introducing a New Meningococcal A Conjugate Vaccine in Africa: The Burkina Faso Experience

In 2010, Burkina Faso conducted a country-wide campaign to introduce a new Group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac™. Leading up to this effort, the following challenges were successfully managed: (1) conducting a large safety study and …

Author: Djingarey MH, Barry R, Bonkoungou M, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Airborne Transmission of Influenza A/H5N1 Virus Between Ferrets

This article, published in Science, details a study investigating the potential of avian influenza A/H5N1 to become transmissible by aerosol or respiratory droplet between humans. Researchers genetically modified the virus and measured the degree to …

Author: Herfst S, Schrauwen EJA, Linster M, et al.

Publication date: 2012

WHO Initiative to Increase Global and Equitable Access to Influenza Vaccine in the Event of a Pandemic: Supporting Developing Country Production Capacity Through Technology Transfer

This article, published in Vaccine, showcases the interim results of the World Health Organization's technology transfer initiative to increase global and equitable access to influenza vaccine in the event of a pandemic. It highlights the progress …

Author: Friede M, Palkonyay L, Alfonso C, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Public-Private Partnerships for Global Health: How PATH Advances Technologies Through Cross-Sector Collaboration

This policy report highlights the essential role that public-private partnerships play in driving global health product development, including vaccines and related technologies, and offers insights into the key components of successful …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Duration of Protection of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccination in Nicaragua

This article, published in Pediatrics, summarizes a case-control study conducted at four hospitals in Nicaragua to evaluate the duration of protection after rotavirus vaccination among eligible infants. The pentavalent rotavirus vaccine protected …

Author: Patel M, Pedreira C, De Oliveira LH, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Estimated Hib and Pneumococcal Deaths for Children Under 5 Years of Age, 2008

This web page provides an estimate of child mortality due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal infections in 2008. It also contains a link to a chart of death rates due to these infections, broken down by region and HIV status.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Protecting Child Health for a Promising Future

This fact sheet provides a snapshot of PATH's programs that tackle the leading causes of childhood illness and death: pneumonia, diarrheal disease, and malaria. It profiles PATH's work on new and innovative vaccines, medicines, diagnostics, and …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Outsourcing Vaccine Supply Chain and Logistics to the Private Sector

This evidence brief provides supply chain managers in low- and middle-income countries with an overview of the potential benefits of outsourcing components of their vaccine logistics systems to the private sector. It also provides practical …

Author: World Health Organization, PATH

Publication date: 2012

Product Development Partnerships Hit Their Stride: Lessons from Developing a Meningitis Vaccine for Africa

This article, published in Health Affairs, provides an overview of the Meningitis Vaccine Project as an example of how product development partnerships have reinvigorated research on vaccines for neglected diseases. The Meningitis Vaccine …

Author: Bishai DM, Champion C, Steele ME, Thompson L

Publication date: 2011

Modelling Meningococcal Meningitis in the African Meningitis Belt

The authors of this article, published in Epidemiology and Infection, used deterministic compartmental models to investigate how well simple model structures with seasonal forcing were able to qualitatively capture patterns of meningococcal …

Author: Irving TJ, Blyuss KB, Colijn C, Trotter CL

Publication date: 2012

Baseline Meningococcal Carriage in Burkina Faso Before the Introduction of a Meningococcal Serogroup A Conjugate Vaccine

The vaccine MenAfriVac™ has the potential to confer herd immunity by reducing carriage prevalence of epidemic strains. To better understand this phenomenon, the authors of this article, published in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, initiated a …

Author: Kristiansen PA, Diomandé F, Wei SC, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Study of a Localized Meningococcal Meningitis Epidemic in Burkina Faso: Incidence, Carriage, and Immunity

To better understand localized meningococcal meningitis epidemics, the authors of this article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, evaluated a serogroup A epidemic in Burkina Faso by surveillance, carriage, and seroprevalence …

Author: Mueller JE, Yaro S, Njanpop-Lafourcade BM, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Meningococcal Disease in Asia: an Under–Recognized Public Health Burden

The authors of this article, published in Epidemiology and Infection, performed a literature search to trace existing information on meningococcal disease in Asia. They found that the reviewed data describing the epidemiology of meningococcal …

Author: Vyse A, Wolter JM, Chen J, Ng T, Soriano-Gabarro M

Publication date: 2011

Whom and Where Are We Not Vaccinating? Coverage After the Introduction of a New Conjugate Vaccine Against Group A Meningococcus in Niger in 2010

The authors of this article, published in PLoS ONE, evaluated the first two phases of the introduction campaign of a new conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac™, in Niger. They determined which sub-populations or areas …

Author: Kim SH, Pezzoli L, Yacouba H, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Questions and Answers on New Facts and Figures on Vaccines and the Global Mercury Treaty

This fact sheet provides frequently asked questions and answers regarding the use of thiomersal in vaccines and related issues surrounding vaccine safety. It includes information about the latest data available, the World Health Organization's …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Adverse Events Following Immunization During Mass Vaccination Campaigns at First Introduction of a Meningococcal A Conjugate Vaccine in Burkina Faso, 2010

MenAfriVac™ is a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine developed to prevent meningitis outbreaks in Africa. It was first introduced during the last quarter of 2010 in three West African countries. The authors of this article, published in …

Author: Ouandaogo CR, Yaméogo TM, Diomandé FVK, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Definition and Characterization of Localised Meningitis Epidemics in Burkina Faso: A Longitudinal Retrospective Study

The epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt is characterized by seasonality, localized epidemics, and epidemic waves. To facilitate research and surveillance, the authors of this article, published in BMC Infectious …

Author: Tall H, Hugonnet S, Donnen P, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Microbiological and Epidemiological Investigation of the Neisseria Meningitidis Serogroup A Epidemic in Niger in 2009: Last Wave Before the Introduction of the Serogroup A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine?

The authors of this article, published in Epidemiology and Infection, analyzed cerebrospinal fluid samples during the 2009 meningitis season in Niger, the largest epidemic observed in Niger since those of  to 1996 and 2000. They found …

Author: Collard JM, Maman Z, Abani A, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Can We, Should We, Eradicate the Meningococcus?

The authors of this article, published in Vaccine, discuss how the introduction of vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis raises the question of whether disease caused by this obligate human bacterium can be controlled, eliminated, or even …

Author: Maiden MC, Frosch M

Publication date: 2012

Laboratory Quality Control in a Multicentre Meningococcal Carriage Study in Burkina Faso

To investigate the potential herd immunity effect of MenAfriVac™, a new conjugate vaccine against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis, the authors of this article, published in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, …

Author: Kristiansen PA, Ouédraogo AS, Sanou I, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Meningococcal Disease From the Public Health Policy Perspective

Given the availability of conjugate vaccines against meningococcal disease there is now the potential to effectively control meningococcal disease globally. The authors of this article, published in Vaccine, discuss how optimal control of …

Author: Black SB, Plotkin SA

Publication date: 2012

Strengthening National Regulatory Capacity: PATH Supports Countries to Ensure Health Products are Safe, Effective, and Swiftly Delivered

This fact sheet explains PATH's work to strengthen regulatory capacity in developing countries in order to help ensure desperately needed medical products are delivered, thereby improving health and equipping countries with the expertise and …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Monitoring Adverse Events Following Immunization With a New Conjugate Vaccine Against Group A Meningococcus in Niger, September 2010

In Niger, the introduction campaign of MenAfriVac™, a new conjugate vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, was conducted in the District of Filingue, during September 2010. The authors of this article, published in Vaccine, set up …

Author: Chaibou MS, Bako H, Salisou L, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Meningococcal Disease in the Middle East and North Africa: An Important Public Health Consideration That Requires Further Attention

This paper, published in International Journal of Infectious Diseases, reviews the epidemiological data describing meningococcal disease in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The authors found that, while meningococcal disease remains an …

Author: Ceyhan M, Anis S, Htun-Myint L, Pawinski R, Soriano-Gabarró M, Vyse A

Publication date: 2012

Genetic Stability of Live Attenuated Vaccines Against Potentially Pandemic Influenza Viruses

Genetic stability is a prerequisite for live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs). This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a Phase 1 study examining the stability of LAIVs against three potentially pandemic influenza viruses in …

Author: Kiseleva I, Dubrovina I, Fedorova E, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Cross-Protection Against H7N9 Influenza Strains Using a Live-Attenuated H7N3 Virus Vaccine

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a study examining cross-protection of a H7N3 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) against avian H7N9 influenza viruses in an animal model. Currently no vaccine targeting the new H7N9 …

Author: Carter DM, Bloom CE, Kirchenbaum GA, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Clinical Testing of Pre-Pandemic Live Attenuated A/H5N2 Influenza Candidate Vaccine in Adult Volunteers: Results From a Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Double-Blind Phase I Study

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a Phase 1 study examining the safety and immunogenicity of an A/H5N2 live attenuated influenza vaccine candidate. The results showed the vaccine to be safe and well tolerated in healthy …

Author: Rudenko L, Kiseleva I, Stukova M, et al.

Publication date: 2015

The Bourgeoning Burden of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Among Children

This article, published in Infectious Disorders – Drug Targets, examines the disease burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in the United States, Canada, and Europe, but notes that the global burden of RSV is unknown as few studies are from …

Author: Hall CB

Publication date: 2012

Vaccine-Enhanced Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Cotton Rats Following Immunization with Lot 100 or a Newly Prepared Reference Vaccine

A formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine was used to immunize infants in the mid-1960s; when these children later were naturally infected by the virus they developed markedly accentuated disease, and two died. For the present work, …

Author: Prince GA, Curtis SJ, Yim KC, Porter DD

Publication date: 2001

Navigating Vaccine Introduction: A Guide for Decision-Makers—Japanese Encephalitis

This six-part guide is designed to help country decision-makers understand the evidence around when to consider introducing Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccines, the potential benefits, how to incorporate JE vaccines into their country’s …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

Viral and Host Factors in Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pathogenesis

The authors of this article, published in the Journal of Virology, discuss the contributions of viral versus various host factors to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pathogenesis. The authors conclude that a better understanding of the viral and …

Author: Collins PL, Graham BS

Publication date: 2008

Immunization of Pregnant Women: Reproductive, Medical and Societal Risks

This article, published in Vaccine, discusses the risks and benefits of using vaccines in pregnant women to prevent maternal, fetal, and newborn disease. The author concludes that the potential for reducing the incidence of birth defects, …

Author: Brent RL

Publication date: 2003

Maternal Immunization Against Viral Disease

This article, published in Vaccine, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of maternal immunization to augment the protective effect of maternal antibody against many viral diseases in the young infant. The authors also present more specific …

Author: Englund J, Glezen WP, Piedra PA

Publication date: 1998

Maternal Immunization: US FDA Regulatory Considerations

Vaccination of pregnant women provides important health benefits to both mother and infant, and has been an important disease-prevention strategy in these two groups. However, since pregnant women are usually excluded from participation in clinical …

Author: Gruber MF

Publication date: 2003

Structural Basis for Immunization With Postfusion Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion F Glycoprotein (RSV F) to Elicit High Neutralizing Antibody Titers

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidates based on a chief RSV neutralization antigen, the fusion (F) glycoprotein, have foundered due to problems with stability, purity, reproducibility, and potency. The authors of this article, …

Author: Swanson KA, Settembre EC, Shaw CA, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Maternal Immunisation in Developing Countries

This article, published in Vaccine, discusses the benefits and challenges of implementing maternal immunization as a method of preventing infections in the developing world. Specifically, the article discusses the high incidence of pneumococcal …

Author: Greenwood B

Publication date: 2003

Ending Preventable Child Deaths From Pneumonia and Diarrhoea by 2025 – The Integrated Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD)

This report proposes a cohesive approach to ending preventable pneumonia and diarrhea deaths in children. It outlines a protect, prevent, and treat framework that integrates proven effective interventions for pneumonia and diarrhea, including the …

Author: World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2013

Ranking Vaccines: A Prioritization Software Tool – Phase II: Prototype of a Decision-Support System

This report extends the proof-of-concept presented in the Phase I report for Strategic Multi-Attribute Ranking Tool for Vaccines (SMART Vaccines) 1.0, a prioritization software that utilizes decision science and modeling to help inform choices …

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publication date: 2013

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Africa

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Africa. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in African children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Asia

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Asia. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Asian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Pneumonia

This fact sheet provides an overview of the causes, means of transmission, symptoms, risk factors, treatment, prevention, and economic costs of pneumonia. Also outlined is the World Health Organization's action plan to prevent and treat pneumonia, …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Advanced Adjuvants for Novel Vaccines: Expanding Access to Technology in the Fight Against Infectious Disease

This fact sheet describes the positive impact that adjuvants can have on vaccine efficacy and, potentially, immunization program costs. It also describes PATH’s work to expand global access to proprietary and non-proprietary adjuvants as well as …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Advancing Vaccine Formulations of Importance to Developing Countries Using New and Existing Adjuvant Technologies

The positive impact of adjuvants on vaccination can be functional and practical. A handful of adjuvants are currently licensed for human vaccination, and a number of new adjuvants have reached advanced development stages. However, access to these …

Author: Blum J, Chen D, Cummings R

Publication date: 2012

Lessons Learned From HPV Vaccine Delivery in Low-Resource Settings and Opportunities for HIV Prevention, Treatment, and Care Among Adolescents

This article, published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, identifies key lessons learned from human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine introduction in low- and middle-income countries that could be used to amplify current and future …

Author: Tsu V, Cernuschi T, LaMontagne DS

Publication date: 2014

Global Vaccine Safety Blueprint

This report outlines a strategic plan to strengthen vaccine safety activities globally. Implemented by the Global Vaccine Safety Initiative, it comprises eight strategic objectives that together will build and support effective vaccine …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Rotavirus Disease

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and prevention strategies, with a focus on vaccines. It includes information about the countries that have already introduced rotavirus vaccines and their impact on child health, as well as …

Author: GAVI Alliance

Publication date: 2013

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Infants in Rural Nepal

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide, but the risk of RSV is not well-characterized in resource-limited settings. This article, published in Journal of Infection, reports the results of a study that …

Author: Chu HY, Katz J, Tielsch J, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Clinical Presentation and Birth Outcomes Associated With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Pregnancy

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral pneumonia in children worldwide and a maternal vaccine may protect both the mother and infant from RSV illness. This article, published in PLoS ONE, describes the epidemiology …

Author: Chu HY, Katz J, Tielsch J, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Vaccine Technologies at PATH

PATH and its partners have been advancing innovative vaccine technologies for more than 30 years. This report outlines PATH's approach and capabilities. It also describes a number of individual vaccine technologies at various …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2010

US Department of Health and Human Services and PATH: Partnering to Protect and Improve Global Health

PATH and the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) work together to improve global health around the world. This fact sheet highlights PATH projects—including work to develop a thermostable vaccine for H1N1 influenza; ROTAVAC®, a new …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Poliomyelitis: Intensification of the Global Eradication Initiative

This resolution from the Executive Board of the World Health Organization (WHO) calls for a redoubled effort to complete the "end game" of polio eradication. The resolution declares the completion of poliovirus eradication a programmatic emergency …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Distributional Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination in 25 GAVI Countries: Estimating Disparities in Benefits and Cost-Effectiveness

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on an analysis that combines the results of a country-level model of rotavirus vaccination published elsewhere with data from Demographic and Health Surveys on within-country patterns of vaccine coverage …

Author: Rheingans R, Atherly D, Anderson J

Publication date: 2012

Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness of Live Oral Pentavalent Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Ghana

This article, published in Vaccine, estimates the cost-effectiveness of introducing the rotavirus vaccine RotaTeq® in Ghana. The authors estimated the average costs of treating children with diarrhea in the Ashanti region of Ghana as inpatients and …

Author: Abbott C, Tiede B, Armah G, Mahmoud A

Publication date: 2012

Rotavirus Vaccine RIX4414 (Rotarix™): A Pharmacoeconomic Review of its Use in the Prevention of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Developing Countries

This article, published in Pharmacoeconomics, provides an overview of the clinical profile of rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 (Rotarix™) in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in developing countries, followed by a comprehensive review of …

Author: Plosker GL

Publication date: 2011

The Cost-Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccination in Armenia

This article, published in Vaccine, evaluates the cost-effectiveness of introducing infant rotavirus vaccination in Armenia in 2012 using Rotarix(R)® using a multiple birth cohort model. The model considered the cost and health implications of …

Author: Jit M, Yuzbashyan R, Sahakyan G, Avagyan T, Mosina L

Publication date: 2011

Projected Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of a Rotavirus Vaccination Program in India, 2008

The authors of this article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, aimed to determine the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of a national rotavirus vaccination program in India. They compared the national rotavirus disease and cost burden …

Author: Esposito DH, Tate JE, Kang G, Parashar UD

Publication date: 2011

Projected Health Benefits and Costs of Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccination in Uganda

The authors of this article, published in Vaccine, determined the impact and cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs among children younge than five years of age in Uganda from the public health system perspective. They …

Author: Tate JE, Kisakye A, Mugyenyi P, Kizza D, Odiit A, Braka F

Publication date: 2011

Understanding Reduced Rotavirus Vaccine Efficacy in Low Socio-Economic Settings

Rotavirus vaccine efficacy ranges from more than 90 percent in high socio-economic settings (SES) to 50 percent in low SES. The authors of this article, published in PLOS ONE, developed a mathematical model to predict rotavirus vaccine efficacy in …

Author: Lopman BA, Pitzer VE, Sarkar R, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Protecting Children From Diarrheal Disease: PATH Takes a Comprehensive Approach to Combating This Leading Cause of Child Deaths

This fact sheet provides an overview of PATH's work, including vaccine development and introduction, in protecting children from diarrheal disease.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Vietnam: Demonstrating Innovative Health Supply Chain Solutions

This document describes how Project Optimize is working with Vietnam’s National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology to demonstrate innovations in the supply chain that can help to meet the demands of an increasingly large and costly …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Finding the Final Fifth: Inequalities in Immunisation

Despite global progress, there is still a long way to go until the full benefits of immunization are enjoyed by all children. In 2010, almost one in five children – nearly 20 million – did not receive the most basic vaccinations that all …

Author: Save the Children

Publication date: 2012

Shot@Life

This website provides information about Shot@Life, a campaign that educates, connects, and empowers Americans to champion vaccines as one of the most cost-effective ways to save the lives of children in developing countries. As a national call to …

Author: United Nations Foundation

Acceptance Patterns and Decision-Making for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Parents in Vietnam: An In-Depth Qualitative Study Post-Vaccination

This article, published in BMC Public Health, presents findings from qualitative research on parents’ rationales for vaccinating or not vaccinating their daughters and their decision-making process in the context of a human papillomavirus …

Author: Cover JK, Nghi NQ, LaMontagne DS, Huyen DT, Hien NT, Nga LT

Publication date: 2012

Knowledge of Cervical Cancer and HPV Vaccine Post-Vaccination Among Mothers and Daughters in Vietnam

The authors of this article, published in the Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, assessed and compared knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, and whether that knowledge was associated with …

Author: Paul P, LaMontagne DS, Le NT

Publication date: 2012

Human Rotavirus Vaccine Rotarix Provides Protection Against Diverse Circulating Rotavirus Strains in African Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

This article, published in BMC Infectious Diseases, discusses a study where Rotarix® vaccine demonstrated efficacy against severe gastroenteritis caused by diverse circulating rotavirus types. These data add to evidence that the vaccine …

Author: Steele AD, Neuzil KM, Cunliffe NA, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Conducting Vaccine Clinical Trials in Sub-Saharan Africa: Operational Challenges and Lessons Learned From the Meningitis Vaccine Project

The Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was established with the goal of developing, testing, licensing, and introducing an affordable group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine for Africa. The authors of this article, published in Vaccine, describe the …

Author: Marchetti E, Mazarin-Diop V, Chaumont J, et al.

Publication date: 2012

WHO Recommendations Regarding Vaccine Hesitancy

Vaccine hesitancy refers to delay in acceptance or refusal of safe vaccines despite availability of vaccination services. This special issue of Vaccine is guest-edited by the World Health Organization (WHO) and focuses on the topic of vaccine …

Author: Schuster M, Duclos P, eds.

Publication date: 2015

Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) Initiative

The Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) initiative provides materials and tools needed to monitor and assess vaccine supply chains and help countries to improve their supply chain performance. This web page provides links to EVM background and …

Author: World Health Organization

PATH Influenza Vaccine Project: Accelerating the Development of New Influenza Vaccines for Low-Resource Countries

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, discusses the current influenza vaccine landscape and the steps that PATH, an international global health nonprofit, is taking through its Influenza Vaccine Project to accelerate the development …

Author: Neuzil KM, Tsvetnitsky V, Nyari LJ, Bright RA, Boslego JW

Publication date: 2012

Further, Faster, Fairer: Reaching Every Last Child With Immunisation

Progress in immunization coverage over the past decade has been impressive, yet some children are still excluded from the full benefits of immunization. This report shows where children are being missed with routine immunization and argues that …

Author: Save the Children

Publication date: 2016

Incidence of Rotavirus and Circulating Genotypes in Northeast Brazil During 7 Years of National Rotavirus Vaccination

This article, published in PLoS One, examined rates of rotavirus infection before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Brazil in 2006. The authors found that the vaccine was associated with substantial reductions in rotavirus incidence and …

Author: Gurgel RQ, Alvarez AJ, Rodrigues A, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Investing in Stronger Vaccine Supply Chains: Reaching Children With Immunization, Saving Lives

This brochure describes how advances in vaccine supply chain systems can accelerate the delivery of lifesaving immunizations to people who need them. The document offers recommendations for global policymakers to support countries in building more …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

WHO Vaccine Reaction Rates Information Sheets

This web page provides links to information sheets on reaction rates of selected vaccines. The papers are primarily designed for use by national public health officials and immunization program managers. Data from these sheets can be used for the …

Author: World Health Organization

The Global Vaccine Safety Initiative (GVSI)

The Global Vaccine Safety Initiative (GVSI) is a global collaborative effort to ensure that everyone everywhere can be protected from serious infectious diseases with minimal untoward effects from the best available vaccines. This website provides a …

Author: World Health Organization

Protecting Aluminum-Adjuvanted Vaccines From Freeze Damage

This fact sheet describes how PATH developed a low-cost and straightforward technology for protecting aluminum-adjuvanted liquid vaccines from the irreversible damage that results from freezing. Many current vaccines of importance to global health …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Achieving the Global Vision for Future Immunization Supply and Logistics Systems: Action Plans

These action plans describe specific activities and strategies designed to help achieve the common vision for the future of immunization supply systems developed by the Cold Chain and Logistics Task Force (led by the United Nations Children’s Fund …

Author: World Health Organization, PATH

Publication date: 2012

Changes in Hospitalisations for Acute Gastroenteritis in Australia After the National Rotavirus Vaccination Program

This retrospective analysis, published in the Medical Journal of Australia, found a sustained and substantial decline in rotavirus hospitalizations as well as hospitalizations for diarrhea of any cause following national vaccine …

Author: Dey A, Wang H, Menzies R, Macartney K

Publication date: 2012

Development and Technology Transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b Conjugate Vaccines for Developing Countries

This article, published in Vaccine, describes the development of a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment/Netherlands Vaccine Institute (RIVM/NVI), and the subsequent …

Author: Beurret M, Hamidi A, Kreeftenberg H

Publication date: 2012

Introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) Vaccine in Two States of India

The National Technical Advisory Group on Immunization in India recommended the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in their Universal Immunization Program (UIP) in 2008. From December 2011, Hib vaccine in combination with …

Author: Gupta SK, Sosler S, Lahariya C

Publication date: 2012

A Cost Effectiveness and Capacity Analysis for the Introduction of Universal Rotavirus Vaccination in Kenya: Comparison Between Rotarix and RotaTeq Vaccines

The authors of this article, published in PLoS ONE, applied cost-effectiveness modeling and a cold-chain impact assessment to aid decision-making on rotavirus vaccine introduction in Kenya. They conclude that use of either vaccine is cost-effective, …

Author: van Hoek AJ, Ngama M, Ismail A, et al.

Publication date: 2012

A Phase 3 Trial of RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine in African Infants

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, reports results from a pivotal, large-scale Phase 3 trial of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine. When compared to immunization with a control vaccine, infants (aged 6 to 12 weeks at first …

Author: The RTS,S Clinical Trials Partnership

Publication date: 2012

Beyond Efficacy: The Full Public Health Impact of Vaccines

This conference report, published in Vaccine, describes an active discussion in the public health community on how to assess and incorporate, in addition to safety and measures of protective efficacy, the full public health value of preventive …

Author: Saadatian-Elahi M, Horstick O, Breiman RF, et al.

Publication date: 2016

The Compelling Need for Game-Changing Influenza Vaccines: An Analysis of the Influenza Vaccine Enterprise and Recommendations for the Future

This report provides a review of all aspects of influenza vaccine research and development, financing, manufacturing, efficacy, safety, regulatory issues, procurement, distribution, usage, public education, consumer acceptance, and public policy. …

Author: Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy

Publication date: 2012

The Oral, Live Attenuated Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Vaccine ACE527 Reduces the Incidence and Severity of Diarrhea in a Human Challenge Model of Diarrheal Disease

This article, published in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, presents findings from a Phase 2b challenge study of an oral, live attenuated, three-strain recombinant bacterial vaccine, ACE527, against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Fifty-six …

Author: Darsley MJ, Chakraborty S, DeNearing B, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Cost-Effectiveness and Economic Benefits of Vaccines in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

This review, published in Vaccine, documents the available evidence showing that vaccination in low- and middle-income countries brings important economic benefits. The cost-effectiveness studies reviewed suggest to policy makers that vaccines are …

Author: Ozawa S, Mirelman A, Stack ML, Walker DG, Levine OS

Publication date: 2012

Effect of Vaccines on Bacterial Meningitis Worldwide

This article, published in The Lancet, focuses on the three most common causes of acute bacterial meningitis: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. The authors compare patterns of meningitis attributable to …

Author: McIntyre PB, O'Brien KL, Greenwood B, van de Beek D

Publication date: 2012

Africa Routine Immunization System Essentials Project: Technical Resources

The three-year Africa Routine Immunization System Essentials (ARISE) project, which ended in November 2012, worked to build the evidence base on what drives improvements in routine immunization in Africa. Findings from the project's work complement …

Author: JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc.

Publication date: 2012

Vaccine Safety Basics: E-Learning Course

This online training course aims to establish a shared understanding among professionals whose work is linked to vaccine safety issues. This may include nurses/midwives/community health workers, as well as pharmacists, medical doctors, and program …

Author: World Health Organization

Immunisation for All: No Child Left Behind

This report identifies country-level strategies to reach the one in five children that are missing out on basic vaccinations. It also identifies factors at the global level that will help to create a more conducive environment for countries to …

Author: Save the Children

Publication date: 2012

VacciNews.net

This website provides up-to-date information to the public, media, health professionals, and policy makers to help them understand basic facts about vaccines and immunization. All information provided by the site is reviewed by an editorial board …

Author: VacciNews.net

RSV Vaccine and mAb Snapshot

This slide provides a snapshot of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine and monoclonal antibody (mAb) technology landscape, in the effort to track the development of RSV vaccine and mAb candidates and provide a summary of the various such …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

New Vaccines Against Enteric Bacteria for Children in Less Developed Countries

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, describes how the development of safe and effective multicomponent, whole-bacterial cell vaccine(s) against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Shigella, two important pathogens for which no …

Author: Walker RI

Publication date: 2005

Live-Attenuated Shigella Vaccines

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, describes several live attenuated Shigella vaccines, with well-defined mutations in specific genes, that have shown great promise in eliciting significant immune responses when given orally to …

Author: Venkatesan MM, Ranallo RT

Publication date: 2006

Inactivated and Subunit Vaccines to Prevent Shigellosis

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, describes how vaccines to prevent shigellosis can be divided into living and nonliving approaches. Several nonliving Shigella vaccines are currently at different stages of development and show …

Author: Kaminski RW, Oaks EV

Publication date: 2009

World Malaria Report 2012

This report summarizes information received from 104 malaria-endemic countries and other sources, and updates the analyses presented in the 2011 report. It highlights the progress made toward the global malaria targets set for 2015 and describes …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Albania Pilots an Immunization Information System

The Albanian Ministry of Health, in collaboration with project Optimize, developed a registry-based immunization information system. This fact sheet illustrates how the data the new system produces has been used to improve the management of the …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Meeting Requirements for Controlled Room Temperature Storage of Medicines

Project Optimize and the Tunisian Ministry of Public Health are collaborating to explore new logistics and supply chain solutions that can optimize the vaccine supply chain. This report describes a study that project Optimize commissioned to assess …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Domestic Refrigerators for Vaccine Storage in Tunisia: Conclusion and Recommendations

This project Optimize document summarizes a laboratory report on performance testing of four models of domestic refrigerators that are available on the Tunisian market. Project Optimize contracted the tests to demonstrate to the government the …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative

This fact sheet provides an overview of PATH’s Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI), which works to accelerate malaria vaccine development and catalyze timely access in endemic countries toward a world free from malaria. Standing at the intersection …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

Rotaviruses: Cause of Vaccine-Preventable Disease Yet Many Fundamental Questions Remain to Be Explored

This editorial, published in Current Opinion in Virology, details the molecular structure and pathogenesis of rotavirus and outlines important areas for further research of current rotavirus vaccines. These include the causes of decreased efficacy …

Author: Estes MK, Desselberger U

Publication date: 2012

Optimize: Albania Report

This report presents the results of demonstration projects and other activities undertaken in Albania as part of a partnership between project Optimize (a collaboration between the World Health Organization and PATH) and the Albanian Institute of …

Author: Albanian Institute of Public Health, PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

HPV Vaccination in Southeast Asia: Lessons Learned From a Pilot Program in Vietnam

This report summarizes the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program implemented in Vietnam by PATH, the Vietnam National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, and the Vietnam National Center for Health Education and Communication through the …

Author: PATH; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Vietnam; National Center for Health Education and Communication, Vietnam

Publication date: 2012

Vaccine Presentation and Packaging Advisory Group: A Forum for Reaching Consensus on Vaccine Product Attributes

Published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, this article describes a novel approach to improving vaccine design and presentation in order to reach all children with lifesaving vaccines. The Vaccine Presentation and Packaging Advisory …

Author: Mansoor OD, Kristensen D, Meek A, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Potential Intussusception Risk Versus Benefits of Rotavirus Vaccination in the United States

International data show a low-level increased risk of intussusception associated with rotavirus vaccination. This article, published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, reports on a study that compared potential vaccine-associated …

Author: Rishi D, Cortese M, Meltzer MI, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Immune Responses and Protection in Children in Developing Countries Induced by Oral Vaccines

Oral mucosal vaccines have great promise for generating protective immunity against intestinal infections for the benefit of large numbers of people especially young children. However, these vaccines are not equally immunogenic nor protective in …

Author: Qadri F, Bhuiyan TR, Sack DA, Svennerholm A-M

Publication date: 2013

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Tanzania

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Tanzania. It includes information about: the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Tanzanian children; rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies; the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Exploring New, Non-replicating Rotavirus Vaccines

This fact sheet summarizes the technical efforts and objectives of PATH's non-replicating rotavirus vaccine (NRRV) development project. It outlines the vaccine candidates under evaluation and primary partners, as well as the rationale for the NRRV …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Ocean Shipment of Vaccines

In consideration of the volatile global economy, the growing costs of airfreight, and the risk associated with diminished air cargo capacity, project Optimize evaluated ocean freight as a potentially secure and economic alternative method to …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Ghana

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Ghana. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Ghanaian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Vaccine Information You Need

This website is a comprehensive and user-friendly source of scientifically accurate and easily navigable immunization information. The site offers parents, other adults, legislators, the media, and others a one-stop shop for learning about vaccines …

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

The Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety: Stakeholder Concerns, Scientific Evidence, and Future Studies

This report provides a comprehensive examination of the United States' childhood immunization schedule. The committee convened to prepare this report was tasked with identifying research approaches, methodologies, and study designs that could …

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publication date: 2013

Rotavirus Vaccines: WHO Position Paper - January 2013

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, reaffirms the World Health Organization's recommendation that rotavirus vaccines should be included in all national immunization programs, especially in countries with high death rates. …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Clinical Trial to Evaluate Safety and Immunogenicity of an Oral Inactivated Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Prototype Vaccine Containing CFA/I Overexpressing Bacteria and Recombinantly Produced LTB/CTB Hybrid Protein

This article, published in Vaccine, describes the results of a randomized, comparator controlled, double-blind Phase 1 trial in 60 Swedish adults testing a prototype of a new oral vaccine candidate against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) …

Author: Lundgren A, Leach S, Tobias J, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Physical Characterization and Formulation Development of a Recombinant Pneumolysoid Protein-Based Pneumococcal Vaccine

Pneumolysin is a protein toxin produced by virtually all invasive strains of S. pneumoniae and is considered an important virulence factor. It is immunogenic and has the potential to be a new vaccine antigen offering broad serotype-independent …

Author: Hu L, Joshi SB, Liyanage MR, et al.

Publication date: 2013

RotaTeq (Rotavirus Vaccine) Questions and Answers

This web page provides an overview of rotavirus disease, rotavirus vaccines (particularly focused on RotaTeq®), and potential side effects of the vaccine. It also includes a detailed discussion on intussusception, which is a rare potential side …

Author: US Food and Drug Administration

Publication date: 2015

FLU.gov

This website provides fact sheets, reports, articles, videos, and other resources about influenza symptoms, treatment, prevention, and vaccination.

Author: US Department of Health & Human Services

Recent Progress Towards Development of a Shigella Vaccine

The burden of dysentery due to shigellosis among children in the developing world is a major concern, but no licensed vaccine is available. This review article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, provides an update on Shigella vaccine …

Author: Camacho AI, Irache JM, Gamazo C

Publication date: 2013

Estimating Age-Specific Cumulative Incidence for the 2009 Influenza Pandemic: A Meta-analysis of A(H1N1)pdm09 Serological Studies From 19 Countries

This article, published in Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, details the results of a meta-analysis conducted to provide insights into the global impact of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. The study estimates overall and age-specific …

Author: Van Kerkhove MD, Hirve S, Koukounari A, Mounts AW

Publication date: 2013

Toward a Universal Influenza Virus Vaccine: Prospects and Challenges

This article, published in Annual Review of Medicine, summarizes advances in the field of universal influenza vaccine development. It focuses on novel vaccine designs that have yielded promising preclinical and clinical data. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn …

Author: Pica N, Palese P

Publication date: 2013

Delivering Vaccines: A Cost Comparison of In-Country Vaccine Transport Container Options

Project Optimize undertook a cost-comparison case study of five container options for vaccine transport from the national to the regional level in Senegal. This report may be used as a starting point for other country vaccine programs weighing …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Optimize: Senegal Report

This report presents the results of demonstration projects and other activities undertaken in Senegal from 2009 to 2012 as part of a partnership between project Optimize and the Senegalese Ministry of Health. The activities aimed to demonstrate …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Optimize: Vietnam Report

This report presents the results of demonstration projects and other activities undertaken in Vietnam as part of a partnership between project Optimize and Vietnam’s Ministry of Health. The activities aimed to demonstrate innovations in …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Project Optimize's Flickr Photostream

Using new technologies and scientific advances, project Optimize intends to help transform the vaccine supply chain, enabling it to meet the demands of an increasingly large and costly portfolio of vaccines. This project Optimize flickr photostream …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Unplugged and Keeping Cool—Testing Off-Grid Vaccine Storage Solutions in Vietnam

Keeping heat-sensitive vaccines at the right temperature is crucial yet often difficult in areas with limited or no electrical power. Project Optimize collaborated with the Vietnam National Expanded Programme on Immunization to evaluate two …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Vietnam’s Immunization Registries Go Online

In Vietnam, project Optimize worked with government and software partners to help introduce a digital immunization registry. This brief describes how the registry allowed the health system to better track children due for vaccination and shortened …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Evaluation of Meningitis Surveillance Before Introduction of Serogroup A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine—Burkina Faso and Mali

Before the 2010 to 2011 introduction of the first serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine developed solely for Africa (MenAfriVac), evaluations of the existing meningitis surveillance in Burkina Faso and Mali were conducted to assess the …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2012

Meningococcal Vaccine Evolution

This article, published in the Journal of Preventative Medicine and Hygiene, provides an overview of available meningococcal vaccines and how they have evolved as well as existing gaps in the meningococcal vaccine landscape. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn …

Author: Bona G, Guidi C

Publication date: 2012

Meningococcal Disease: Changes in Epidemiology and Prevention

The human bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis remains a serious worldwide health threat, but progress is being made toward the control of meningococcal infections. This review, published in Clinical Epidemiology, summarizes current knowledge …

Author: Chang Q, Tzeng Y, Stephens DS

Publication date: 2012

Priorities for Research on Meningococcal Disease and the Impact of Serogroup A Vaccination in the African Meningitis Belt

To review how the research agenda for meningococcal disease in Africa has been changed by the advent of a serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid protein conjugate vaccine and to define a new set of research priorities for study of meningococcal …

Author: Greenwood B

Publication date: 2013

Optimize Phase I Summary Report: Evaluating the Vaccine Supply Chain in Preparation for Demonstrating Future Options in Vietnam

Project Optimize and the Vietnamese National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology collaborated on a series of activities designed to assess the opportunities and needs for strengthening the immunization system in Vietnam. This document reports the …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2010

Harnessing Solar Energy for Health Needs

Many health facilities in remote areas operate without grid electricity, have unreliable electricity, or find that using electricity is too costly. In these settings, solar energy is a promising solution for powering the storage and transportation …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Vaccine Regional Distribution Center Cost Assessment

Project Optimize assessed the cost implications of leveraging a regional distribution center for the international transportation of vaccines in seven African countries. This report outlines the economic issues that need to be addressed for such a …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2011

Improving Vaccine Delivery Through Moving Warehouses

This fact sheet details a collaboration between Project Optimize and the Senegalese Ministry of Health to implement and validate a "moving warehouse" that will streamline the vaccine supply chain from the regional to the peripheral level. A moving …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2012

Effect of Rotavirus Vaccine on Diarrhea Mortality in Different Socioeconomic Regions of Mexico

This article, published in Pediatrics, concludes that after the 2007 introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Mexico, marked and sustained declines in diarrhea deaths were seen among children in all regions of the country, including in the least …

Author: Gastañaduy PA, Sánchez-Uribe E, Esparza-Aguilar M, et al.

Publication date: 2013

MenAfriCar - African Meningococcal Carriage Consortium

MenAfriCar is a global research effort to study how meningococcal meningitis is spread in Africa and to document the impact of a new meningitis vaccine on reducing transmission. This website provides an overview of the consortium's aims, objectives, …

Author: MenAfriCar

Clinical Presentation of Meningococcal Disease in Childhood

This article, published in the Journal of Preventative Medicine and Hygiene, provides an overview of the disease burden of meningococcal disease and the various vaccines available for meningococcal disease serogroups. Although relatively rare, …

Author: Sabatini C, Bosis S, Semino M, Senatore L, Principi N, Esposito S

Publication date: 2012

Conjugate Vaccine Introduction in the African Meningitis Belt: Meeting Surveillance Objectives

This article, published in Tropical Medicine & International Health, asserts that surveillance systems and techniques for diagnosing bacterial meningitis and pneumococcal disease in the African meningitis belt have improved greatly over the …

Author: Mueller JE

Publication date: 2013

The Changing Epidemiology of Meningococcal Disease in North America 1945–2010

The epidemiology of Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) is distinct in the United States and Canada compared with other countries. This review, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, describes the incidence, mortality, and …

Author: Baccarini C, Ternouth A, Wieffer H, Vyse A

Publication date: 2013

Immunogenicity and Safety of a New Meningococcal A Conjugate Vaccine in Indian Children Aged 2-10 Years: A Phase II/III Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

This article, published in Vaccine, describes a study that compared the immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac™, Serum Institute of India Ltd.) against the meningococcal group A …

Author: Hirve S, Bavdekar A, Pandit A, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Risk of Guillain-Barré Syndrome After Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccination

A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) was introduced in the United States in 2005. Shortly after, case reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a serious demyelinating disease, began to be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. …

Author: Velentgas P, Amato AA, Bohn RL, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Seasonality of Meningitis in Africa and Climate Forcing: Aerosols Stand Out

The determinants of the disease dynamics of bacterial meningitis in the African meningitis belt are still poorly understood; nevertheless, it is often advocated that climate and mineral dust have a large impact. Several studies have investigated …

Author: Agier L, Deroubaix A, Martiny N, Yaka P, Djibo A, Broutin H

Publication date: 2013

Malaria Vaccine R&D in the Decade of Vaccines: Breakthroughs, Challenges and Opportunities

While progress has been made in reducing malaria mortality with other interventions, vaccines are still urgently needed to further reduce the incidence of clinical disease. The most clinically advanced candidate, RTS,S, is presently undergoing Phase …

Author: Birkett AJ, Moorthy VS, Loucq C, Chitnis CE, Kaslow DC

Publication date: 2013

Desirable Attributes of Vaccines for Deployment in Low-Resource Settings

This article, published in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, discusses the opportunities and challenges associated with developing vaccines with desirable attributes, including enhanced stability and efficient packaging, that can help to …

Author: Chen D, Zehrung D

Publication date: 2013

A Chemiluminescent-Western Blot Assay for Quantitative Detection of Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein

Highly sensitive and reliable assays based on the quantitation of immunologically relevant component(s) in recombinant or whole parasite-based vaccines would facilitate pre-clinical and clinical phases and the monitoring of malaria vaccine …

Author: Kumar S, Zheng H, Sangweme DT, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Qualification of Standard Membrane-Feeding Assay with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Potential Improvements for Future Assays

Vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission are of increasing interest. A robust functional assay to measure this activity would provide a biologically relevant means of evaluating potential vaccine candidates. This article, published in PLOS ONE, …

Author: Miura K, Deng B, Tullo G, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Prevent Childhood Influenza

This website provides materials about childhood influenza vaccination in the United States. It is targeted to both consumer and healthcare professionals. Materials include fact sheets, videos, social media sharing tools, real-life stories, …

Author: National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, Childhood Influenza Immunization Coalition

US Investments in Global Immunization

This fact sheet describes investments made by the United States in immunization resources around the world. It includes the GAVI Alliance, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, the US Agency for International …

Author: PATH, American Red Cross, GAVI Alliance, United Nations Children's Fund, American Academy of Pediatrics, John Snow, Inc., International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Shot@Life, International Medical Corps, Sabin Vaccine Institute, RESULTS, Aeras

Publication date: 2013

Use of MenAfriVac™ (Meningitis A Vaccine) in a Controlled Temperature Chain (CTC) During Campaigns

The need to keep vaccines in a 2°C to 8°C cold chain is a constraining factor for many immunization campaigns due to limited storage capacity and/or ice pack freezing capacity. In 2012, based on a thorough review of scientific data by regulatory …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Solar Direct-Drive: A Better Option for Last-Mile Cooling

For health facilities lacking reliable access to electricity, solar direct-drive refrigerators are the most cost-effective option currently available for vaccine storage when comparing similarly sized units. This banner provides information about …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Intussusception After Rotavirus Vaccines Reported to US VAERS, 2006-2012

This article, published in Pediatrics, describes investigators' assessment of intussusception events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System from 2006 through 2012, following the respective introductions of RotaTeq® (Merck & Co., …

Author: Haber P, Patel M, Pan Y, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Safety, Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in HIV-Infected Individuals

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, summarizes the available published data on the immunogenicity, safety, and efficacy of pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in HIV-infected children and adults.

Author: Nunes MC, Madhi SA

Publication date: 2012

Protective Association Between Rotavirus Vaccination and Childhood Seizures in the Year Following Vaccination in US Children

This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, describes a review of data from 250,000 children born in the United States between March 2006—when rotavirus vaccines were introduced in the United States—and November 2009 for incidences …

Author: Payne DC, Baggs J, Zerr DM, et al.

Publication date: 2013

R&D for Diarrhoeal Diseases

While preventive measures such as clean drinking water and sanitation can reduce the risk of infection from diarrheal diseases, research and development (R&D) of new tools is equally important, particularly for vaccines as they can prevent …

Author: Policy Cures

Publication date: 2013

Provider Resources for Vaccine Conversations With Parents

In partnership with the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention created this suite of materials to support the conversations that healthcare providers are …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Spray Drying and Vaccine Stabilization

Research on spray drying as a processing method to improve vaccine stabilization and to enable novel routes of vaccine delivery has produced promising results; however, the method has yet to be adopted for the manufacture of vaccine products by the …

Author: McAdams D, Chen D, Kristensen D

Publication date: 2012

ROTA Council (Rotavirus Organization of Technical Allies)

The ROTA Council is composed of global experts in rotavirus disease and vaccines, with a mission to save lives and improve health by promoting the use of rotavirus vaccines as part of a comprehensive approach to addressing diarrheal disease. Council …

Author: ROTA Council

From Pipeline to Product: Malaria R&D Funding Needs Into the Next Decade

This report serves as a tool to guide policymakers’ investment in new tools to control malaria, contain emerging threats, and move toward the goal of eradicating malaria from the world. It looks at the estimated funding needed for Research & …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Meningococcal Disease: 2013 Epidemic Season in the African Meningitis Belt

This report shows a decrease in the incidence of meningococcal disease in the 2013 epidemic season in the African Meningitis Belt. The decrease in the number of cases of meningitis reported during the period under review is thought to be due to the …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Freeze-Protection of Aluminum-Adjuvanted Vaccines: PATH Formulation Technology

PATH has developed a low-cost and straightforward approach for protecting aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines from irreversible damage that results from freezing. Many current vaccines of importance to global health contain an aluminum-salt adjuvant (such …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Ethiopia

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Ethiopia. It includes information about: the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Ethiopian children; rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies; the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Effectiveness of Pentavalent and Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccines in Concurrent Use Among US Children <5 Years of Age, 2009–2011

This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, summarizes a study that assessed vaccine effectiveness of RotaTeq (RV5; 3 doses) and Rotarix (RV1; 2 doses) at reducing rotavirus acute gastroenteritis inpatient and emergency department (ED) …

Author: Payne DC, Boom JA, Staat MA, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Stabilizing Influenza Vaccines

If a highly virulent pandemic strain were to emerge in today’s interconnected world, influenza has the potential to kill millions of people, especially in developing countries with limited to no resources for pandemic planning, preparedness, and …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Intussusception Risk after Rotavirus Vaccination in U.S. Infants

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, reports on a study about the potential increased risk of intussusception after rotavirus vaccination with RotaTeq (RV5, a pentavalent vaccine) and Rotarix (RV1, a monovalent vaccine) …

Author: Yih WK, Lieu TA, Kulldorff M, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013–2018

This document is a comprehensive, long-term strategy that addresses what is needed to deliver a polio-free world by 2018. The plan addresses the eradication of all polio disease, whether caused by wild poliovirus or circulating vaccine-derived …

Author: Global Polio Eradication Initiative

Publication date: 2013

HPV Vaccine Introduction Clearing House

This web page is a one-stop shop to find publications, tools, and other important resources on the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Its goal is to help guide HPV vaccine policy, program, and communications managers to develop successful …

Author: World Health Organization

Vaccine Safety and Your Child: Separating Fact From Fiction

This 32-page booklet is excerpted from a book published in 2011, and was developed by the Vaccine Education Center of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia to serve as a resource for parents. Topics covered include: general questions about vaccine …

Author: Offit PA, Moser CA

Publication date: 2013

Optimize: Tunisia Report

This report presents the results and findings of three demonstration projects undertaken in Tunisia as part of a partnership between project Optimize and the Tunisian Ministry of Health. Between 2009 and 2012, the partnership aimed to demonstrate …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Understanding Influenza Vaccine Performance Among Children in Senegal

This fact sheet describes a Phase 2 influenza vaccine clinical study that PATH and its partners are conducting in Senegal. The study seeks to better understand the performance of seasonal influenza vaccines in a tropical, low-resource region of the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Haiti

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Haiti. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Haitian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

A Moving Warehouse in Senegal

As part of the project Optimize traveling exhibit, this banner illustrates the concept of integrating vaccines with other health products in streamlined supply chains. It highlights Senegal’s “moving warehouse,” which was …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Preventing Freezing in Vaccine Carriers

As part of the project Optimize traveling exhibit featuring immunization supply chain innovations being developed and tested in different countries around the world, this banner and these handouts emphasize the importance of, and methods for, …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Some Vaccine Costs Are Hidden Below the Surface

This banner serves as the backdrop for a vaccine presentation game in the project Optimize traveling exhibit—an exhibit featuring supply chain innovations being developed and tested in different countries around the world. The banner …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

The Imperative for Stronger Vaccine Supply and Logistics Systems

This article, published in Vaccine, asserts that over the next decade vaccine supply and logistics systems in nearly all developing countries will require significant investments of time and resources from global and national partners, donors, and …

Author: Zaffran M, Vandelaer J, Kristensen D, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Common Requirements for Logistics Management Information Systems

This document focuses on a method for producing descriptions, models, and figures that accurately represent the views and needs of global health professionals. The document can be used by global health practitioners to inform software development …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2010

Before and After: How an Online Immunization Registry has Benefitted Health Workers in Albania

Starting in 2009, the Albanian Institute of Public Health collaborated with project Optimize to implement an online immunization information system (IIS) that can schedule and record all child immunizations in the country, as well as manage vaccine …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Burkina Faso

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Burkina Faso. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Burkinabè children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

My Name, My Future: Optimize Project Guatemala

This 10-minute video provides an overview of Guatemala's effort to build a comprehensive immunization information system with support from Project Optimize, a collaboration between PATH and the World Health Organization. The video explains how a new …

Author: Guatemala's Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance; Pan American Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

The Case for Developing and Deploying an Open Source Electronic Logistics Management Information System

This white paper makes the case for why logistics management information systems (LMIS) should be used to manage the distribution of pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and medical products. Health information users and stakeholders in low- and middle-income …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2011

The Framework for OpenLMIS

There is a growing trend within low- and lower-middle-income countries and the development community working in those countries away from standalone information system projects toward comprehensive, enterprise-level health information systems. …

Author: VillageReach

Publication date: 2012

Computerizing Logistics Management Information Systems: A Program Manager’s Guide

As in-country public health logistics systems become more integrated and sophisticated, many countries are looking to automate their logistics management information systems (LMIS) in order to improve the quantity, quality, and timeliness of …

Author: US Agency for International Development's DELIVER PROJECT

Publication date: 2012

OpenLMIS

OpenLMIS is a collaboration of domain experts in logistics and supply chains, eHealth information systems, software development for low-resource settings, and process improvement. This website is for sharing information about logistics management …

Author: JSI, PATH, Rockefeller Foundation, VillageReach

Delivering MenAfriVac Using the Controlled Temperature Chain Approach

In November 2012, the first immunization campaign to use a controlled temperature chain (CTC) took place in northern Benin. This photo set by project Optimize contains images taken during the campaign, where more than 155,000 people were vaccinated …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Use of MenAfriVac in a Controlled Temperature Chain (CTC) in Benin

This six-minute video describes the first campaign against meningitis A in Benin using MenAfriVac conjugate vaccine in a controlled temperature chain (CTC), conducted from November 15 to 25, 2012. The use of a CTC meant that the vaccine could be …

Author: Agence de Médecine Preventive, PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Now is the Time

Recent advances in vaccine science have enabled more countries to provide newer, lifesaving vaccines to more people. However, the impact of these vaccines is often constrained by delays and vaccine waste due to stressed and aging vaccine supply and …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

One Size Does Not Fit All: The Impact of Primary Vaccine Container Size on Vaccine Distribution and Delivery

This article, published in Vaccine, reports that vaccine vial size—the total number of doses a single vaccine vial contains—can have a significant impact on vaccine distribution, costs, and use. The authors used the simulation modeling platform …

Author: Haidari LA, Wahl B, Brown ST, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Global Polio Eradication

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) released a new six-year plan in 2012 that outlines steps to end polio transmission, help improve childhood immunization programs, and begin a worldwide polio vaccine transition. While the plan is …

Author: Center for Strategic and International Studies

Publication date: 2013

Investigating Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Efficacy in Senegal

This fact sheet describes a Phase 3 clinical study that PATH and its partners are conducting in Senegal to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a seasonal, trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). By providing evidence on how well this type …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in Low-Resource Settings: Practical Experience From PATH

From 2006 to 2011, PATH conducted human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination demonstration projects in India, Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam to provide evidence for decision-making about public-sector introduction of HPV vaccines. This report examines the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Evaluating HPV Vaccination Pilots: Practical Experience From PATH

From 2006 to 2011, PATH conducted human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination demonstration projects in India, Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam to provide evidence for decision-making about public-sector introduction of HPV vaccines. This report provides …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2012

Installing and Testing Battery-Free Solar Refrigerators in Vietnam

This photo set contains pictures of the installation and initial testing of two True Energy BLF 100 DC Sure Chill® battery-free solar powered vaccine refrigerators in Vietnam. The refrigerators were installed in May 2011, one in Thanh Ba district, …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

A Moving Warehouse Delivers Vaccines and Essential Health Supplies in Senegal

In March 2011, the government of Senegal began using a "moving warehouse" to transport vaccines and vaccine supplies from regional stores directly to district stores and health posts on a monthly basis in the Saint-Louis region. This photo set …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Trends in National Rotavirus Activity Before and After Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine into the National Immunization Program in the United States, 2000 to 2012

Rotavirus vaccine introduction in the United States in 2006 led to substantial declines in rotavirus detections during 2007 to 2010. To further evaluate the long-term impact of the vaccine program, the authors of this article, published in the …

Author: Tate JE, Haynes A, Payne DC, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Lessons Learned From an Operations Research Assessment of New Supply Chain Demonstrations in Four Countries: A Framework for Decision-Making: Albania, Senegal, Tunisia, and Vietnam

In 2012, project Optimize completed an assessment to explore the acceptability and feasibility of the innovative vaccine supply chain interventions the project had demonstrated in four collaborating countries. The goal was to learn about future …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine in Bolivia: Case-Control Study

This article, published in BMJ, reports on a study that evaluated the effectiveness of two doses of a monovalent rotavirus vaccine against hospital admission for rotavirus at six hospitals in Bolivia, between March 2010 and June 2011. Results show …

Author: Patel MM, Patzi M, Pastor D, et al.

Publication date: 2013

A Case for Better Immunization Information Systems

This evidence brief discusses the rationale for improving immunization information systems and describes user experiences with different types of systems. It also provides advice on feasibility in different contexts. It draws on evidence gathered …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Direct-Drive Solar Vaccine Refrigerators—A New Choice for Vaccine Storage

This evidence brief developed by project Optimize is directed toward supply chain managers in low- and middle-income countries and provides information about direct-drive solar refrigerators, which may be a good option for vaccine storage in areas …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Planning an Information Systems Project: A Toolkit for Public Health Managers

This toolkit can help public health managers plan for the implementation of information and communications technology in health information systems. It includes examples of how to use the kit's planning tools and principles to develop …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Vaccine Recommendations of the ACIP

This web page provides vaccine-related recommendations from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). The page includes recommendations for specific vaccines, such as those against human …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

HPV Vaccine Training Materials for Countries Introducing Gardasil (or Silgard)™ 1 Dose Vaccine

These eight training modules relate to key aspects of the introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil (or Silgard)™. They are intended for use by health workers during vaccine introduction training sessions and contain …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Essential Training Package for HPV Vaccine Introduction for Countries Introducing Cervarix™ 2 Dose Vaccine

These eight training modules relate to key aspects of the introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Cervarix™. They are intended for use by health workers during vaccine introduction training sessions and contain facilitator notes …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)

This supplement to the Journal of Pediatrics features 13 original research articles on Hib. Several of the articles present new data on the impact of Hib vaccines in developing countries, including Bangladesh, The Gambia, Mongolia, and Mozambique. …

Author: Hajjeh R, Mulholland K, Santosham M, eds.

Publication date: 2013

Stimulating Innovation in the Vaccine Cold Chain Equipment Industry

This document describes project Optimize’s effort to stimulate the development of two new categories of vaccine cold chain equipment—solar direct-drive refrigerators and passive-cooled cold boxes—by eliminating key market barriers and …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Integrating the Supply Chains of Vaccines and Other Health Commodities

This evidence brief examines the benefits, challenges, and rationale for integrating vaccine supply chains with the supply chains of other health commodities. It provides agencies, donors, decision-makers, and partners with a brief overview of …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Integration of Vaccine Supply Chains With Other Health Commodity Supply Chains: A Framework for Decision-Making

This document provides national immunization program managers, their technical support staff, policymakers in ministries of health, and global agencies involved in vaccine and health product supply chains with a better understanding of the benefits …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Innovative Passive Cooling Options for Vaccines

This evidence brief reports results from field demonstrations of new vaccine cold boxes that could soon be available as World Health Organization–prequalified devices for vaccine storage and/or transport. This information is intended for national …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in The Gambia

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in The Gambia. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Gambian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Protecting Global Access to Lifesaving Vaccines: PATH’s Global Advocacy Strategy During the United Nations Environment Program Mercury Treaty Negotiations

This case study highlights PATH and its partners’ successful advocacy efforts to ensure the protection of vaccines containing thiomersal—a preservative used in multi-dose vaccines. In January 2013, government delegates finalized a global …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

The Impact of Protein-Conjugate Polysaccharide Vaccines: An Endgame for Meningitis?

The impact of conjugate polysaccharide vaccines on disease is largely due to their effectiveness against asymptomatic carriage of bacteria. This reduces transmission, resulting in herd immunity; however, the effect on carriage can result in the …

Author: Maiden MCJ

Publication date: 2013

Meningococcal Carriage in the African Meningitis Belt

The African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of a meningococcal serogroup A …

Author: MenAfriCar Consortium

Publication date: 2013

Protecting the Herd: The Remarkable Effectiveness of the Bacterial Meningitis Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccines in Altering Transmission Dynamics

The polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines against the pathogens responsible for bacterial meningitis have demonstrated remarkable effectiveness, far beyond the predicted individual efficacy. Approximately half of the effectiveness of these …

Author: Stephens DS

Publication date: 2011

Meningococcal Vaccines: Current Issues and Future Strategies

The authors of this article, published in Drugs, provide an overview of the history and current state of meningococcal vaccines. They also review issues related to the vaccines that still need to be addressed including duration of protection, …

Author: Cohn AC, Harrison LH

Publication date: 2013

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Meningococcal Carriage and Disease Isolates in Burkina Faso After Mass Vaccination With a Serogroup A Conjugate Vaccine

The conjugate vaccine against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis, MenAfriVac, was first introduced in mass vaccination campaigns of the 1- to 29-year-olds in Burkina Faso in 2010. This study, published in BMC Infectious Diseases, genetically …

Author: Kristiansen PA, Ba AK, Sanou I, et al.

Publication date: 2013

The Cost and Public Health Burden of Invasive Meningococcal Disease Outbreaks: A Systematic Review

Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a serious disease with a rapid onset, high mortality rate, and risk of long-term complications. The authors of this article, published in Pharmacoeconomics, systematically reviewed the literature on the costs …

Author: Anonychuk A, Woo G, Vyse A, Demarteau N, Tricco AC

Publication date: 2013

Emergence of Serogroup X Meningococcal Disease in Africa: Need for a Vaccine

This article, published in Vaccine, describes how and why serogroup X meningococcal disease has emerged in Africa in recent years. It asserts that while no licensed vaccine is available against serogroup X meningococci, following the introduction of …

Author: Xie O, Pollard AJ, Mueller JE, Norheim G

Publication date: 2013

Optimize: South Sudan Report

This report summarizes the results of a small implementation activity that Project Optimize conducted in South Sudan. The goal of the activity was to test the feasibility and usefulness of implementing a mobile and cloud-based vaccine stock …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Above Zero: Strategies to Prevent Vaccine Freezing

This four-minute animated video emphasizes the difficulty and importance of maintaining proper temperatures in the vaccine cold chain. The risk of exposing vaccines to freezing temperatures are now known to be significant. These risks can be reduced …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Costs of Meningitis Sequelae in Children in Dakar, Senegal

In economic evaluations of vaccines protecting against meningitis, treatment and productivity costs due to meningitis sequelae are rarely included in studies from low-income countries, mainly due to lack of data. This study, published in The …

Author: Griffiths UK, Dieye Y, Fleming J, Hajjeh R, Edmond K

Publication date: 2012

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Vaccination Position Paper – July 2013

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes the World Health Organization's recommendations on the inclusion of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in all national immunization programs. Vaccination remains the …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Impact of Rotavirus Vaccine on Childhood Diarrheal Hospitalization Following Introduction Into the South African Public Immunization Program

This article, published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, describes a study in South Africa that demonstrated dramatic decreases in diarrhea-related hospitalizations in infants and young children in both rural and urban settings in the …

Author: Msimang VMY, Page N, Groome MJ, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Influenza Vaccine for Pregnant Women in Resource-Constrained Countries: A Review of the Evidence to Inform Policy Decisions

While influenza vaccination of pregnant women may be justified on the basis of preventing maternal disease alone, demonstrating additional benefits to the newborn is important to inform policy decisions in areas with limited resources and many …

Author: Ortiz JR, Englund JA, Neuzil KM

Publication date: 2011

Vaccines for Enteric Diseases: A Meeting Summary

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, summarizes the presentations and outcomes from the 6th Vaccines for Enteric Diseases Symposium held in Cannes, France, on 14 to 16 September 2011, which drew approximately 200 vaccine developers, …

Author: Steele D, Riddle M, van de Verg L, Bourgeois L

Publication date: 2012

PATH’s Vaccine Development Global Program

This profile article, published in Human Vaccines, describes the history and current work of PATH's Vaccine Development Global Program. It includes a summary of how the program facilitates vaccine development, the scope of work being conducted, and …

Author: Boslego JW

Publication date: 2012

Preformulation Characterization of an Aluminum Salt-Adjuvanted Trivalent Recombinant Protein-Based Vaccine Candidate Against Streptococcus pneumoniae

This article, published in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, describes a study where candidate formulations of a trivalent recombinant protein vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide adjuvant for protection against S. pneumoniae were identified …

Author: Iyer V, Hu L, Liyanage MR, et al.

Publication date: 2012

Development and Preclinical Evaluation of Safety and Immunogenicity of an Oral ETEC Vaccine Containing Inactivated E. coli Bacteria Overexpressing Colonization Factors CFA/I, CS3, CS5 and CS6 Combined With a Hybrid LT/CT B Subunit Antigen, Administered Alone and Together With dmLT Adjuvant

This article, published in Vaccine, describes the development and preclinical testing of new oral vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) administered alone and in combination with an adjuvant. The studies found that oral …

Author: Holmgren J, Bourgeois L, Carlin N, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Cold Chain Technologies

This fact sheet describes PATH's work on cold chain technologies. PATH is working with manufacturers and country collaborators to advance passive cold chain equipment and refrigerators that keep vaccines cold without freezing, as well as solar …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Disposable-Syringe Jet Injectors

Jet injectors deliver vaccines and medicines without using needles. PATH has worked with several disposable-syringe jet injector developers to advance designs that are suitable and affordable for routine and campaign immunization programs in …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access

This website provides information about the work of PATH’s Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access, which brings together expertise across every stage of vaccine research, development, and introduction to make lifesaving vaccines globally …

Author: PATH

Technologies for Injection Safety

Each year, more than 16 billion injections are administered worldwide and an estimated 40 percent are administered with reused, unsterilized injection equipment. In developing countries, immunization and some therapeutic programs have been proactive …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Vaccines in the Uniject™ Injection System

The Uniject™ injection system, a compact prefilled autodisable injection system, simplifies the act of giving an injection, makes the reuse of the syringe impossible, and reduces the burden on logistics systems by making medicament, needle, and …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Temporal Trends in Diarrhea-Related Hospitalizations and Deaths in Children Under Age 5 Before and After the Introduction of the Rotavirus Vaccine in Four Latin American Countries

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study that evaluated trends in diarrhea-related deaths and hospitalizations in children less than five years of age before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Bolivia, El Salvador, Honduras, …

Author: De Oliveira LH, Giglio N, Ciapponi A, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination in Australian Children Below 5 Years of Age: A Database Study

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, reports on a study that compared rotavirus hospitalization rates in children less than five years of age before and after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine Rotarix® in …

Author: Pendleton A, Galic M, Clarke C, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Rotavirus-Associated Hospitalization and Emergency Department Costs and Rotavirus Vaccine Program Impact

The New Vaccine Surveillance Network began conducting surveillance for the economic burden of rotavirus in three counties in the United States (Hamilton County, Ohio; Davidson County, Tennessee; and Monroe County, New York) in 2006 and continued …

Author: Kilgore A, Donauer S, Edwards KM, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Coverage, Cost, and Safety Impacts of Primary Container Choice

A single decision on the size and type of a vaccine container can have significant implications on the safety, affordability, and coverage of vaccination in routine and campaign settings. Choosing a single-dose vial instead of a multi-dose container …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Publication date: 2013

Community Diarrhea Incidence Before and After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Nicaragua

This article, published in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, reports on a study that compared the incidence of diarrhea before and after the introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Leon, Nicaragua. The results …

Author: Becker-Dreps S, Meléndez M, Liu L, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Single-Dose or Multi-Dose?

The reuse of single-dose vials and misuse of multiple-dose vials can result in patients suffering significant harm and even death. This dynamic infographic can help healthcare professionals learn the differences between single-dose and multiple-dose …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Safe Injection Practices Coalition

Publication date: 2013

Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccines: Information for Policy Makers, Programme Managers, and Health Workers

This document includes information and guidance to assist policy makers, program managers, and health workers in considering all of the operational preparations that should be included in a rotavirus vaccine introduction plan, once a country has …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Decade of Vaccines

This supplement to Vaccine features articles on the Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan strategic objectives and the opportunities and challenges associated with its implementation. The 27 articles in the supplement cover a range of …

Author: Alonso PL, de Quadros CA, Lal AA, eds.

Publication date: 2013

Acute Gastroenteritis Hospitalizations Among US Children Following Implementation of the Rotavirus Vaccine

This article, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, reports on a retrospective observational study which found that, following implementation of rotavirus vaccination in 2006, all-cause acute gastroenteritis hospitalization …

Author: Leshem E, Tate JE, Steiner CA, Curns AT, Lopman BA, Parashar UD

Publication date: 2015

Broadly Protective Protein-Based Pneumococcal Vaccine Composed of Pneumolysin Toxoid-CbpA Peptide Recombinant Fusion Protein

Pneumococcus, meningococcus and Haemophilus influenzae cause a similar spectrum of infections in the ear, lung, blood, and brain. They share cross-reactive antigens that bind to the laminin receptor of the blood-brain barrier as a molecular basis …

Author: Mann B, Thornton J, Heath R, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Development of a Fast-Dissolving Tablet Formulation of a Live Attenuated Enterotoxigenic E. coli Vaccine Candidate

A fast-dissolving tablet (FDT) that could be packaged in a compact stackable blister sheet is a potentially attractive option for formulating oral vaccines, since it would minimally impact the cold chain and could potentially be administered …

Author: Lal M, Priddy S, Bourgeois L, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccine Against Hospital Admission for Rotavirus Diarrhoea in Brazilian Children: A Case-Control Study

This meeting abstract, published in The Lancet, shares the results of a study on the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine to prevent rotavirus hospitalizations among infants in Brazil. The authors found that two doses of the vaccine were highly …

Author: Ichihara MYT, Rodrigues LC, Santos CAST, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Single Oral Dose of Recombinant Double-Mutant Heat-Labile Toxin (dmLT) Derived from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)

This article, published in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, reports on a Phase 1 clinical trial which determined the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinantly produced dmLT of ETEC. Study results showed that a single oral dose of dmLT was well …

Author: El-Kamary SS, Cohen MB, Bourgeois AL, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Burden and Aetiology of Diarrhoeal Disease in Infants and Young Children in Developing Countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): A Prospective, Case-Control Study

This article, published in The Lancet, reports on results of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), which was designed to identify the aetiology and population-based burden of pediatric diarrheal disease in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. …

Author: Kotloff KL, Nataro JP, Blackwelder WC, et al.

Publication date: 2013

The Fundamental Link Between Pneumococcal Carriage and Disease

This article, published Expert Review of Vaccines, reviews the evidence supporting pneumococcal carriage as an immediate and necessary precursor to pneumococcal disease. The authors emphasize the role of information on pneumococcal carriage in …

Author: Simell B, Auranen K, Käyhty H, et al.

Publication date: 2012

The Impact of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: A Literature Review

This article, published in Advances in Therapy, describes results from a literature review of 37 articles from Australia, western Europe, and North America reporting impact data on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) following the introduction of …

Author: Myint TTH, Madhava H, Balmer P, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Global Burden of Childhood Pneumonia and Diarrhoea

This article, published in The Lancet, reviews the epidemiology of childhood diarrhea and pneumonia in 2010 to 2011 to inform the planning of integrated control programmes for both illnesses. The estimates show 1.731 billion episodes of diarrhea and …

Author: Walker CL, Rudan I, Liu L, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Current Concepts in Host-Microbe Interaction Leading to Pneumococcal Pneumonia

This article, published in Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, reviews new insights into the pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease. The authors discuss new mechanisms by which microbial factors govern the ability of pneumococcus to progress from …

Author: Vernatter J, Pirofski L

Publication date: 2013

Estimating the Burden of Pneumococcal Pneumonia Among Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Techniques

This article, published in PLOS One, summarizes a study to develop a conceptual and quantitative strategy for estimating the non-bacteremic disease burden among adults with community-acquired pneumonia. The authors conclude that the adult burden of …

Author: Said MA, Johnson HL, Nonyane BAS, Deloria-Knoll M, O′Brien KL

Publication date: 2013

Nasopharyngeal Microbial Interactions in the Era of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination

This article, published in Vaccine, reviews data on co-colonization of pathogens in the nasopharynx, focusing on Streptococcus pneumoniae and the impact of pneumococcal vaccination. The authors conclude that pneumococcal vaccination has not had a …

Author: Dunne EM, Smith-Vaughan HC, Robins-Browne RM, Mulholland EK, Satzke C

Publication date: 2013

Molecular Typing of the Pneumococcus and its Application in Epidemiology in Sub-Saharan Africa

This article, published in Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, discusses molecular typing of the pneumococcus and what is known about epidemiology of the organism in sub-Saharan Africa based on the various typing methods.

Author: Donkor ES

Publication date: 2013

Understanding the Pneumococcus: Transmission and Evolution

This article, published in Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, examines the biology of the pneumococcus related to its transmission and evolution.

Author: Donkor ES

Publication date: 2013

Serotype-Independent Pneumococcal Vaccines

This article, published in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, discusses the most promising vaccine approaches for inducing serotype-independent immunity, including protein antigens, whole cell pneumococcal vaccines, and recombinant bacteria …

Author: Miyaji EN, Oliveira MLS, Carvalho E, Ho PL

Publication date: 2013

Streptococcus pneumoniae – A Review of Carriage, Infection, Serotype Replacement and Vaccination

This article, published in Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, provides an overview on pneumococcal carriage and risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease, the rise of non-vaccine serotypes in the era of immunization with 7-valent pneumocccal …

Author: Mehr S, Wood N

Publication date: 2012

Respiratory Viral and Pneumococcal Coinfection of the Respiratory Tract: Implications of Pneumococcal Vaccination

This article, published in Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine, explores pneumococcal interactions with respiratory viruses and considers the potential role that the pneumococcal polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccine may play in modifying …

Author: Moore DP, Dagan R, Madhi SA

Publication date: 2012

HPV Vaccine Communication: Special Considerations for a Unique Vaccine

This report presents communication guidance and specific considerations for countries that plan to introduce human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine into their national immunization program. HPV vaccine is unique for many reasons, and the report aims to …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2016

WHO/Health Canada Drafting Group Meeting on Scientific and Regulatory Considerations on the Stability Evaluation of Vaccines Under Controlled Temperature Chain

On December 4 to 6, 2012, a consultation was held under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Canada in Ottawa to identify obstacles to further developing a controlled temperature chain for vaccines. As described in this …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Zambia

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Zambia. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Zambian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2013

Structure of RSV Fusion Glycoprotein Trimer Bound to a Prefusion-Specific Neutralizing Antibody

This article, published in Science, describes research to characterize the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion glycoprotein prefusion conformation, which is the target of most RSV-neturalizing activity in human sera. ABSTRACT ONLY: (Learn how …

Author: McLellan JS, Chen M, Leung S, et al

Publication date: 2013

Immunization Information Systems

This handout provides basic information about immunization information systems, as well as a list of resources and organizations relevant to this issue.

Author: Optimize (PATH, World Health Organization)

Publication date: 2013

Global Health - Global Immunization

This website provides information about the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Global Immunization Division, which works with partners to protect global citizens against contagious and life-threatening vaccine-preventable diseases.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Complex Journey of a Vaccine

This infographic provides a visual description of the complicated route that vaccines follow for manufacturing, formulation, packaging, and distribution, including where quality control testing is completed at each step in the process.

Author: International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease Burden in Africa

Rotavirus surveillance helps measure the proportion of diarrhea hospitalizations and deaths due to rotavirus, the age distribution of rotavirus cases, the seasonality of rotavirus disease, and it monitors the diversity of circulating strains. …

Author: Mwenda JM, Tate JE, Steele AD, Parashar UD, eds.

Publication date: 2014

NUVI - Resources for Monitoring and Surveillance

This web page provides links to numerous resources related to disease burden monitoring and surveillance from the World Health Organization's (WHO's) New and Under-utilized Vaccines Implementation (NUVI) program. NUVI focuses specifically on …

Author: World Health Organization

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Mali

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Mali. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Malian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Djibouti

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Djibouti. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Djiboutian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Zimbabwe

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Zimbabwe. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Zimbabwean children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

What Information Do You Need to Drive Your Immunization Program?

This three-part banner illustrates how better access to information can help improve the performance of vaccination programs.

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Preventing Freezing in Cold Boxes and Vaccine Carriers

This handout emphasizes the importance of, and methods for, preventing accidental freezing of heat-sensitive products in vaccine carriers. It illustrates how different configurations of ice packs affect temperature and show typical temperature …

Author: PATH, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Vaccine Vial Monitors

Vaccine vial monitors (VVMs) are small stickers that adhere to vaccine vials and change color as the vaccine is exposed to heat, letting health workers know whether the vaccine can be safely used for immunization. This fact sheet describes PATH's …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Angola

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Angola. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Angolan children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Cameroon

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Cameroon. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Cameroonian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Sierra Leone

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Sierra Leone. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Sierra Leonese children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in the Republic of the Congo

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in the Republic of the Congo. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Congolese children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Togo

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Togo. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Togolese children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Polio Vaccines: WHO Position Paper, January 2014

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, provides essential background information on polio and gives the current World Health Organization position on the use of polio vaccines worldwide. This updated position paper replaces …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Economic Evaluation of the Routine Childhood Immunization Program in the United States, 2009

This article, published in Pediatrics, presents an economic analysis of the US childhood immunization schedule. The study used population-based vaccination coverage, vaccine efficacy data, historical data on disease incidence before vaccination, and …

Author: Zhou F, Shefer A, Wenger J, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Japanese Encephalitis

This fact sheet provides an overview of Japanese encephalitis, including information on disease transmission, symptoms, treatment, and prevention, including an overview of currently available vaccines.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

The Journey of Your Child's Vaccine

This infographic provides an overview of how new vaccines are developed, approved, and manufactured, how they are added to the United States' childhood immunization schedule, and how vaccine safety continues to be monitored after introduction.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2013

Health Economics of Rotavirus Immunization in Vietnam: Potentials for Favorable Cost-Effectiveness in Developing Countries

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study designed to assess the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus immunization in Vietnam. It specifically focused on the use of RotaTeq® and assessing the affordability of implementing universal …

Author: Tu HA, Rozenbaum MH, Coyte PC, Li SC, Woerdenbag HJ, Postma MJ

Publication date: 2012

Economic Evaluations of Rotavirus Immunization for Developing Countries: A Review of the Literature

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, analyzes the cost-effectiveness of universal rotavirus immunization in developing countries. The authors identified and evaluated 15 cost-effectiveness studies conducted in the developing world. …

Author: Tu HA, Woerdenbag HJ, Kane S, Rozenbaum MH, Li SC, Postma MJ

Publication date: 2011

Comparative Evaluation of the Potential Impact of Rotavirus Versus HPV Vaccination in GAVI-Eligible Countries: A Preliminary Analysis Focused on the Relative Disease Burden

This article, published in BMC Infectious Diseases, reports on a study that aimed to provide early insight into how the comparative impact of different new vaccines could be assessed in resource-poor settings with respect to affordability, …

Author: Kim SY, Sweet S, Chang J, Goldie SJ

Publication date: 2011

Rotavirus Vaccination: Cost-Effectiveness and Impact on Child Mortality in Developing Countries

This article, published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, aimed to project the uptake, health impact, and cost-effectiveness of introducing rotavirus vaccination in GAVI-eligible countries. The authors used a demand forecast model to predict …

Author: Atherly D, Dreibelbis R, Parashar UD, Levin C, Wecker J, Rheingans RD

Publication date: 2009

Economic Costs of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis and Cost-Effectiveness of Vaccination in Developing Countries

This article, published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, evaluated the economic burden of rotavirus and the cost-effectiveness of vaccination from the health care perspective. The authors found that rotavirus vaccination would annually prevent …

Author: Rheingans RD, Antil L, Dreibelbis R, Podewils LJ, Bresee JS, Parashar UD

Publication date: 2009

Systematic Review of Studies on Rotavirus Disease Cost-of-Illness and Productivity Loss in Latin America and the Caribbean

This article, published in Vaccine, provides a review of studies on costs due to rotavirus infection in Latin America and Caribbean region, considering their methods and results. The authors found that the most commonly observed methods for cost …

Author: Takemoto ML, Bahia L, Toscano CM, Araujo DV

Publication date: 2013

Principles and Considerations for Adding a Vaccine to a National Immunization Programme: From Decision to Implementation and Monitoring

This report reviews the principles and issues to be considered when making decisions about, planning, and implementing the introduction of a vaccine into a national immunization program. It also highlights ways to use the opportunity provided by the …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Efficacy and Safety of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine for Primary Prevention of Cervical Cancer: A Review of Evidence From Phase III Trials and National Programs

This article, published in the South Asian Journal of Cancer, discusses the justification of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the backdrop of the natural history of cervical cancer, the mechanism of action of the vaccines, and efficacy and …

Author: Basu P, Banerjee D, Singh P, Bhattacharya C, Biswas J

Publication date: 2013

Efficacy of the HPV-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine Against Low-Risk HPV Types (PATRICIA Randomized Trial): An Unexpected Observation

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports on a post hoc analysis of the Phase 3 PATRICIA (PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults) trial that was performed to ascertain whether protection against low-risk human …

Author: Szarewski A, Skinner SR, Garland SM, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Estimation of the Potential Overall Impact of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination on Cervical Cancer Cases and Deaths

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study that aimed to estimate the potential real-life impact of the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine on cervical cancer cases and deaths at the country level. The authors found that HPV vaccination …

Author: Van Kriekinge G, Castellsagué X, Cibula D, Demarteau N

Publication date: 2014

Knowledge and Awareness of HPV Vaccine and Acceptability to Vaccinate in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

This article, published in PLOS ONE, reports on an assessment of the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate in sub-Saharan African countries. The …

Author: Perlman S, Wamai RG, Bain PA, Welty T, Ogembo JG.

Publication date: 2014

A Live Attenuated Influenza A(H5N1) Vaccine Induces Long-Term Immunity in the Absence of a Primary Antibody Response

This article, published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports on a study on whether two influenza A(H5N1) live attenuated vaccines for pandemic use (pLAIVs) primed or established long-lasting immunity that could be detected by …

Author: Talaat KR, Luke CJ, Khurana S, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Assessment of Human Immune Responses to H7 Avian Influenza Virus of Pandemic Potential: Results from a Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Double-Blind Phase I Study of Live Attenuated H7N3 Influenza Vaccine

This article, published in PLOS ONE, reports on the results of a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase 1 clinical trial of a cold-adapted and temperature-sensitive A/H7N3 live attenuated influenza vaccine candidate. The results of the …

Author: Rudenko L, Kiseleva I, Naykhin AN, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Efficacy of a Monovalent Human-Bovine (116E) Rotavirus Vaccine in Indian Infants: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

This article, published in The Lancet, reports on the results of a Phase 3 study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a monovalent human-bovine rotavirus vaccine (116E) for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in low-resource urban and rural …

Author: Bhandari N, Rongsen-Chandola T, Bavdekar A, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Estimating Diarrheal Illness and Deaths Attributable to Shigellae and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Among Older Children, Adolescents, and Adults in South Asia and Africa

This article, published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, aims to quantify the overall burden of shigellosis and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhea among older children, adolescents, and adults in Africa and South Asia, the two …

Author: Lamberti LM, Bourgeois AL, Fischer Walker CL, Black RE, Sack D

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Madagascar

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Madagascar. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Malagasy children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Effectiveness of an Indian-made Attenuated Influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 Vaccine: A Case Control Study

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, details a case control study to evaluate the effectiveness of a live attenuated A(H1N1)pdm 2009 vaccine produced by the Serum Institute of India, Ltd., which was distributed in …

Author: Kulkarni PS, Agarkhedkar S, Lalwani S, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Advancing Hope Against Newborn Respiratory Illness

This fact sheet outlines the importance of tackling respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the top cause of newborn lower respiratory infections worldwide. It highlights the need to prepare for incoming RSV interventions, including vaccines for maternal …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Vaccinating Children Beyond the ‘Cold Chain’: Extending the Heat Stability of Vaccines

This issue brief reviews the topic of temperature sensitivity of vaccines and the effects it has on the distribution of vaccines to children in low-resource countries. It explores the cost of vaccination damage, potential heat-stabilizing vaccine …

Author: Médecins Sans Frontières Access Campaign

You Are the Key to HPV Cancer Prevention

This data-rich, hour-long video explores findings which suggest that low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates are leaving a generation of children vulnerable to HPV cancers. The presentation, which is geared for immunization providers, …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2014

IPV Introduction, OPV Withdrawal and Routine Immunization Strengthening

This web page contains the rationale for and resources related to the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), withdrawal of oral polio vaccine (OPV), and routine immunization strengthening. It provides five in-depth modules covering issues …

Author: World Health Organization

Adult Vaccination Resources Library

This online library gathers resources specifically related to adult immunization, providing healthcare providers and the general public with access to relevant resources that can be used in a clinic setting or for individual education. It includes …

Author: Immunization Action Coalition

Rotavirus Vaccination in Europe: Drivers and Barriers

This review article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, presents an overview of the status of rotavirus vaccination in Europe. The authors discuss the drivers (including high effectiveness of the vaccines and the effect of universal …

Author: Parez N, Giaquinto C, Du Roure C, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Evaluating the Potential Risks and Benefits of Infant Rotavirus Vaccination in England

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a risk-benefit analysis of rotavirus vaccination that compared potential vaccine-related risks with estimated vaccine benefits in the 2012 birth cohort in England. The authors estimate that rotavirus …

Author: Clark A, Jit M, Andrews N, Atchison C, Edmunds WJ, Sanderson C

Publication date: 2014

Investing Together for a Healthy Future: The 2016-2020 GAVI Alliance Investment Opportunity

This report makes the case for the GAVI Alliance's call for an additional investment of US$7.5 billion to help immunize an additional 300 million children from 2016 to 2020. It includes GAVI's plan for increasing the proportion of children worldwide …

Author: GAVI Alliance

Publication date: 2014

Going for Goal: Immunisation and the Case for GAVI

Like the World Cup—with teams from six continents coming together to compete on a level playing field—the GAVI Alliance is also a story about the world coming together: different donors, countries, activists, technical partners, and private …

Author: The ONE Campaign

Publication date: 2014

Preparation of National Health-Care Waste Management Plans in Sub-Saharan Countries: Guidance Manual

This document provides background information and assessment and planning tools to assist health care waste management advisors with developing and implementing national-level plans. It aims at identifying appropriate practices for health care waste …

Author: World Health Organization; United Nations Environment Programme

Publication date: 2005

National Health-Care Waste Management Plan: Final Report

This national plan for health care waste management developed by Eritrea, with support from the World Bank, provides an example of a comprehensive strategy that may be a useful reference for other countries.

Author: The State of Eritrea's Ministry of Health

Publication date: 2004

“First, Do No Harm”: Introducing Auto-disable Syringes and Ensuring Injection Safety in Immunization Systems of Developing Countries

This document was developed to assist policymakers and program managers in planning the introduction of auto-disable syringes as part of a comprehensive national policy and plan of action to improve injection safety, both for routine immunization …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2002

Management of Waste from Injection Activities at District Level: Guidelines for District Health Managers

This guide is designed as a simple and practical tool to help district health managers develop a realistic district-level plan to reduce improper disposal of waste from injection activities. An accompanying poster is also available.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2006

Management of Solid Health-Care Waste at Primary Health-Care Centres: A Decision-Making Guide

This document provides guidance for selecting the most appropriate method for safely managing solid waste generated at primary health care centers in developing countries. It includes six decision trees aimed at assisting the user in identifying …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2005

Planning for Safe Syringe Disposal: Making Medical Injections Safer

This guide provides assistance with planning sharps waste disposal systems by following six steps: review existing legislation and policy; collect local data and map district, identifying incineration areas; review sharps collection options; review …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2004

Basic Steps in the Preparation of Health Care Waste Management Plans for Health Care Establishments

This document provides basic steps and a simple and practical approach for the preparation of a health care waste management (HCWM) plan in small, medium, and large health care establishments. This guide aims to assist managers of health care …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2002

The Incinerator Guidebook: A Practical Guide for Selecting, Purchasing, Installing, Operating and Maintaining Small-Scale Incinerators in Low-Resource Settings

This guidebook is designed to help program planners address the challenges of safe management of health care waste (HCW) using small-scale incinerators in low-resource settings. Every country and health setting faces different challenges to managing …

Author: Making Medical Injections Safer project

Publication date: 2010

Small-Scale Autoclaves to Manage Medical Waste: A Buyer’s Guide to Selecting Autoclaves Manufactured in India

This guide provides technical information on small-scale affordable autoclaves manufactured in India that can be used for medical waste treatment. It includes issues to consider when purchasing an autoclave, technical specifications of some devices, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2008

For Proper Disposal: A Global Inventory of Alternative Medical Waste Treatment Technologies

This inventory provides a global listing of alternative technologies for the treatment of infectious waste. It is intended for use by health and environment ministries, international organizations, aid agencies, multilateral lending institutions, …

Author: Health Care Without Harm

Publication date: 2007

Small-Scale Incinerator Construction: Recommendations from the Rwanda Experience

This brief document highlights recommendations from a partnership in Rwanda to support infrastructure and systems development to ensure the safe handling, treatment, and final disposal of infectious medical waste. It aims to assist stakeholders …

Author: Making Medical Injections Safer project

Publication date: 2007

Personal Protective Equipment and Segregation Supply Specifications for Health Care Waste Management

This resource provides guidance on the selection and purchase of personal protective equipment for medical waste handlers and for the safe segregation of health care waste. These specifications are guidelines that can be adapted to local policies …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2010

Managing Health Care Waste Disposal: Guidelines on How to Construct, Use, and Maintain a Waste Disposal Unit

These guidelines focus on the specifications, installation, operation, and maintenance procedures for a health care waste disposal unit using the De Montfort incinerator. It also includes a plan for training waste disposal unit operators.

Author: World Health Organization; IT Power India, Pvt. Ltd.

Publication date: 2005

Family Vaccines Resource Center

This website is a centralized, searchable portal for expectant parents to collect and highlight currently available information and tools from a variety of sources. Resources address recommended vaccines before, during, and after pregnancy, as well …

Author: US National Foundation for Infectious Diseases

Keys to Storing and Handling Your Vaccine Supply

This 45-minute video was designed to decrease vaccine storage and handling errors and preserve vaccine supply by demonstrating to immunization providers the recommended best practices for storage and handling of vaccines. It highlights the keys to …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2014

Cervical Cancer Action: 2007 to 2014 . . . and Beyond

This briefing paper highlights Cervical Cancer Action's accomplishments and global milestones, engagements and country support, and plans for future investment. It includes a detailed timeline which spans from 2007 to 2013 and a map of the rapid …

Author: Cervical Cancer Action

Publication date: 2014

Business and Cervical Cancer: Opportunities to Save Lives

This document is a five-page brief on cervical cancer prevention. It discusses the growing threat of human papillomavirus (HPV), early detection and screening, and available options for prevention and treatment. It also explores various …

Author: GBCHealth

Publication date: 2013

Immunogenicity and Safety of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in HIV-1-Infected Women

This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, shares findings of a trial involving 319 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected women in the United States, Brazil, and South Africa. The trial aimed to determine the immunogenicity …

Author: Kojic EM, Kang M, Cespedes MS, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Estimating the Costs of Cervical Cancer Screening in High-Burden Sub-Saharan African Countries

This article, published in the International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, reports on a study that aimed to estimate the capital investment and recurrent costs of national cervical cancer screening and precancer treatment programs in 23 …

Author: Mvundura M, Tsu V

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Eritrea

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Eritrea. It includes information about the burden of rotavirus diarrhea for Eritrean children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the effectiveness of …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Uzbekistan

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Uzbekistan. It includes information about the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Uzbek children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the effectiveness of …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Niger

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Niger. It includes information about the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Nigerien children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the effectiveness of …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Vaccines and Health Care Utilization for Diarrhea in the United States (2007–2011)

This article, published in Pediatrics, reports on a study that examined reductions in diarrhea-associated health care utilization after rotavirus vaccine implementation in the United States (US) in order to assess direct and indirect effectiveness …

Author: Leshem E, Moritz RE, Curns AT, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Kenya

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Kenya. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Kenyan children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Treatment Alternatives for Medical Waste Disposal

This document describes technology options for treating infectious medical waste, including incineration, chemical treatment, autoclaving, microwaving, shredding, and compacting. Performance issues, environmental impact, and perspectives from …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2005

Safe Management of Wastes From Health-Care Activities: Second Edition

This handbook provides comprehensive guidance on safe methods for the handling and disposal of health-care waste. It defines the categories of waste and pays particular attention to basic processes and technologies for managing waste in low-resource …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Managing Sharps Waste in Andhra Pradesh: Introduction and Scale-Up of a Sharps Waste Management Program

This case study describes the sharps waste management component of an immunization systems strengthening project conducted in Andhra Pradesh, India, and describes key developments in both the pilot and scale-up phases of the project. It also …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Final Report: Evaluation of Three Reuse-Prevention Feature Reconstitution Syringes in Three Districts of Indonesia

This document reports on the findings of a field evaluation of three World Health Organization-prequalified syringes with reuse prevention features used for vaccine reconstitution during a measles campaign in Lombok, Indonesia. The objective of the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Safety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization of US Children: A Systematic Review

This article, published in Pediatrics, reviews the existing literature on the safety of routine vaccines recommended for children in the United States. The authors found evidence that some vaccines are associated with serious adverse events; …

Author: Maglione MA, Das L, Raaen L, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Evaluation of a Retractable Syringe in South Africa: Acceptability, Safety, and Cost Implications

This document reports on an assessment of the acceptability, perception of safety, effect on waste management, and cost implications of using retractable syringes in immunization and curative settings in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. It includes …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

One & Only Campaign

This website is focused on a public health campaign that aims to eradicate outbreaks resulting from unsafe injection practices. The site provides information and resources for patients and healthcare providers on safe injection practices, including …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Safe Injection Practices Coalition

A HealthTech Report: Field Evaluation of the Acceptability and Feasibility of Syringe Melters in Indonesia

This report shares findings from a field evaluation of three syringe melters temporarily placed in five health centers in Indonesia, which aimed to assess the field performance of the devices, acceptability by health workers, fit into the existing …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2007

Medical Waste Management for Primary Health Centers in Indonesia

This report describes the process and lessons learned in implementing pilot waste-management systems at primary health centers in three districts of Yogyakarta province in Indonesia. The report was used to guide the development of waste-management …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2005

PATH’s Health Care Waste Management Photo Library

This photo library is intended to be a resource for those working in health care waste management (HCWM), documenting the HCWM system from waste generation to final disposal with representative photos from various countries. The library also …

Author: PATH

Quantifying Infectious Waste Produced by HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis Programs and the Needs for Injection Safety Equipment

This document is intended to start discussions around quantifying the need for safe injection equipment and the amount of infectious sharps waste produced by testing and treatment programs for diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2009

Hexavalent IPV-Based Combination Vaccines for Public-Sector Markets of Low-Resource Countries

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, evaluates potential hexavalent vaccine candidates containing inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) that could provide reliable, low-cost, and continuous immunization to sustain polio …

Author: Mahmood K, Pelkowski S, Atherly D, Sitrin R, Donnelly JJ

Publication date: 2013

Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination in Germany: Rotavirus Surveillance, Hospitalization, Side Effects and Comparison of Vaccines

This article, published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, examines the impact of national introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Germany. Rotavirus-related hospital admissions of children under one year of age decreased by 60 percent in …

Author: Uhlig U, Kostev K, Schuster V, Koletzko S, Uhlig HH

Publication date: 2014

Diarrhoea-Related Hospitalizations in Children Before and After Implementation of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccination in Mexico

This article, published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, reports on a study that compared the incidence of diarrhea in young children before and after the national introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine in Mexico. The results …

Author: Esparza-Aguilar M, Gastañaduy PA, Sánchez-Uribe E, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Current Initiatives in Cervical Cancer Prevention

This fact sheet summarizes PATH's current work in cervical cancer prevention. Since PATH began to focus on cervical cancer in 1991, its portfolio has expanded to cover the full range of technologies and approaches for the prevention of cervical …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Expanding Paradigms for Cervical Cancer Screening: The Impact of the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention

This report documents the accomplishments and impact of the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP). It presents the state of knowledge about alternative screening strategies prior to the establishment of the partnership, as well as …

Author: Gaffikin L, Wittet S, Sherris J

Publication date: 2013

Safety and Immunogenicity of Live-Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis SA 14-14-2 Vaccine Co-Administered With Measles Vaccine in 9-Month-Old Infants in Sri Lanka

This article, published in Vaccine, examines the safety and immunogenicity of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (LJEV) when administered with measles vaccine in nine-month-old Sri Lankan infants. The results support the use of LJEV at …

Author: Wijesinghe PR, Abeysinghe MRN, Yoksan S, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Health Care Waste Management: Sharing the Responsibility

This fact sheet outlines the importance of health care waste management and suggests ways government programs can improve current practices.

Author: PATH; John Snow, Inc.

Publication date: 2010

Guidelines for Implementing a National Procurement Policy to Integrate Safe-Injection Equipment

This report identifies key steps and information relevant to the development and implementation of a national procurement policy on safe-injection equipment, which includes safety devices for immunizations. The intention is to increase patient and …

Author: Making Medical Injections Safer

Publication date: 2010

Landscape for Safe Injection, Phlebotomy, and Waste Management Equipment

This report contains an assessment of the current market availability of safe injection, phlebotomy, and waste management equipment, as well as guidance on the procurement of this equipment.

Author: Making Medical Injections Safer

Publication date: 2010

Health Care Without Harm

Health Care Without Harm is an international coalition of more than 500 organizations in 53 countries working to ensure that the health care sector is not a source of harm to people and the environment. They aim to implement ecologically sound and …

Author: Health Care Without Harm

Freeze-Preventive Vaccine Carriers

This fact sheet describes PATH’s work to address the problem of vaccines freezing during transport by incorporating a freeze-safe inner box into vaccine carriers.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

The HPV Vaccination in Japan: Issues and Options

In April 2013, the government of Japan added the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to its list of routine immunizations, yet in June 2013 the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare suspended its recommendation for the vaccination. This …

Author: Wilson R, Paterson P, Larson HJ

Publication date: 2014

A Shigella Vaccine Against Prevalent Serotypes

This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, discusses the case for development of a pediatric vaccine against Shigella, which is a leading cause of diarrheal disease among children aged 12 to 59 months. The authors provide an analysis …

Author: Van de Verg LL, Venkatesan MM

Publication date: 2014

Qualitative Study of the Feasibility of HPV Vaccine Delivery to Young Adolescent Girls in Vietnam: Evidence From a Government-Implemented Demonstration Program

This article, published in BMC Public Health, evaluates a government-implemented school and health center-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program for all girls in grade 6, or 11 years of age, in four districts in Vietnam. The study …

Author: LaMontagne DS, Nghi NQ, Nga LT, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Cervical Cancer Prevention and HPV Vaccines

This fact sheet outlines the types of support the GAVI Alliance offers for the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in eligible countries. It also links to the specific requirements for country applications.

Author: GAVI Alliance

Publication date: 2014

HPV Vaccine Infographic 2014

This infographic provides information on the scale of cervical cancer deaths around the world. It also distinguishes between countries with national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programs and countries that are eligible for HPV vaccine funding …

Author: GAVI Alliance

Publication date: 2014

Costs of Introducing and Delivering HPV Vaccines in Low and Lower Middle Income Countries: Inputs for GAVI Policy on Introduction Grant Support to Countries

This article, published in PLoS ONE, describes the data and analysis shared with GAVI Alliance policymakers regarding their support of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. The authors review why strategies and costs for HPV vaccine delivery are …

Author: Levin A, Wang SA, Levin C, Tsu V, Hutubessy R

Publication date: 2014

Cost-Effectiveness of Female Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in 179 Countries: A PRIME Modelling Study

This article, published in The Lancet Global Health, reports on a modeling study that assessed the cost-effectiveness and health effects of vaccinating girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) before sexual debut in terms of burden of cervical …

Author: Jit M, Brisson M, Portnoy A, Hutubessy R

Publication date: 2014

Procurement Guidance for Countries: A User’s Guide for Resources on Procuring Safe Injection Equipment

This document provides practical information on how to use key global resources related to the procurement of safe-injection equipment. It is intended for use by country decision-makers responsible for selecting and procuring good-quality …

Author: Making Medical Injections Safer

Publication date: 2010

National Policy on Injection Safety and Medical Waste Management

This document is a guide for health professionals and stakeholders in Kenya to provide safe injections and proper waste management in order to protect health care providers and the community from medical sharps injuries.

Author: Kenya Ministry of Health

Publication date: 2007

Needle Remover Technical Overview

This document provides an overview of the issues around the introduction and use of needle removers in low-resource settings. It includes information on their advantages and disadvantages, and links to training materials on the safe disposal of …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Evaluation of a Needle Remover Demonstration Project: A Study From Huong Khe District, Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam

This report discusses the results of a six-month demonstration project in Huong Khe District, Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam, to assess the acceptability, performance, and impact on waste disposal of a manual needle remover introduced at commune health …

Author: PATH; Vietnam National Immunization Program

Publication date: 2007

Better Immunization Data Initiative

This website provides detailed information about the Better Immunization Data (BID) Initiative, which aims to empower countries to enhance immunization and overall health service delivery through improved data collection, quality, and use. It …

Author: PATH

Rotavirus in India: An Update on Epidemiology and Vaccines

This supplemental issue of Vaccine features 25 original research articles on rotavirus in India. It covers a variety of topics in relation to rotavirus and specific to India, including updates on disease burden and surveillance activities, …

Author: Tate JE, Arora R, Bhan MK, Yewale V, Parashar UD, Kang G, eds.

Publication date: 2014

Immunization Supply Chain and Logistics: A Call-to-Action

This call-to-action by the World Health Organization's Immunization Practices Advisory Committee is in response to a rapidly changing and increasingly complex vaccination landscape where existing immunization supply chain and logistics (ISCL) …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Decline in Severe Diarrhea Hospitalizations After the Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccination in Ghana: A Prevalence Study

This article, published in BMC Infectious Diseases, reports on the results of a study that examined diarrheal hospitalizations of children aged 59 months and younger before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Ghana. The results …

Author: Enweronu-Laryea CC, Boamah I, Sifah E, Diamenu SK, Armah G

Publication date: 2014

Effect of Multiple, Simultaneous Vaccines on Polio Seroresponse and Associated Health Outcomes

This article, published in Vaccine, compared vaccination with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) alone or simultaneously with one other vaccine to vaccination with IPV and four other vaccines among adults in the United States military. The results …

Author: Broderick MP, Oberste MS, Moore D, Romero-Steiner S, Hansen CJ, Faix DJ

Publication date: 2014

Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Produced From Sabin Strains: A Phase I Trial in Healthy Adults in Cuba

This article, published in Vaccine, examines the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of two Sabin formulations for inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), non-adjuvanted and adjuvanted, compared with Salk IPV in healthy male adults in Cuba. The results …

Author: Resik S, Tejeda A, Fonseca M, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Vaccine Strategies for the Control and Prevention of Japanese Encephalitis in Mainland China, 1951–2011

This article, published in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, reviews and discusses strategies for the promotion and expansion of vaccination programs to reduce the incidence of Japanese encephalitis throughout China and Asia. It discusses the …

Author: Gao X, Li X, Li M, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Concomitant Administration of Live Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Virus Vaccine (JE-CV) and Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Vaccine: Randomized Study in Toddlers in Taiwan

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study that examined the safety and efficacy of administering Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JE-CV) and measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine six weeks apart or concomitantly in children aged 12 to 18 …

Author: Huang L-M, Lin T-Y, Chiu C-H, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of the Human Papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine in Women Older Than 25 Years: 4-Year Interim Follow-Up of the Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomised Controlled VIVIANE Study

This article, published in The Lancet, discusses the results of an efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity study of the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 vaccine in adult women. The results showed that in women older than 25 years, the HPV 16/18 vaccine …

Author: Skinner SR, Szarewski A, Romanowski B, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Evaluation of a Needle-Remover Device and Sharps Barrel in Health Posts in Senegal

This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the Balcan Mini-Destructor needle-remover device and the use of a sharps barrel in health posts in Senegal. The results indicated that the needle removers are acceptable and could bring about a …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2005

Injection Safety, Healthcare Waste Management Pilot Project: Needle Removing and Plastic Recycling

This report summarizes the results of a project in Ukraine that evaluated the use of needle removal and plastic recycling as options for management of sharps waste.

Author: Ukraine Ministry of Health; World Health Organization

Publication date: 2005

Global Resources for Health Care Waste Management

This document provides information on many of the organizations that are actively engaged in health care waste management throughout the developing world. It provides contact information, their link to health care waste management, and the type of …

Author: John Snow, Inc.

Publication date: 2009

Incinerator Operator Guidelines

This job aid supports the training of small-scale incinerator operators by summarizing safe and effective incinerator operation. It outlines key steps that, if followed, can help ensure the unit operates optimally and disposes of waste safely.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2010

Considerations for Building a Protected Sharps Pit Using a Plastic Barrel as a Pit Liner

This document provides guidelines and steps to consider when constructing a protected sharps pit using a plastic barrel as a pit liner. It also contains a drawing of the completed protected sharps pit to assist with planning.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Key Steps in Sharps Waste Disposal

This training aid explains pictorially the key steps involved in the safe management of health care waste.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Incinerator Maintenance Checklist

This job aid supports the training of small-scale incinerator operators and provides key messages about how to perform regular maintenance. It includes daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly maintenance activities.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2010

Personal Protective Equipment for Waste Handlers and Incinerator Operators

This training aid lists and visually represents the equipment needed to help protect waste handlers and incinerator operators during the collection, treatment, and final disposal of health care waste.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Segregation of Medical Waste

This training aid graphically represents the segregation of medical waste into three categories: noninfectious, infectious, and sharps.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Building a Protected Sharps Pit

This document explains how to correctly build a protected sharps pit for the disposal of medical waste. It includes drawings for two styles of sharps pits, MSF style and Indonesian style.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

Building a Protected Sharps Barrel

This document explains how to correctly build a protected sharps barrel for the disposal of medical waste. It includes drawings to assist in construction.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2006

The Value of Vaccination

This website provides information on a movement of individuals and groups who find value in vaccination, and who aim to draw attention to the benefits vaccines bring to every community. The site encourages users to share personal stories about …

Author: Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases

Delivering Immunization Data Solutions: PATH Works With Multilateral Organizations to Deliver Access to Immunization Data

This fact sheet discusses the design and development of an Immunization Repository for the World Health Organization and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The Immunization Repository provides access to immunization data, dashboards, and reports to over …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Repurposing Global Polio Eradication’s Tool Kit: “Polio Legacy” Activities in India

This report describes the Global Polio Eradication Initiative’s goals and processes for planning a polio legacy, which would guide countries in using polio resources and lessons learned from polio eradication to benefit other health initiatives. …

Author: Bristol N, Center for Strategic and International Studies

Publication date: 2014

Protection Against Gastroenteritis in US Households With Children Who Received Rotavirus Vaccine

This study, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, compared gastroenteritis rates among households in the United States whose child had received rotavirus vaccine with those whose child did not receive the vaccine. The results showed …

Author: Cortese MM, Dahl RM, Curns AT, Parashar UD

Publication date: 2014

Effectiveness of Monovalent Human Rotavirus Vaccine Against Admission to Hospital for Acute Rotavirus Diarrhoea in South African Children: A Case-Control Study

This study, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, examined the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in an African setting with a high prevalence of HIV infection. The findings showed that human rotavirus vaccine provided sustained protection …

Author: Groome MJ, Page N, Cortese MM, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Primary End-Points for Prophylactic HPV Vaccine Trials

This report presents the findings of an expert group that examined under what circumstances human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine efficacy can be established at an earlier stage of infection, rather than the clinical onset of disease. It also shows how …

Author: International Agency for Research on Cancer

Publication date: 2014

Managing HPV: Health Care Team Tool Kit

This web page provides a tool kit to increase the awareness and knowledge of health care providers, frontline staff, business personnel, and educators about human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer screening, the treatment of genital warts, and …

Author: Association of Reproductive Health Professionals

Primary Cervical Cancer Prevention in Morocco: HPV Vaccine Awareness and Acceptability Among Parents

This study, published in Procedia in Vaccinology, aimed to assess the awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the vaccine, and to identify factors associated with the acceptability of the vaccine among parents in Morocco. The responses revealed …

Author: Mouallif M, Bowyer H, Festali S, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Performance of 21 HPV Vaccination Programs Implemented in Low and Middle-Income Countries, 2009–2013

This study, published in BMC Public Health, examined 21 human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs in 14 low- and middle- income countries. School and health clinic-based models appeared as predictive factors for vaccination coverage, as was …

Author: Ladner J, Besson M-H, Rodrigues M, Audureau E, Saba J

Publication date: 2014

Barriers and Facilitators to HPV Vaccination of Young Women in High-Income Countries: A Qualitative Systematic Review and Evidence Synthesis

This study, published in BMC Public Health, examined decision-making relating to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young women in high-income countries. It found that decisions were shaped by financial considerations, social norms and …

Author: Ferrer HB, Trotter C, Hickman M, Audrey S

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Senegal

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Senegal. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Senegalese children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines in Mauritania

This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Mauritania. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Mauritanian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Product Vision for the Better Immunization Data (BID) Initiative

This report reviews the steps to organize how processes and information and communication technology infrastructure can be integrated and standardized to meet a ministry of health’s vision and requirements to increase vaccination coverage for …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Human Papillomavirus Vaccines: WHO Position Paper, October 2014

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes the World Health Organization's recommendations on the inclusion of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in national immunization programs. It focuses primarily on the …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

WHO Policy Statement: Multi-dose Vial Policy (MDVP) - Handling of Multi-dose Vaccine Vials After Opening

This document is designed to provide guidance to national and senior-level program managers on the proper handling of multi-dose vaccine vials once opened. It presents the World Health Organization’s official position on this issue, including the …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Intervention Analysis of Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine on Hospital Admissions Rates Due to Acute Diarrhea

This article, published in Cadernos de Saúde Pública, examined the impact of rotavirus vaccine on hospitalization rates for acute diarrhea in children younger than five years following the 2006 introduction of the vaccine in Brazil. The results …

Author: Masukawa MLT, Moriwaki AM, Uchimura NS, de Souza EM, Uchimura TT

Publication date: 2014

Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed—Progress Report 2014

This report follows the 2013 progress report on the "A Promise Renewed" initiative, and is intended to track progress on child survival and promote accountability for global commitments made to children. It includes: levels and trends in under-five …

Author: United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2014

Considerations Regarding Consent in Vaccinating Children and Adolescents Between 6 and 17 Years Old

Around the world, national immunization programs are increasingly including vaccines that target age groups beyond infancy and early childhood. This document is aimed at program managers who are planning to introduce vaccines for older children and …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Immunogenicity of Bivalent HPV Vaccine Among Partially Vaccinated Young Adolescent Girls in Uganda

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study on the immunogenicity of bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among adolescent girls from Uganda who received one, two, or three vaccine doses. The authors found that even though …

Author: LaMontagne DS, Mugisha E, Pan Y, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Potential Impact of a 9-valent HPV Vaccine in HPV-Related Cervical Disease in 4 Emerging Countries (Brazil, Mexico, India and China)

This article, published in Cancer Epidemiology, reports on a study that estimated the potential impact of an investigational 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (HPVs 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) on HPV-related cervical disease in Brazil, …

Author: Serrano B, Alemany L, de Ruiz PA, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Vaccine Facts and Policy

This website provides a comprehensive database of immunization data from every major jurisdiction in the United States. It includes information within five major topic areas related to immunization law and policy including: demographics and rates, …

Author: George Washington University, Association of Immunization Managers, Immunization Action Coalition

Practical Guide: Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV) Introduction

The World Health Organization recommends that all countries currently using only the oral polio vaccine introduce at least one dose of the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into their routine vaccination programs to ensure that new cohorts of newborns …

Author: Pan American Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Comprehensive Cervical Cancer Control: A Guide to Essential Practice - Second Edition

This publication provides a broad vision of what a comprehensive approach to cervical cancer prevention and control means. It outlines the complementary strategies for comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control, and highlights the need for …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

2014 Assessment Report of the Global Vaccine Action Plan: Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization

The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) was endorsed by the World Health Assembly in May 2012 to achieve its “Decade of Vaccines” vision of universal access to immunization. This report provides a review of the progress on implementation of the …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Development of a Transmission-Blocking Malaria Vaccine: Progress, Challenges, and the Path Forward

This article, published in Vaccine, describes the progress made since 2010 in critical areas of developing transmission-blocking malaria vaccines. It also highlights key challenges that remain and outlines important next steps to maximize the …

Author: Nunes JK, Woods C, Carter T, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Factors Likely to Affect Community Acceptance of a Malaria Vaccine in Two Districts of Ghana: A Qualitative Study

This article, published in PLoS ONE, reports on a study that explored community-level factors that could affect future vaccine acceptance in Ghana once a malaria vaccine is recommended for introduction and use. It also provides recommendations for a …

Author: Meñaca A, Tagbor H, Adjei R, et al.

Publication date: 2014

World Malaria Report 2014

This annual report summarizes information received from malaria-endemic countries and other sources, and updates the analyses presented in the 2013 report. It assesses global and regional malaria trends, highlights progress towards global targets, …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Pneumonia and Diarrhea Progress Report 2014

This report evaluates the progress of 15 countries with the greatest number of childhood deaths from pneumonia and diarrhea in implementing high-impact interventions that are outlined in the Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Publication date: 2014

World Malaria Report 2015

This annual report summarizes information received from malaria-endemic countries and other sources, and updates the analyses presented in the 2014 report. It assesses global and regional malaria trends, highlights progress toward global targets, …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2015

Variation in Rotavirus Vaccine Coverage by Provider Location and Subsequent Disease Burden

This article, published in Pediatrics, reports on a study that examined variation in rotavirus vaccine coverage among provider locations in the United States and correlated coverage with the detection of rotavirus in children who sought treatment of …

Author: Sahni LC, Tate JE, Payne DC, Parashar UD, Boom JA

Publication date: 2015

Flu Information: Your Guide to Online Flu Resources

This website provides resources to help healthcare professionals communicate about influenza. It includes pandemic and seasonal influenza communications resource libraries, containing materials created by public health agencies across the United …

Author: National Public Health Information Coalition

PATH Supports Global HPV Vaccine Introduction

This fact sheet outlines PATH's role in providing technical assistance to countries for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs. The PATH HPV vaccine team’s activities are channeled through …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Global Manual on Surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunization

Monitoring of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) is an essential strategy for ensuring the safety of vaccines. This manual provides guidance on improving the quality and efficiency of AEFI surveillance activities for managers of …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Assessing the Programmatic Suitability of Vaccine Candidates for WHO Prequalification (Revision 2014)

As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) vaccine prequalification (PQ) process, product summary files are assessed by the WHO PQ Secretariat to determine the suitability of the vaccine for the immunization services where it is intended to be …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2015

WHO Preferred Product Characteristics (PPC) for Malaria Vaccines

This document provides guidance for vaccine manufacturers and funding agencies in refining their product development plans for malaria vaccines. It clarifies the World Health Organization's preferences with regard to many criteria that form part of …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

The Right Shot: Bringing Down Barriers to Affordable and Adapted Vaccines - 2nd Edition

This second edition of The Right Shot gathers more than 1,500 data points from organizations including UNICEF, the Pan-American Health Organization, governments, vaccine manufacturers, and Médecins Sans Frontières' supply centers to better …

Author: Médecins Sans Frontières

Publication date: 2015

Effectiveness of a Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine in Infants in Malawi After Programmatic Roll-Out: An Observational and Case-Control Study

This article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, reports on a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a monovalent rotavirus vaccine in infants in Malawi. The authors found that the vaccine was 64 percent effective in preventing …

Author: Bar-Zeev N, Kapanda L, Tate JE, et al.

Publication date: 2015

US Department of Defense and PATH: Working Together to Advance Global Health Innovations

This fact sheet describes the partnership between PATH and the US Department of Defense (DoD). It highlights PATH projects—including the development of vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and malaria, along with work on …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Tackling the Deadliest Diseases for the World’s Poorest Children

This infographic discusses the high disease burden of pneumonia and diarrheal disease, particularly among children in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. It also highlights interventions to prevent and treat the diseases, including available vaccines.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Understanding Vaccines

This web page provides an overview on vaccines. It includes information on the history of vaccines; explanations of how vaccines work, including information on the different types of vaccines; the ingredients used in vaccines; links to the US …

Author: PublicHealth.org

Conservation and Immunogenicity of Novel Antigens in Diverse Isolates of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

This article, published in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, reports on a study that aimed to identify protective antigens shared by many enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains to help inform the development of new vaccine candidates. Using …

Author: Luo Q, Qadri F, Kansal R, Rasko DA, Sheikh A, Fleckenstein JM

Publication date: 2015

An Assessment of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Shigella Vaccine Candidates for Infants and Children

This review article, published in Vaccine, describes the approaches to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Shigella vaccines that are currently under development, including a range of both cellular and subunit approaches for each pathogen. …

Author: Walker RI

Publication date: 2015

Recommendations Regarding the Development of Combined Enterotoxigenic Eschericha coli and Shigella Vaccines for Infants

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a workshop hosted by PATH in October 2013 to solicit expert opinions on the potential merits and challenges of developing combined enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Shigella vaccine products to …

Author: Walker RI, Clifford A

Publication date: 2015

Safety and Immunogenicity of an Improved Oral Inactivated Multivalent Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Vaccine Administered Alone and Together with dmLT Adjuvant in a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Phase I Study

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on the results of a Phase 1 study of an oral vaccine candidate against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) administered in combination with a novel mucosal adjuvant, the double-mutant heat-labile toxin …

Author: Lundgren A, Bourgeois L, Carlin N, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Serum and Mucosal Antibody Responses to Inactivated Polio Vaccine After Sublingual Immunization Using a Thermoresponsive Gel Delivery System

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, reports on a preclinical study of an adjuvanted thermoresponsive gel (TRG) presentation of trivalent inactivated poliovirus vaccine to achieve sublingual immunization. This TRG …

Author: White JA, Blum JS, Hosken NA, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Vaccine Carriers: Are They Meeting Stakeholders’ Needs?

This report presents the findings of a literature review and survey that aimed to improve understanding of current uses of vaccine carriers and the needs of global health stakeholders.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

A Freeze-Stable Formulation for DTwP and DTaP Vaccines

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, reports on a study that examined a freeze-stable formulation of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-whole-cell (DTwP) and acellular (DTaP) vaccines. The authors found that the tested …

Author: Xue H, Yang B, Kristensen DD, Chen D

Publication date: 2014

Immunogenicity and Safety of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine Delivered by Disposable-Syringe Jet Injector in Healthy Brazilian Infants: A Randomized Non-Inferiority Study

This article, published in Contemporary Clinical Trials, reports on a study that compared the immunogenicity of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in infants when delivered by a disposable-syringe jet injector versus by needle and syringe. The …

Author: de Menezes Martins R, Curran B, de Lourdes Sousa Maia M, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them: For Parents of Preteens and Teens (7 Through 18 Years Old)

This series of fact sheets describes symptoms of infection as well as the benefits and risk of vaccination for several diseases, specifically for vaccines recommended for children aged 7 to 18 years. There are two types of fact sheets provided. …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Transformative Tools for Malaria Elimination

This report provides an accessible overview of emerging new tools to accelerate progress toward malaria elimination, including the development of vaccines. It provides a list of game-changing innovations, key players, and how they have the potential …

Author: PATH Malaria Center of Excellence; Center for Strategic and International Studies

Publication date: 2014

Meningococcal A Conjugate Vaccine: Updated Guidance, February 2015

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, supplements the World Health Organization's (WHO's) earlier position paper from 2011 concerning the routine immunization of infants and young children in the African meningitis belt with …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2015

How Do Vaccines Work?

This animated video explains how the immune system works and how, using this information, scientists found ways to help our bodies protect us from infectious diseases by developing different types of vaccines.

Author: TED-Ed; Kelwalin Dhanasarnsombut

Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: WHO Position Paper – February 2015

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, provides an updated recommendation from the World Health Organization on the use of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines, replacing their earlier recommendation from 2006. The article …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2015

An Analysis of Government Immunization Program Expenditures in Lower and Lower Middle Income Countries 2006-12

This article, published in Health Policy and Planning, examines the rising costs of immunization as new, more expensive vaccines are introduced into national immunization programs. The authors estimate that, by 2015, immunization costs will likely …

Author: Nader AA, de Quadros C, Politi C, McQuestion M

Publication date: 2015

Overcoming Challenges to Sustainable Immunization Financing: Early Experiences From GAVI Graduating Countries

This article, published in Health Policy and Planning, reports on a pilot approach to support the transition of five countries graduating out of financing assistance from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, in 2012. The pilot showed that the countries were …

Author: Saxenian H, Hecht R, Kaddar M, Schmitt S, Ryckman T, Cornejo S

Publication date: 2015

Child Health in Tanzania: Identifying Policy Pathways to Help Prevent Child Deaths From Pneumonia and Diarrhea

This report provides policy recommendations to help Tanzania reduce the impacts of pneumonia and diarrhea, including the use of available vaccines, to ensure all children have the chance to lead healthy lives.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Advances in Universal Influenza Virus Vaccine Design and Antibody Mediated Therapies Based on Conserved Regions of the Hemagglutinin

This book chapter, published in Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, discusses how the threat of novel influenza viruses emerging into the human population, as well as the short duration of protection conferred by licensed vaccines, have …

Author: Krammer F, Palese P, Steel J

Publication date: 2015

Estimated Global Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis: A Systematic Review

This article, published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, updates the estimated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis (JE) using recent data for the purpose of guiding prevention and control efforts. The authors found that …

Author: Campbell GL, Hills SL, Fischer M, et al.

Publication date: 2011

Public Assessment Summary Report – Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine, Live (Human)

This document provides a summary of a live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine, including information on the use of the vaccine, dosing, formulation, and safety and immunogenicity results from clinical trials.

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2013

Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis in the Philippines: A Systematic Review

This article, published in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, provides results of a review of Japanese encephalitis (JE) surveillance data to better define the epidemiology of JE in the Philippines. The results demonstrate the endemicity and …

Author: Lopez AL, Aldaba JG, Roque Jr. VG, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Pregnancy and Infection

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, reviews immunologic alterations during pregnancy. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users in developing countries can gain free access to journal articles.)

Author: Kourtis AP, Read JS, Jamieson DJ

Publication date: 2014

Efficacy of High-Dose versus Standard-Dose Influenza Vaccine in Older Adults

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, details a study to evaluate if a high dose (60 µg of hemagglutinin per strain) of trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) improves protection against laboratory-confirmed …

Author: DiazGranados CA, Dunning AJ, Kimmel M, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Safety of Russian-Backbone Seasonal Trivalent, Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in a Phase II Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial Among Children in Urban Bangladesh

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a study to evaluate the safety of a Russian-backbone, seasonal trivalent, live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in children aged 24 through 59 months in Bangladesh. The authors found that …

Author: Ortiz JR, Goswami D, Lewis KDC, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Saving Lives by Improving Global Immunization

This fact sheet outlines US government support for programs that improve global immunization. It also provides examples of how PATH, with support from US agencies, is working to close the immunization gap.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Efficacy and Safety of RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine With or Without a Booster Dose in Infants and Children in Africa: Final Results of a Phase 3, Individually Randomized, Controlled Trial

This article, published in The Lancet, reports the results of a study on the efficacy and safety of the RTS,S/AS01 candidate malaria vaccine. The authors conclude that RTS,S/AS01 prevented a substantial number of cases of clinical malaria over a …

Author: RTS,S Clinical Trials Partnership

Publication date: 2015

Expanding the Evidence Base to Inform Vaccine Introduction: Program Costing and Cost-Effectiveness Analyses

This supplement to Vaccine contains 38 articles featuring country-led research to support real-time policymaking, including cost-effectiveness, program costing, and analyses of financial flows for vaccine introduction. It highlights work undertaken …

Author: Andrus JK, Walker DG, eds.

Publication date: 2015

Rotavirus Vaccines: Rapid Rollout is Saving Lives

This animated video and companion infographic highlight the progress made in reducing rotavirus disease burden due to the rapid introduction of rotavirus vaccines in more than 75 countries worldwide. They show that while great progress has been …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

How Can We Solve the Enigma of Influenza Vaccine-Induced Protection?

This commentary, published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, provides the author's perspective on results from a prospective household cohort study conducted in Michigan, United States that generated influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates …

Author: Neuzil KM

Publication date: 2015

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Transplacental Antibody Transfer and Kinetics in Mother-Infant Pairs in Bangladesh

This article, published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, summarizes a serological study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh that documented efficient transplacental transfer of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific antibody from mother to the …

Author: Chu HY, Steinhoff MC, Magaret A, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Quantifying Maternally Derived Respiratory Syncytial Virus Specific Neutralising Antibodies in a Birth Cohort From Coastal Kenya

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on the characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) neutralizing antibodies in a birth cohort in Kilifi, Kenya, which provides important data for maternal RSV vaccine development. Results showed …

Author: Nyiro JU, Sande C, Mutunga M, et al.

Publication date: 2015

WHO Brighton Collaboration on Maternal Immunization Meeting Report

This report summarizes a consultation meeting held jointly by the World Health Organization's Initiative for Vaccine Research and the Brighton Collaboration in Geneva, Switzerland, from July 24 to 25, 2014 to facilitate harmonization of key events …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2014

Transplacental Transport of IgG Antibodies to Preterm Infants: A Review of the Literature

This article, published in Early Human Development, summarizes a study that reviewed the transplacental transfer of immunoglobulin G against vaccine-preventable diseases (measles, rubella, varicella-zoster, mumps, Haemophilus influenzae type B, …

Author: van den Berg JP, Westerbeek EAM, van der Klis FRM, Berbers GAM, van Elburg RM,

Publication date: 2011

Reimagining Global Health: 30 High-Impact Innovations to Save Lives

This inaugural report of the Innovation Countdown 2030 initiative features 30 high-impact innovations that can accelerate the world’s progress toward the proposed 2030 health targets in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Advocacy for Immunisation

This web-platform is designed to help health advocates improve immunization systems and access to live-saving vaccines. It provides a comprehensive end-to-end guide to vaccine and immunization advocacy to help health advocates develop their advocacy …

Author: PATH, International Vaccine Access Center

Use of 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine: Updated HPV Vaccination Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices

This article, published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, outlines the recommendation by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) to include the 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine as one of the three HPV vaccines that …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2015

Antibody Responses Among Adolescent Females Receiving the Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine Series Corresponding to Standard or Non-Standard Dosing Intervals

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study to assess antibody levels when dose 2 and/or dose 3 of the 3-dose quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine were administered on schedule or delayed. The authors found that antibody …

Author: Russell K, Dunne E, Kemper AR, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Too Late to Vaccinate? The Incremental Benefits and Cost-Effectiveness of a Delayed Catch-Up Program Using the 4-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Norway

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports on a study to evaluate the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed, one-year female catch-up human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine program in Norway. The authors found that …

Author: Burger EA, Sy S, Nygard M, Kristiansen IS, Kim JJ

Publication date: 2015

Combination Vaccines Against Diarrheal Diseases

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, outlines the need for the development of affordable and effective combination vaccines against diarrheal diseases. Despite the well-documented global burden of diarrheal diseases, …

Author: Venkatesan MM, Van de Verg LL

Publication date: 2015

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Parenterally Administered Rotavirus VP8 Subunit Vaccine in Healthy Adults

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a non-replicating rotavirus vaccine candidate. The authors found that the vaccine was well-tolerated in healthy adults and evoked promising immune …

Author: Fix AD, Harro C, McNeal M, et al.

Publication date: 2015

WHO Consultation on Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Development Report From a World Health Organization Meeting Held on 23–24 March 2015

This article, published in Vaccine, summarizes a World Health Organization-convened respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine consultation held on March 23 and 24, 2015 in Geneva, Switzerland, which brought together experts from around the world to …

Author: Modjarrad K, Giersing B, Kaslow DC, Smith PG, Moorthy VS, the WHO RSV Vaccine Consultation Expert Group

Publication date: 2015

A Vaccine That Could Help End Malaria

This animated video explains how transmission-blocking vaccines could work to prevent mosquitos from spreading the malaria parasite to people.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Advocacy for Stronger Immunization Supply Chains

This fact sheet explains why immunization supply chains and logistics are important, and describes PATH’s advocacy strategy to raise the political will for stronger supply chains.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Reducing Cervical Cancer Inequities Worldwide

This fact sheet describes PATH’s contributions to advances in cervical cancer prevention, including its work on efficient and effective introduction of human papillomavirus vaccines to developing countries.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Efficacy of Fewer Than Three Doses of an HPV-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine: Combined Analysis of Data From the Costa Rica Vaccine and PATRICIA Trials

This article, published in The Lancet Oncology, reports on a study to evaluate the efficacy of fewer than the recommended three doses of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine four years after vaccination. The authors found that one and two doses …

Author: Kreimer AR, Struyf F, Del Rosario-Raymundo MR, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Present Status of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Development and Implementation

This article, published in The Lancet Oncology, provides an overview of the current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines available, vaccine efficacy and safety, current HPV recommendations, and vaccine introduction into national health …

Author: Herrero R, Gonzalez P, Markowitz LE

Publication date: 2015

An Extended Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Publicly Financed HPV Vaccination to Prevent Cervical Cancer in China

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a study to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to prevent cervical cancer in China. The authors found that HPV is cost-effective across all income groups when the …

Author: Levin CE, Sharma M, Olson Z, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Gavi HPV Programs: Application to Implementation

This article, published in Vaccines, summarizes information from approved Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine demonstration program proposals and preliminary implementation findings. It highlights experiences learned from …

Author: Hanson CM, Eckert L, Bloem P, Cernuschi T

Publication date: 2015

How to Use Passive Containers and Coolant-Packs for Vaccine Transport and Outreach Operations

This training module provides guidance on how to develop a transport strategy for vaccines that minimizes the risk of exposure to freezing through the correct use of passive containers and their associated coolant-packs. It covers vaccine transport …

Author: World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2015

How to Monitor Temperatures in the Vaccine Supply Chain

This training module focuses on temperature monitoring of vaccines and provides updated implementation guidance on vaccine vial monitors and various temperature monitoring tools for cold rooms and fridges, including new devices that monitor and log …

Author: World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2015

The State of Vaccine Confidence: 2015

This report aims to build understanding of the global picture of public confidence in vaccines by analyzing vaccine confidence issues and paths to their resolution over the past decade. It presents options for monitoring and measuring public …

Author: London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Publication date: 2015

Practical Guide for the Design, Use and Promotion of Home-Based Records in Immunization Programmes

This report provides direction on how to improve the use and design of home-based immunization records. It incorporates relevant experience and ideas observed across countries, outlines current practices in the field, and can be applied to a wide …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2015

TechNet Resource Library

This website provides an online repository of useful journal articles, documents, tools, websites, and other immunization resources. Users are able to search by keyword or browse the collection by category, disease, or other tag. Members of the …

Author: Technical Network for Strengthening Immunization Services

IPV Introduction and the Polio Endgame

This web page provides summaries and links to new communications materials to support the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and to help communicate the need for IPV introduction. The resources include case studies on IPV introduction …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Genetic Diversity and Protective Efficacy of the RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine

This article, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, reports on an analysis of samples from an efficacy study of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine to determine whether the vaccine efficacy was specific to certain parasite genotypes at the …

Author: Neafsey DE, Juraska M, Bedford T, et al.

Publication date: 2015

How Are Vaccines Developed?

This video provides a very high-level overview of the rigorous testing that vaccines undergo when they are developed. As the video highlights, vaccines are subject to even tougher standards than medicines—more people are included in clinical …

Author: Vaccines Today

Publication date: 2015

A Cost Comparison of Introducing and Delivering Pneumococcal, Rotavirus and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Rwanda

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on a cost comparison of introducing multiple vaccines in a single country and then assessing the financial and economic impact at the time and implications for the future. The objective of the analysis was …

Author: Ngabo F, Levin A, Wang SA, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Costing RTS,S Introduction in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda: A Generalizable Approach Drawing on Publicly Available Data

This article, published in Vaccine, proposes a generalizable methodology to estimate the cost of introduction of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda) using routinely …

Author: Galactionova K, Bertram M, Lauer J, Tediosi F

Publication date: 2015

Multivalent Pneumococcal Protein Vaccines Comprising Pneumolysoid With Epitopes/Fragments of CbpA and/or PspA Elicit Strong and Broad Protection

This article, published in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, reports on the results of a study that examined the protective immunogenicity of three pneumococcal proteins in various combinations in a mouse model, in the effort to contribute to the …

Author: Chen A, Mann B, Gao G, et al.

Publication date: 2015

The Meningitis Vaccine Project: The Development, Licensure, Introduction, and Impact of a New Group A Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine for Africa

This supplement issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases contains 29 articles that together cover the steps taken for the development, introduction, and evaluation of MenAfriVac®, a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine developed specifically for Africa …

Author: LaForce FM, Borrow R, Preziosi M-P, eds.

Publication date: 2015

Immunization Advocacy Library

This web page provides links to several publications related to immunization advocacy. It includes documents on a variety of topics including how to respond to concerns about vaccination, myths and facts about immunization, and messages on cost …

Author: World Health Organization

Next-Generation Immunization Supply Chains Are Needed to Improve Health Outcomes

This document provides key messages for policy- and decision-makers to explain why next-generation immunization supply chains are needed to fulfill global health goals. They are intended to unite partners and stakeholders in a common language around …

Author: PATH; Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; John Snow, Inc.; VillageReach

Publication date: 2015

Meningitis A Shot of Hope

This documentary details the work of the Meningitis Vaccine Project, a partnership between the World Health Organization and PATH to eliminate meningitis A as a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa through the development, testing, licensure, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Public Health Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of the RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine: A Systematic Comparison of Predictions From Four Mathematical Models

This article, published in The Lancet, reports the results of a study that aimed to assess the public health impact and cost-effectiveness of routine use of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine in African settings. The models predict a significant public health …

Author: Penny MA, Verity R, Bever CA, et al.

Publication date: 2015

HPV Vaccine Lessons Learnt

This web page provides links to a package of resources from the first comprehensive review of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine delivery experiences across 46 low- and middle-income countries. Highlights include key findings and lessons learned …

Author: PATH, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Publication date: 2016

HPV Vaccination: Current Global Status

This article, published in Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports, provides an overview of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination ten years after introduction in a variety of populations. It covers the high efficacy and effectiveness of HPV …

Author: Brotherton JML, Bloem PJN

Publication date: 2015

Paving Pathways: Brazil’s Implementation of a National Human Papillomavirus Immunization Campaign

This article, published in Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, examines factors that may influence the long-term success of Brazil’s human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program—sustaining effective outreach, managing a large …

Author: Baker ML, Figueroa-Downing D, De Oliveira Chiang ED, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Pneumonia & Diarrhea Progress Report 2015: Sustainable Progress in the Post-2015 Era

In follow-up to a 2014 report, this new report again evaluates the progress of the 15 countries with the greatest burden of pneumonia and diarrhea deaths among children under the age of five years in implementing the high-impact interventions …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Publication date: 2015

Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed—Progress Report 2015

This report follows the 2014 progress report on the “A Promise Renewed” initiative, and is intended to track progress on child survival and promote accountability for global commitments made to children. It features updates and analyses of …

Author: United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2015

Policy Paper: At the Midpoint of the Decade of Vaccines

The world is off track to achieve most of the targets defined in the globally agreed upon Global Vaccine Action Plan. The United States government—one of the largest contributors to global immunization efforts—has not yet articulated its …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

SAGE Assessment Reports

The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) was endorsed by the World Health Assembly in May 2012 to achieve its “Decade of Vaccines” vision of universal access to immunization. This web page provides links to the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts …

Author: World Health Organization

Advancing Vaccines and Immunization Issues, Insights, and Innovations

This supplement of Vaccine contains 16 articles that cover a broad spectrum of important issues in vaccine science, including vaccine safety, efficacy, and implementation. The overarching theme revolves around identifying barriers to vaccination and …

Author: Artenstein AW, Halsey NA, Nowak GJ, eds.

Publication date: 2015

WHO Guidance Note: Vaccine Diluents, Revision 2015

This guidance note explains the proper handling and use of vaccine diluents, including critical steps for reconstituting vaccines safely and the appropriate storage and stock management procedures. This document is designed to be used in conjunction …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2015

Introducing Solar-Powered Vaccine Refrigerator and Freezer Systems – A Guide for Managers in National Immunization Programmes

This document provides guidance on how to implement successful solar-powered vaccine refrigerator and freezer systems. It takes into account important new developments in refrigerator technology and is based on lessons learned during the 30 years …

Author: United Nations Children’s Fund, World Health Organization

Publication date: 2015

Forecast Report: Freeze-Safe Vaccine Carriers—Modeling the Potential Global Market

This report uses a model developed by PATH to assess the global market for cold chain equipment innovations. It focuses on passive freeze-safe vaccine carriers that can reduce vaccine product exposure to freezing temperatures during transportation …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Report on the Freeze-Preventive Passive Container Meeting

This document reports on an expert consultation that was held in April 2015 to review equipment solutions to the problem of vaccines being exposed to sub-zero temperatures while being transported in passive vaccine carriers. Participants compared …

Author: PATH, United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2015

A Study of Different Buffers to Maximize Viability of an Oral Shigella Vaccine

Live, oral vaccines against bacterial causes of diarrhea have to be formulated and administered in a way that protects them from the harsh acidic gastric environment. However, little work has been done to evaluate the volume of buffer needed to …

Author: Chandrasekaran L, Lal M, Van De Verg LL, Venkatesan MM

Publication date: 2015

Characterization of Mucosal Immune Responses to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Vaccine Antigens in a Human Challenge Model: Response Profiles After Primary Infection and Homologous Rechallenge With Strain H10407

There is currently a poor understanding of the immune responses that correlate best with protection against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) illness, which presents a challenge to vaccine development efforts. This article, published in …

Author: Chakraborty S, Harro C, DeNearing B, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Evaluation of the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of an Oral, Inactivated Whole-Cell Shigella flexneri 2a Vaccine in Healthy Adult Subjects

This article, published in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, reports the results of a Phase 1 clinical study that evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a Shigella vaccine candidate. The results showed that the vaccine was well tolerated and …

Author: Chakraborty S, Harro C, DeNearing B, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Keeping the Cold Chain Cold

This policy paper documents the challenges of the cold chain at the last mile of delivery in the vaccine supply chain. It also provides examples of new innovations and approaches to improve cold chain monitoring and maintenance.

Author: VillageReach

Publication date: 2014

Other Duties as Required: Efficient Use of Human Resources

This policy paper focuses on the role of human resources and the specific challenges facing individuals within the health system to adequately address the needs of vaccine supply chains, particularly in low-resource communities. It also presents …

Author: VillageReach

Publication date: 2014

System Design: Repair or Replace

System design is the blueprint of the architecture, components, processes, and operations of a supply chain. This policy paper considers the broader concept of system design and how all components of a vaccine supply chain can fit together to be …

Author: VillageReach

Publication date: 2014

Data for Management: It’s Not Just Another Report

This policy paper addresses the many challenges in data collection and quality within the vaccine supply chain, and discusses the global shift toward data visualization and utilization for improved decision making. Mozambique is used as a case study …

Author: VillageReach

Publication date: 2015

Change Leadership: The Making or Breaking of an Immunization Supply Chain

Change leadership and effective management are critical ingredients for modernizing immunization supply chains to withstand current and future pressures and ensure all children have access to vaccines. This policy paper explores the necessary …

Author: VillageReach, People that Deliver

Publication date: 2016

A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of Alternative Dosing Schedules on the Immune Response to Human Rotavirus Vaccine in Rural Ghanaian Infants

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, presents the findings of a randomized trial in rural Ghana that compared anti-rotavirus immune responses to the two-dose monovalent human rotavirus vaccine when administered at ages 6/10 …

Author: Armah G, Lewis KDC, Cortese MM, et al.

Publication date: 2016

The Economic Burden of Childhood Pneumococcal Diseases in The Gambia

This article, published in Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, presents the results of a study that aimed to estimate, from a societal perspective, the costs incurred by health providers and families of children with pneumococcal diseases in …

Author: Usuf E, Mackenzie G, Sambou S, Atherly D, Suraratdecha C

Publication date: 2016

Vaccine Carrier Water-Pack Freezing: Results From Studies on Visual Inspection Methods to Assess Freeze Status and on Water-Pack Temperature and Expansion During Freezing

This report summarizes experiments to develop a visual inspection method for determining whether water-packs are frozen, partially frozen, or unfrozen when removed from a freezer for use in vaccine carriers. It also examines water-pack temperature …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Vaccines

This thematic issue of the journal Health Affairs focuses on vaccines. Its 26 articles explore the current environment for vaccine discovery, production, and delivery. The issue covers a wide range of topics including the value of vaccines; …

Author: Weil AR, ed.

Publication date: 2016

Immunization: Case Studies

This web page contains a set of case studies designed to help physicians address vaccine hesitancy and refusal among families in an effective and efficient manner. The series includes online training and print resources to answer patients and …

Author: American Academy of Pediatrics

FluSight: Seasonal Influenza Forecasting

The goal of influenza forecasting is to provide a more timely and forward-looking tool that predicts rather than monitors flu activity so that health officials can be more proactive in their prevention and mitigation responses. To advance and …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Effect of the Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in The Gambia: A Population-Based Surveillance Study

Little information is available about the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in low-income countries. This article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, presents the results of a study that measured the effects of PCVs on …

Author: Mackenzie GA, Hill PC, Jeffries DJ, et al.

Publication date: 2016

How Do We Improve Health Around the World?

This infographic depicts the Better Immunization Data (BID) Initiative’s approach to enhancing immunization and improving health around the world through improved data collection, quality, and use. It explains their multi-pronged strategy, which …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Investing in Next-Generation Health Supply Chains Saves Lives

This issue brief provides important background on why policymakers and global health leaders must invest in health supply chains to help close the immunization gap. It highlights five ways to innovate supply chains and provides resources on how to …

Author: PATH; Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance; John Snow, Inc.; et al.

Publication date: 2016

Securing a Polio-Free World: Video Series

This series of six videos explains the important steps that are being taken to make sure that, once poliovirus has been eradicated, it will never have the opportunity to return. Topics of the videos include the current polio vaccines available, the …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2016

Global Routine Immunization Strategies and Practices (GRISP)

This document, designed to accompany the Global Vaccine Action Plan, outlines specific strategies and activities required to ensure that routine immunization is accessible to all. It describes nine transformative investments to achieve better …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2016

The Advance Market Commitment Pilot for Pneumococcal Vaccines: Outcomes and Impact Evaluation

This report assesses the extent to which the Advanced Market Commitment (AMC) pilot program has achieved its stated objectives and overarching goal of reducing morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal disease by accelerating the development, …

Author: The Boston Consulting Group

Publication date: 2015

Understanding the Root Causes of Cold Chain Equipment Failure: Results From a Pilot Study in Uganda

This document reports the results of a case study in Uganda to identify and understand the causes of vaccine cold chain equipment failure. It explains the reasons for the equipment failure and provides recommendations to four key …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

White Paper – Rotavirus: Common, Severe, Devastating, Preventable

This white paper provides a comprehensive source of information on rotavirus disease and vaccines. The 50-page synthesis includes the latest evidence and programmatic information about: rotavirus disease burden; vaccines in global use, nationally …

Author: ROTA Council

Publication date: 2016

Status of Vaccine Research and Development of Vaccines for Malaria

This article, published in Vaccine, provides an overview of malaria disease and outlines current efforts in vaccine development. It includes general approaches to vaccine development for low- and middle-income markets, the status of malaria vaccine …

Author: Birkett AJ

Publication date: 2016

Phase 1/2a Trial of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Vaccine Candidate VMP001/AS01B in Malaria-Naive Adults: Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy

A vaccine to prevent infection and disease caused by Plasmodium vivax is needed both to reduce the morbidity caused by this parasite and as a key component in efforts to eradicate malaria worldwide. This article, published in PLoS Neglected …

Author: Bennett JW, Yadava A, Tosh D, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Tracking the New Vaccine Pipeline

This web page links to a spreadsheet that tracks the global clinical vaccine development plans for seven pathogen areas including malaria, respiratory syncytial virus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Shigella. For each disease area, candidate …

Author: World Health Organization

Advances in RSV Vaccine Research and Development – A Global Agenda

This article, published in Vaccine, provides an overview of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease and outlines the current efforts in vaccine development. It includes the feasibility for an RSV vaccine, constraints to vaccine development, …

Author: Higgins D, Trujillo C, Keech C

Publication date: 2016

Status of Vaccine Research and Development for Shigella

This article, published in Vaccine, provides a Shigella vaccine landscape assessment. It includes an overview of Shigella disease and outlines general approaches to vaccine development for low- and middle-income markets, the status of Shigella …

Author: Mani S, Wierzba T, Walker RI

Publication date: 2016

Status of Vaccine Research and Development for Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

This article, published in Vaccine, provides an overview of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) disease and outlines current efforts in vaccine development. It includes general approaches to vaccine development for low- and middle-income …

Author: Bourgeois AL, Wierzba TF, Walker RI

Publication date: 2016

Supply Chain Strengthening: Our Work and Capabilities in Senegal

This fact sheet highlights PATH’s supply chain strengthening work in Senegal, including work on vaccine cold chain technologies and immunization supply chain advocacy.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Supply Chain Strengthening: Our Work and Capabilities in Uganda

This fact sheet highlights the work of PATH and its partners to improve and support vaccine introductions as well as to strengthen the immunization supply chain at all levels in Uganda.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Supply Chain Strengthening: Our Work and Capabilities in India

This fact sheet highlights PATH’s efforts to strengthen vaccine supply chains in India, focusing on the development, introduction, and scale-up of technology and system innovations that increase the efficiency and effectiveness of India’s public …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Polio Vaccines: WHO Position Paper – March, 2016

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, replaces the 2014 World Health Organization position paper on polio vaccines and summarizes recent developments in the field. The recommendations from the 2014 position paper on the use …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2016

Potential Public Health Impact of RTS,S Malaria Candidate Vaccine in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Modelling Study

This article, published in Malaria Journal, reports the results of a study that modeled the potential public health impact of the RTS,S candidate malaria vaccine in 42 malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors assumed vaccination …

Author: Sauboin CJ, Van Bellinghen L-A, Van De Velde N, Van Vlaenderen I

Publication date: 2015

Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety: Statement on Safety of HPV Vaccines

This report presents the findings of the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety’s review of the safety profile of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. After examining pre- and post-licensure data, the Committee found no safety issues that …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2015

Prevalence of HPV After Introduction of the Vaccination Program in the United States

This article, published in Pediatrics, reports the results of a study that examined the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) before and after the introduction of HPV vaccines in the United States. The authors found that there was a 64 percent …

Author: Markowitz LE, Liu G, Hariri S, Steinau M, Dunne EF, Unger ER

Publication date: 2016

Current Global Pricing for Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Brings the Greatest Economic Benefits to Rich Countries

This article, published in Health Affairs, details an economic model that estimates the distribution of the economic surplus—the sum of all health and economic benefits of a vaccine, minus the costs of development, production, and …

Author: Herlihy N, Hutubessy R, Jit M

Publication date: 2016

Health Benefits of Rotavirus Vaccination in Developing Countries

This supplement of Clinical Infectious Diseases contains a collection of 20 articles describing the impact and effectiveness of routine rotavirus vaccination in developing countries. The data highlight the benefits of vaccination and should provide …

Author: Parashar UD, Tate JE, eds.

Publication date: 2016

The Economic Burden Attributable to a Child’s Inpatient Admission for Diarrheal Disease in Rwanda

This article, published in PLoS ONE, reports the results of a study that aimed to estimate the economic burden attributable to hospitalization for diarrhea among children less than five years old in Rwanda. The authors also compared the economic …

Author: Ngabo F, Mvundura M, Gazley L, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Global, Regional, and National Estimates of Rotavirus Mortality in Children <5 Years of Age, 2000–2013

This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, provides updated global, regional, and national estimates for rotavirus mortality in children less than five years of age from 2000 to 2013. The authors used a multiple linear regression model …

Author: Tate JE, Burton AH, Boschi-Pinto C, Parashar UD

Publication date: 2016

Protecting Mother and Baby From Infectious Diseases

This fact sheet describes PATH’s work in maternal immunization—an approach of vaccinating during pregnancy to protect the mother and baby. It covers work across vaccine projects targeting respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, group B …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

Assessing the Total Cost of Ownership for Cold Chain Equipment

Total cost of ownership refers to all costs associated with owning and operating a unit of equipment over its life expectancy. This tool is designed to assist decision-makers in evaluating available cold chain equipment options from a cost …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

For Parents: Vaccines for Your Children

This web page offers a variety of resources for parents seeking to learn more about childhood immunizations and the diseases that can be prevented with vaccines. Topics include age-specific vaccine information, immunization records and requirements, …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

How Can Data Help Fight Disease?

This animated video explains the important role that data plays in fighting polio worldwide. Data about cases of polio, the size of an outbreak and the population affected, and information about vaccination programs can be collected and shared …

Author: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Publication date: 2016

Universal Influenza Vaccines: Shifting to Better Vaccines

This article, published in Vaccine, provides an overview of currently available influenza vaccines and their limitations, and also outlines current efforts to develop a broadly protective, universal influenza vaccine. It also highlights general …

Author: Berlanda Scorza F, Tsvetnitsky V, Donnelly JJ

Publication date: 2016

PATH Vietnam and ImmReg: Expanding Reach of the Immunization Registry in Vietnam

ImmReg is a web-based, digital immunization registry that can be accessed via a computer or mobile phone, allowing health workers to record and access immunization data in real time. This case study explores PATH’s effective scale-up of ImmReg in …

Author: United Nations Foundation, PATH, HRP

Publication date: 2016

The Value of Demonstration Projects for New Interventions: The Case of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Introduction in Low and Middle-Income Countries

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, examines the value of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination demonstration projects, including potential drawbacks and how value for informing national scale-up might be increased. …

Author: Howard N, Mounier-Jack S, Gallagher KE, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Human Papillomaviruses: Research Priorities for the Next Decade

This article, published in Trends in Cancer, details human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the cancers it can cause. It also outlines research priorities going forward, and emphasizes the need for enhanced public health efforts to increase the …

Author: Langsfeld E, Laimins LA

Publication date: 2016

Rotavirus Vaccination and Intussusception – Science, Surveillance, and Safety: A Review of Evidence and Recommendations for Future Research Priorities in Low and Middle Income Countries

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, reports the results of a meeting of research and advocacy organizations, public health experts, funders, and vaccine manufacturers on post-marketing intussusception surveillance and …

Author: Yen C, Healy K, Tate JE, et al.

Publication date: 2016

STOPENTERICS

This website details the work of STOPENTERICS, a consortium of independent organizations around the world dedicated to accelerating the development of Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccines for children in the developing world.

Author: STOPENTERICS

Global Estimates of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Coverage by Region and Income Level: A Pooled Analysis

This article, published in The Lancet Global Health, reports on a study that aimed to quantify worldwide cumulative coverage of publicly funded human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization programs and the potential impact on future cervical cancer cases …

Author: Bruni L, Diaz M, Barrionuevo-Rosas L, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Impact and Effectiveness of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: A Systematic Review of 10 Years of Real-World Experience

This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, reports on a study that assessed the global effect of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on HPV infection and disease. The authors found that over the last decade, the impact …

Author: Garland SM, Kjaer SK, Muñoz N, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Monoclonal Antibodies to Shigella LPS Useful for Vaccine Production

This article, published in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, reports the results of a study that produced monoclonal antibodies against serotype-specific Shigella lipopolysaccharides (LPS). These Shigella LPS-specific monoclonal antibodies may be …

Author: Lin J, Smith MA, Benjamin Jr. WH, Kaminski RW, Wenzel H, Nahm MH

Publication date: 2016

Access to Vaccines Index 2017

The Access to Vaccines Index is a publicly available tool that assesses the world's largest vaccine companies based on their ability to improve access to vaccines. With cross-cutting analyses of each vaccine company's efforts to develop, …

Author: Access to Medicine Foundation

Publication date: 2017

Individual-Specific Changes in the Human Gut Microbiota After Challenge With Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Subsequent Ciprofloxacin Treatment

This article, published in BMC Genomics, reports the results of a study that aimed to understand the impact of the human intestinal microbiota on the initiation and progression of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhea. The authors found …

Author: Pop M, Paulson JN, Chakraborty S, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Noninterference of Rotavirus Vaccine With Measles-Rubella Vaccine at 9 Months of Age and Improvements in Antirotavirus Immunity: A Randomized Trial

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, presents the findings of a randomized trial in Matlab, Bangladesh that aimed to establish non-inferiority of the co-administration of measles-rubella vaccine and a third dose …

Author: Zaman K, Fleming JA, Victor JC, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Immunization Supply Chain Policy Environment in Uganda: Landscape Analysis and Advocacy Recommendations

This report provides an overview of the policy environment and immunization supply chain system in Uganda and outlines recommendations for policy and procedural changes that may improve supply chain performance, leading to better immunization and …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Investigation of Phase-Change Materials for Vaccine Cold Chain Equipment

This report presents the results of research and testing of phase-change materials (PCMs) as related to their potential use in vaccine cold chain equipment. It explores the landscape of suitable PCMs, their thermal characteristics, and their …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Social Mobilisation, Consent and Acceptability: A Review of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Procedures in Low and Middle-Income Countries

This article, published in BMC Public Health, reports on a study that synthesized experiences and lessons learned around social mobilization, consent, and acceptability during 55 human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine demonstration projects in 37 low- …

Author: Kabakama S, Gallagher KE, Howard N, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Impact of Different Dosing Schedules on the Immunogenicity of the Human Rotavirus Vaccine in Infants in Pakistan: A Randomized Trial

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a study examining the immunogenicity and efficacy of admininstering an additional dose of monovalent rotavirus vaccine in Pakistan. The authors found that a third …

Author: Ali SA, Kazi AM, Cortese MM, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Combatting Japanese Encephalitis in Nepal: A Public Health Success Story

This case study details Nepal’s successful efforts—despite several challenges—against Japanese encephalitis (JE), from establishing disease surveillance to a robust routine JE immunization program.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Development of a Stable Liquid Formulation of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

Existing live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccines may require lyophilization to be stable enough for developing-country use, which adds a significant cost burden and reduces their use and accessibility in low-resource settings. This article, …

Author: White JA, Estrada M, Flood EA, Mahmood K, Dhere R, Chen D

Publication date: 2016

Reactogenicity, Safety and Immunogenicity of a Protein-Based Pneumococcal Vaccine in Gambian Children Aged 2-4 Years: A Phase II Randomized Study

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, reports the results of a study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a protein-based pneumococcal vaccine candidate. The authors found the vaccine to be well tolerated and …

Author: Odutola A, Ota MO, Ogundare EO, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Assessment of Immune Responses to H5N1 Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Among Individuals Previously Primed With H5N2 Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, reports the results of a study that aimed to increase the efficacy of H5 subtype influenza vaccines. The authors found that study participants who had previously been primed with …

Author: Rudenko L, Naykhin A, Donina S, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Challenges and Opportunities for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

This book chapter, published in Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, summarizes what is known about the virology, clinical manifestation, immunity, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as it relates to …

Author: Graham BS, Anderson LJ, eds.

Publication date: 2013

Vaccines Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus: The Time Has Finally Come

This article, published in Vaccine, provides an overview of respiratory syncytial virus disease and the efforts to develop a vaccine. It details different vaccine development approaches and outlines the goals of vaccination in different target …

Author: Graham BS

Publication date: 2016

RSV Vaccine Use – The Missing Data

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, explains the need for more data and knowledge on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemiology in different settings and age groups, as well as virus transmission and healthcare costs of the …

Author: Drysdale SB, Sande CJ, Green CA, Pollard AJ

Publication date: 2016

The Changing Landscape of Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Recognition of the high disease burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has led to increased efforts to prevent and treat RSV. This article, published in Vaccine, attempts to address questions that may emerge using current knowledge from the …

Author: Polack FP

Publication date: 2015

Evaluating Vaccination Strategies for Reducing Infant Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Low-Income Settings

Infants account for the majority of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) burden, but they are a problematic RSV vaccine target population due to their immunological immaturity. This article, published in BMC Medicine, reports on a study that …

Author: Poletti P, Merler S, Ajelli M, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Risk Factors for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Associated With Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in Children Under Five Years: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

This article, published in the Journal of Global Health, reports the results of a study that identified risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in young children. The study presents a …

Author: Shi T, Balsells E, Wastnedge E, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Fractional Third and Fourth Dose of RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Candidate Vaccine: A Phase 2a Controlled Human Malaria Parasite Infection and Immunogenicity Study

This article, published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, describes how immunization regimens, including a delayed fractional third dose, were assessed for potential increased protection against malaria and immunologic responses. The authors …

Author: Regules JA, Cicatelli SB, Bennett JW, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Optimization of a Membrane Feeding Assay for Plasmodium vivax Infection in Anopheles albimanus

Development of a malaria transmission blocking (TB) vaccine requires a better understanding of the mechanisms and main effectors responsible for TB responses. This article, published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, reports the results of a …

Author: Vallejo AF, Rubiano K, Amado A, Krystosik AR, Herrera S, Arévalo-Herrera M

Publication date: 2016

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines: Key Messages

This document provides PATH’s key messages on rotavirus disease and vaccines. They are intended to help frame conversations, presentations, speeches, and other advocacy and communications materials.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2014

Safety and High Level Efficacy of the Combination Malaria Vaccine Regimen of RTS,S/AS01B With Chimpanzee Adenovirus 63 and Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vectored Vaccines Expressing ME-TRAP

The need for a highly efficacious vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum remains pressing. This article, published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a study that assessed the safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of a …

Author: Rampling T, Ewer KJ, Bowyer G, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Safety and Immunogenicity of RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine in Infants and Children With WHO Stage 1 or 2 HIV Disease: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

Malaria remains a major global public health concern, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a study that aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of RTS,S/AS01 …

Author: Otieno L, Oneko M, Otieno W, et al.

Publication date: 2016

The Biological Function of Antibodies Induced by the RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine Candidate is Determined by Their Fine Specificity

This article, published in Malaria Journal, discusses how recent vaccine studies have shown that the magnitude of an antibody response is often insufficient to explain efficacy, suggesting that characteristics regarding the quality of the …

Author: Chaudhury S, Ockenhouse CF, Regules JA, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Transmission-Blocking Activity is Determined by Transmission-Reducing Activity and Number of Control Oocysts in Plasmodium falciparum Standard Membrane-Feeding Assay

Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) are potentially helpful tools for malaria eradication. The standard membrane-feeding assay (SMFA) is considered one of the “gold standard” assays for TBV development. However, lack of consensus in …

Author: Miura K, Swihart BJ, Deng B, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Assessment of Pfs25 Expressed from Multiple Soluble Expression Platforms for Use as Transmission-Blocking Vaccine Candidates

Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) have become a focus of strategies to control and eventually eliminate malaria as they target the entry of sexual stage into the Anopheles stephensi mosquito thereby preventing transmission, an essential …

Author: Lee S-M, Wu C-K, Plieskatt J, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Rotavirus Disease and Vaccines: Frequently Asked Questions

This document provides answers to frequently asked questions about rotavirus disease and vaccines and is designed to provide a better understanding of the characteristics, burden, and epidemiology of rotavirus disease; an overview of rotavirus …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Rotavirus Vaccine Country Introductions: Maps and List

The World Health Organization recommends that rotavirus vaccines be introduced into every country’s national immunization program, particularly in countries where diarrheal disease is a major health problem. These maps (worldwide or …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Lessons Learned in Reaching the Final 20: Building a Next-Generation Immunization Supply Chain in Mozambique

This report provides a detailed analysis and lessons learned from VillageReach’s work with the Mozambique Ministry of Health to implement comprehensive immunization supply chain changes. It highlights new tools, approaches, and evidence for …

Author: VillageReach

Publication date: 2016

Beyond Eradication: The United States’ Role in Sustaining Public Health Gains Achieved Through Polio Programs

This report provides analysis and policy recommendations for the US government to protect the public health gains made as a result of polio eradication through technical and financial resources.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Evaluating the Cost and Financing of National Immunization Programs

As new vaccines are introduced, accurate information on the cost and financing of national immunization programs can be lacking. This website is designed to serve as a hub for all new information on immunization costing and financing studies to help …

Author: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Microarray Patches for Vaccine Delivery

This fact sheet highlights PATH’s work on microarray patches (also known as microneedle patches) for vaccine delivery. It explores the advantages of delivering vaccines by microarray patch, including the potential for increased thermostability, …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Use of Quantitative Molecular Diagnostic Methods to Identify Causes of Diarrhoea in Children: A Reanalysis of the GEMS Case-Control Study

This article, published in The Lancet, reports the results of a study that reanalyzed the Global Enteric Multicenter Study data to identify the leading causes of diarrhea in children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. The …

Author: Liu J, Platts-Mills JA, Juma J, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Global Burden of Disease

The Global Burden of Disease Study is the most comprehensive global observational epidemiological study to date. It describes mortality and morbidity from major diseases, injuries, and risk factors to health at the global, national, and regional …

Author: Global Burden of Disease Study Collaborators

Impact of Placental Malaria and Hypergammaglobulinemia on Transplacental Transfer of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Antibody in Papua New Guinea

As maternal immunization becomes an increasingly important strategy for protection of very young infants, identification of factors that could impact vaccine effectiveness by modifying the efficiency of transplacental antibody transport will be …

Author: Atwell JE, Thumar B, Robinson LJ, et al.

Publication date: 2016

A Randomized, Blinded, Controlled, Dose-Ranging Study of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus Recombinant Fusion (F) Nanoparticle Vaccine in Healthy Women of Childbearing Age

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidate for maternal immunization. The vaccine was …

Author: Glenn GM, Fries LF, Thomas DN, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Neutralizing Epitopes on the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein

The respiratory syncytial virus viral fusion glycoprotein (RSV F) is the major target of neutralizing antibodies, making it a target for vaccine development. This article, published in Current Opinion in Virology, summarizes recently determined …

Author: McLellan JS

Publication date: 2015

Vaccine Storage and Handling Toolkit

This toolkit is a comprehensive guide for health care providers on recommendations and best practices for vaccine storage and handling. It addresses a variety of topics including elements of an effective cold chain, how to use different temperature …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2016

Cross-Neutralization of Four Paramyxoviruses by a Human Monoclonal Antibody

This article, published in Nature, reports the results of a study describing a human monoclonal antibody that potentially cross-neutralizes human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) along with three other viruses of different species. The results …

Author: Corti D, Bianchi S, Vanzetta F, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Immunopathology of RSV Infection: Prospects for Developing Vaccines Without This Complication

This article, published in Reviews in Medical Virology, outlines the different challenges to developing a vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The authors note that maternal vaccination may be an optimal strategy to protect very young …

Author: van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk S, Mapletoft JW, Arsic N, Kovacs-Nolan J

Publication date: 2007

Maternal Transfer of RSV Immunity in Cotton Rats Vaccinated During Pregnancy

Maternal antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can protect infants from the disease, but the protection is short-lived and the methods for extending and augmenting protection are not known. This article, published in Vaccine, reports …

Author: Blanco JCG, Pletneva LM, Oue RO, Patel MC, Boukhvalova MS

Publication date: 2015

Efficacy and Safety of Vi-Tetanus Toxoid Conjugated Typhoid Vaccine (PedaTyph™) in Indian Children: School Based Cluster Randomized Study

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, reports the results of a study that evaluated the safety and efficacy of a typhoid conjugate vaccine in children 6 months to 12 years of age. The authors found that the vaccine was …

Author: Mitra M, Shah N, Ghosh A, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Strengthening Maternal Immunisation to Improve the Health of Mothers and Infants

Innovative approaches to maternal immunization have the potential to decrease serious morbidity and mortality not only in the mother, but also in the baby who is not yet able to immunologically respond to most vaccines. This article, published in …

Author: Abramson JS, Mason E

Publication date: 2016

The US Commitment to Global Immunization: Protecting Communities From Infectious Disease

This fact sheet highlights the US government’s efforts in global immunization, including support for international efforts with Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, UNICEF, and the World Health Organization, as well as immunization activities carried out …

Author: PATH, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Red Cross, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Vaccination Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Pregnancy: A Suitable Tool to Combat Global Infant Morbidity and Mortality?

This article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, describes the epidemiological and immunological background of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and the pipeline of RSV vaccines in development. It discusses the potential for …

Author: Saso A, Kampmann B

Publication date: 2016

An Inter-Laboratory Comparison of Standard Membrane-Feeding Assays for Evaluation of Malaria Transmission-Blocking Vaccines

This article, published in the Malaria Journal, examined the variability of the standard membrane-feeding assay (SMFA)—the “gold standard” assay to measure transmission-blocking activities of Plasmodium falciparum infection—across different …

Author: Miura K, Stone WJR, Koolen KM, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Path to Impact: A Report From the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Convening on Maternal Immunization in Resource-Limited Settings; Berlin – January 29-30, 2015

This article, published in Vaccine, presents the outcomes of a convening of global stakeholders in vaccine development, policy, and delivery, as well as the maternal, newborn, and child health community, on the potential of maternal immunization to …

Author: Sobanjo-ter Meulen A, Abramson J, Mason E, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Preparation of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus Human Reference Serum for Use in the Quantitation of Neutralization Antibody

Currently, immune responses to experimental respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines are usually evaluated by two different assays, however both types are generally performed differently at different laboratories. This article, published in …

Author: Yang DP, Zielinska E, Quiroz J, Madore D, Rappaport R

Publication date: 2007

Research on Vaccines During Pregnancy: Reference Values for Vital Signs and Laboratory Assessments

The increasing awareness of the importance of enrolling pregnant women in therapeutic studies highlights the need to have clinical expertise and appropriate reference ranges in pregnancy, which may differ from those of men and non-pregnant women. …

Author: Sheffield JS, Munoz FM, Beigi RH, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Research on Vaccines During Pregnancy: Protocol Design and Assessment of Safety

This article, published in Vaccine, summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts who developed guiding principles for the design of clinical trials and the assessment of safety of vaccines during pregnancy. It provides investigators …

Author: Munoz FM, Sheffield JS, Beigi RH, et al.

Publication date: 2013

Immunogenicity of Live Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis SA 14-14-2 Vaccine Among Sri Lankan Children With Previous Receipt of Inactivated JE Vaccine

This article, published in Vaccine, describes the results of an open-label single arm safety and immunogenicity trial of live attenuated CD-JEV Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine among two- and five-year-old children in the Colombo District of Sri …

Author: Wijesinghe PR, Abeysinghe MRN, Yoksan S, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Building an Effective Malaria Vaccine Portfolio to Address Global Needs

This article, published in Vaccine, examines the research and development pipeline of malaria vaccines. It reviews the latest information on financing, vaccine commercialization, controlled human malaria infection models, and the regulatory …

Author: Birkett AJ

Publication date: 2015

Immunise Australia Program

The Immunise Australia Program aims to increase national immunization rates by fuding free vaccination programs, administering the Australian Childhood Immunization Register, and providing immunization information and resources to health …

Author: Australian Government Department of Health

Vaccines411

This website serves as Canada's official vaccine clinic directory. Users can search Canadian postal codes to locate nearby vaccine clinics, view an extensive list of clinics offering immunizations across Canada, and access information about a wide …

Author: Vaccines411

Vaccine Knowledge Project

The Vaccine Knowledge Project is managed by the Oxford Vaccine Group, an academic research group in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Oxford. This website provides independent, evidence-based information about vaccines and …

Author: Oxford Vaccine Group

Substantial Decline in Vaccine-Type Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Among Vaccinated Young Women During the First 8 Years After HPV Vaccine Introduction in a Community

This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, reports on a series of three short-term surveillance studies that examined the epidemiological impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine introduction over time. Specifically, the authors …

Author: Kahn JA, Widdice LE, Ding L, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition: Volume 2. Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health

This book focuses on maternal conditions, childhood illness, and malnutrition. Specifically, the chapters address acute illness and undernutrition in children, principally under age five. Of particular interest may be chapters 9, 10, and 19, which …

Author: Black RE, Laxminarayan R, Temmerman M, Walker N, eds.

Publication date: 2016

The Burden of Childhood Pneumonia in the Developed World: A Review of the Literature

This article, published in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, provides disease burden estimates of pneumonia incidence in the developed world in children under five years of age. Available estimates suggest that each year there are up to 2.6 …

Author: Madhi SA, Wals PD, Grijalva CG, et al.

Publication date: 2013

GAIA: Global Alignment of Immunization Safety Assessment in Pregnancy

This website provides information on a consortium that aims to improve data comparability across studies in an effort to strengthen maternal immunization programs. It will provide standards and tools to establish a globally shared understanding of …

Author: Brighton Collaboration Foundation

Clinical Evaluations of Formalin Inactivated RSV Vaccine Candidates in Pediatric Populations During the 1960s (Four Articles)

These articles, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology in 1969, describe results from clinical studies evaluating formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidates in pediatric populations. All studies found the …

Author: Various

Publication date: 1969

Vaccine Innovation Lexicon

This document aims to establish a common vaccine innovation vocabulary to help ensure clarity in communications about innovations applied to vaccine products to increase their programmatic suitability, reduce overall costs, bolster supply security …

Author: PATH, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance

Publication date: 2016

The Infant Gut Microbiome Correlates Significantly With Rotavirus Vaccine Response in Rural Ghana

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a study examining the differences in intestinal microbiome composition and rotavirus vaccine efficacy in developing-country settings. The authors found that the …

Author: Harris VC, Armah G, Fuentes S, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Celebrating a Legacy of Global Immunization

This video highlights 50 years of vaccine progress and innovation by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. From the first US pledge of political, financial, and technical resources to end smallpox to current efforts to eradicate polio …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Heard at the 68th WHA: Closing the Immunization Gap

In this video, immunization experts and political leaders attending the 68th World Health Assembly (WHA) share their thoughts on what must be done to close the immunization gap, reach vulnerable populations, and ensure that all children have access …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2015

Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections Among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years After a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda

This article, published in PLoS ONE, reports the results of a study that analyzed the prevalence of vaccine and non-vaccine types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated women aged 15 to 24 years in …

Author: Kumakech E, Berggren V, Wabinga H, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Safety Profile of the 9-Valent HPV Vaccine: A Combined Analysis of 7 Phase III Clinical Trials

This article, published in Pediatrics, evaluated the overall safety profile of the 9-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV) vaccine across seven Phase 3 studies in 9 to 26 year old males and females (nonpregnant at entry). The authors found that the …

Author: Moreira ED, Block SL, Ferris D, et al.

Publication date: 2016

The US Government and Global Polio Efforts

This fact sheet provides an overview of the US government's political, financial, and technical support for the global eradication of polio. It includes a current snapshot of global polio, including the burden of disease and the status of …

Author: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

Publication date: 2016

CDC's Strategic Framework for Global Immunization, 2016-2020

This framework explains the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) goals and objectives, and guides the development of the global immunization action plan. The framework is built around five interconnected goals to improve the …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2016

Immunization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Landscape Analysis and Policy Recommendations

This report provides an analysis of the policy environment for immunization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and examines the challenges related to vaccine management, delivery, and delays in domestic immunization financing commitments. It …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

What Vaccine Product Attributes Do Immunization Program Stakeholders Value? Results From Interviews in Six Low- and Middle-Income Countries

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a study that aimed to capture the opinions of stakeholders working in immunization programs in low- and middle-income countries in order to understand how vaccine products could be improved …

Author: Kristensen DD, Bartholomew K, Villadiego S, Lorenson K

Publication date: 2016

Rotavirus Vaccine Effectiveness in Low-Income Settings: An Evaluation of the Test-Negative Design

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a study evaluating the use of the test-negative design (TND) to estimate rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-income settings. The results showed that the TND vaccine effectiveness …

Author: Schwartz LM, Halloran ME, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Neuzil KM, Victor JC

Publication date: 2017

2017 Pneumonia & Diarrhea Progress Report: Driving Progress Through Equitable Investment and Action

This report evaluates the progress of the 15 countries with the greatest burden of pneumonia and diarrhea deaths among children under the age of five years in implementing the high-impact interventions outlined in the Global Action Plan for the …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Publication date: 2017

The Cascading Burden of Diarrheal Disease: Revealing the Hidden Costs of ETEC and Shigella Diarrhea

This interactive data visualization tool tells the full story behind the global burden of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Shigella, the two leading bacterial causes of diarrhea. The visualization features a new set of global disease burden …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Immunization Matters

This quarterly e-newsletter provides updates from PATH’s Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access on late-stage and licensed vaccines included in its portfolio as well as its work on health economics and optimization, operations research, and …

Author: PATH

Fractional Dose IPV

This web page presents the background information, programmatic considerations, implementation experiences, and training materials available related to the fractional dose administration of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). This is a resource for …

Author: World Health Organization

World Malaria Report

This web page provides links to the annual World Malaria Report, which provides an up-to-date assessment of malaria-related policies adopted and applied in endemic countries, and contains the latest World Health Organization recommendations on …

Author: World Health Organization

For Immunization Partners: Educational and Promotional Resources for Partners

This web page provides educational resources and materials to help supplement vaccine conversations and outreach with parents, pregnant women, and adults, as well as healthcare professionals. Resources are divided into five categories—childhood …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Outsourcing Transport to Improve Health at the Last Mile: A Case Study

This report presents a case study in Mozambique on a program to test a new model of transporting vaccines and other essential medicines through outsourcing. It includes findings from a six-month assessment and presents the potential benefits of …

Author: VillageReach

Publication date: 2016

Saving Lives Through Immunization

This fact sheet describes PATH’s Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access (CVIA), which was launched in 2016 to strengthen, accelerate, and coordinate PATH’s broad range of work across the vaccine spectrum. CVIA encompasses all of PATH's efforts …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Infection, Detection, and New Options for Prevention and Treatment

This article, published in Clinical Microbiology Reviews, discusses developments in the understanding of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and therapeutics. It reconciles the body of information on RSV and …

Author: Griffiths C, Drews SJ, Marchant DJ

Publication date: 2017

Country Specific Predictions of the Cost-Effectiveness of Malaria Vaccine RTS,S/AS01 in Endemic Africa

This article, published in Vaccine, examines the cost-effectiveness and impact of malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S/AS01 in Africa. Using a variety of models of Plasmodium falciparum epidemiology, the study found that if RTS,S was implemented in 43 …

Author: Galactionova K, Tediosi F, Camponovo F, Smith TA, Gething PW, Penny MA

Publication date: 2017

One Is Too Many: Ending Child Deaths From Pneumonia and Diarrhoea

This report highlights the current burden of pneumonia and diarrheal disease in children under the age of five and outlines the protective, preventative, and treatment interventions available to fight these diseases. It explains current progress in …

Author: United Nations Children’s Fund

Publication date: 2016

Defining Cases of Severe Pediatric Diarrhea for an Efficacy Trial of an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Vaccine: Report on an International Workshop, Washington DC, March 2016

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of an expert workshop focused on the development of a severity scale specific to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that could be used to identify moderate-to-severe ETEC cases during a …

Author: Wierzba TF, Bourgis A, Steering Committee for Development of a Diarrhea Severity Scale

Publication date: 2017

Safety and Immunogenicity of Pfs25-EPA/Alhydrogel®, a Transmission Blocking Vaccine Against Plasmodium falciparum: An Open Label Study in Malaria Naïve Adults

This article, published in PLoS ONE, shares the results of a Phase 1 trial exploring the safety, immunogenicity, and transmission-blocking activity of a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate, Pfs25-EPA conjugates formulated with …

Author: Talaat KR, Ellis RD, Hurd J, et al.

Publication date: 2016

The RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine in Children 5 to 17 Months of Age at First Vaccination

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, reviews the findings around the safety and feasibility of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine in children at 5 to 17 months of age—an age category for which RTS,S/AS01 pilot implementation was recommended …

Author: Vandoolaeghe P, Schuerman L

Publication date: 2016

Evaluating the Sure Chill Long-Term Passive Device in Senegal: Field Evaluation Report

In remote locations, which often have high ambient temperatures and where there is no reliable power, it is a huge challenge to keep vaccines at a safe temperature for a sufficient length of time. This report summarizes the results of PATH’s field …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

The Switch in the Americas

In 2016, 155 countries and territories from around the world participated in an unprecedented coordinated global health effort to switch one type of polio vaccine for another as part of polio eradication efforts. This 12-minute video explains the …

Author: Pan American Health Organization

Publication date: 2016

State of Inequality: Childhood Immunization

This report addresses questions concerning childhood immunization coverage inequalities in low- and middle-income countries and how these inequalities have changed over the past ten years. The findings indicate that overall there is less inequality …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2016

Energy Harvesting Controls for Solar Direct-Drive Cooling Systems: A Laboratory Testing Report

Photovoltaic power generation (solar panels) can be a useful means to power equipment essential to storing, delivering, and supplying vaccines in settings where mains power is not available or is unreliable. This report presents the methods and …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

Pneumococcal Disease

This fact sheet provides information on pneumococcal disease and prevention strategies, including vaccines against pneumococcal pneumonia. It also highlights Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance’s support for the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines in …

Author: Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance

Publication date: 2013

From Introduction to Impact: The Story of Rotavirus Vaccines

This video follows three countries—Nicaragua, Ghana, and Malawi—that helped pave the way for rotavirus vaccine introductions in low-income countries worldwide. Rotavirus vaccines are saving lives and improving health in countries where they …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

Q&A on the Malaria Vaccine Implementation Programme (MVIP)

This web page provides answers to frequently asked questions about the RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S) malaria vaccine and the malaria vaccine implementation program, which will assess the operational feasibility of administering the RTS,S vaccine in a real-life …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Manufactured by a Modified Process

This article, published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, describes the results of a Phase 3 study of a modified formulation of RotaTeq® (RV5) rotavirus vaccine that was developed to be stable at 37°C for 7 days and that has an …

Author: Martinón-Torres F, Dionne M, Greenberg D, et al.

Publication date: 2017

The State of Vaccine Confidence 2016: Global Insights Through a 67-Country Survey

This article, published in EBioMedicine, presents the results of a worldwide survey that investigated attitudes toward vaccines. The survey found that the overall sentiment toward vaccines is positive, however there is a wide variability between …

Author: Larson HJ, de Figueiredo A, Xiahong Z, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Effectiveness of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in South African Children: A Case-Control Study

This article, published in The Lancet Global Health, reports the results of a study that assessed the effectiveness of two or more doses of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) against invasive pneumococcal disease in children with HIV …

Author: Cohen C, von Mollendorf C, de Gouveia L, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Home-Based Records

Home-based vaccination records play an important role in documenting immunization services, however current evidence suggests that these tools are often underutilized. This web page provides resources on home-based vaccination records, including a …

Author: World Health Organization

Group B Strep (GBS)

This web page provides general information about group B Streptococcus (GBS), including resources for clinicians and pregnant women, information on surveillance efforts, prevention guidelines, and links to publications about GBS.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Group B Strep: What You Need to Know

This fact sheet provides answers to frequently asked questions for pregnant women regarding group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease in newborns and how to prevent passing GBS on to babies during labor.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2014

Protect Your Baby From Group B Strep

This podcast, narrated by pediatrician Tarayn Fairlie, discusses group B Streptococcus (GBS) in pregnant women, the serious effects it can have on newborns, how to find out if you have GBS bacteria in your body, and ways to prevent spreading it to …

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Publication date: 2011

Group B Strep International

This website aims to promote international awareness and prevention of group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease in babies before birth and through early infancy. It provides general information and resources on GBS in a variety of languages for both the …

Author: Group B Strep International

An Update on Vaccination Against Group B Streptococcus

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, examines the vaccine development pipeline for group B Streptococcus (GBS). The authors note that a number of candidates have the potential to be successful, but that there are issues still to be …

Author: Heath PT

Publication date: 2011

Quantitative Determination of Antibodies to Type III Group B Streptococcal Polysaccharide

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a study using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure type III group B streptocci (GBS) antibodies. The authors found that the ELISA was able to …

Author: Guttormsen H-K, Baker CJ, Edwards MS, Paoletti LC, Kasper DL

Publication date: 1996

GBS Public Awareness, Advocacy, and Prevention—What’s Working, What’s Not and Why We Need a Maternal GBS Vaccine

This article, published in Vaccine, provides an overview of group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease burden and awareness-raising activities, and outlines current prevention and screening strategies. The authors argue that vaccination, once available, …

Author: Burns G, Plumb J

Publication date: 2013

Presentation Matters: Buffers, Packaging, and Delivery Devices for New, Oral Enteric Vaccines for Infants

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, highlights the importance of final vaccine presentation features in achieving optimal vaccine impact for new oral enteric vaccine candidates. Oral administration of vaccines …

Author: Lal M, Jarrahian C

Publication date: 2017

Neither Antibody to a Group B Streptococcal Conjugate Vaccine nor the Vaccine Itself is Teratogenic in Rabbits

This article, published in Human Vaccines, describes a group B Streptococcus (GBS) type-III capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-tetanus toxoid vaccine lot manufactured under current Good Manufacturing Practice Guidelines. The authors also provide an …

Author: Paoletti LC, Guttormsen H-K, Christian MS, Hoberman AM, McInnes P

Publication date: 2008

Preventing Bacterial Infections With Pilus-Based Vaccines: The Group B Streptococcus Paradigm

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a study that determined whether a vaccine containing a combination of proteins from three pilus types can provide broad protection against group B Streptococcus …

Author: Margarit I, Rinaudo CD, Galeotti CL, et al.

Publication date: 2009

Recombinant Group B Streptococcus Beta C Protein and a Variant With the Deletion of its Immunoglobulin A-Binding Site Are Protective Mouse Maternal Vaccines and Effective Carriers in Conjugate Vaccines

This article, published in Infection and Immunity, reports the results of a study in mice that examined immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant group B Streptococcus beta C protein (rBCP), an rBCP modified to eliminate its …

Author: Yang H-H, Madoff LC, Guttormsen H-K, Liu Y-D, Paoletti LC

Publication date: 2007

Group B Streptococcal Vaccine for Resource-Poor Countries

This article, published in The Lancet, discusses maternal immunization's potential to protect neonates from infectious diseases such as group B Streptococcus. Neonatal deaths, which mostly occur in resource-poor countries during the first week of …

Author: Shrag SJ

Publication date: 2011

Antibody-Independent Classical Pathway-Mediated Opsonophagocytosis of Type Ia, Group B Streptococcus

This article, published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation, elborates on experiements that indicate substances other than the exposed surface of the type Ia capsular polysaccharide initiate classical pathway-mediated opsonophagocytosis of …

Author: Baker CJ, Edwards MS, Webb BJ, Kasper DL

Publication date: 1982

Persistence of Functional Antibodies to Group B Streptococcal Capsular Polysaccharides Following Immunization With Glycoconjugate Vaccines

This article, published in Vaccine, evaluates the duration of functional activity of group B streptococcal (GBS) glycoconjugate vaccine-induced capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-specific IgG among healthy adults. The study reveals that opsonophagocytic …

Author: Edwards MS, Lane HJ, Hillier SL, Rench MA, Baker CJ

Publication date: 2012

The Spectrum of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease

This article, published in Vaccine, examines four decades' worth of understanding about group B Streptococcus (GBS) global disease burden. This review highglights, in historical context, the recognition of GBS as a human pathogen, epidemiologic …

Author: Baker CJ

Publication date: 2013

Preventing the Broad Spectrum of Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Through Group B Streptococcal Vaccination

This article, published in Vaccine, presents the specific pregnancy-associated and neonatal conditions attributable, in part, to group B Streptococcus (GBS) in high- and lower-income countries. The authors provide a rationale for implementation of …

Author: Edwards MS, Gonik B

Publication date: 2013

Cost-Effectiveness of a Potential Group B Streptococcal Vaccine Program for Pregnant Women in South Africa

No licensed vaccine for group B Streptococcus (GBS) currently exists, but a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine candidate is currently in trials. This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a study that evaluated the potential …

Author: Kim S-Y, Russell LB, Park J, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Considerations for a Phase III Trial to Evaluate a Group B Streptococcus Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccine in Pregnant Women for the Prevention of Early- and Late-Onset Invasive Disease in Young Infants

This article, published in Vaccine, discusses the global disease burden of group B Streptococcus (GBS) and strategies to combat the disease. The authors argue that vaccination is a promising strategy, particularly in low-income countries where …

Author: Madhi SA, Dangor Z, Heath PT, et al.

Publication date: 2013

A Maternal Vaccine Against Group B Streptococcus: Past, Present, and Future

This review article, published in Vaccine, explores the history of the design of maternal vaccines against group B Streptococcus (GBS). GBS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates. The article notes that though there have been …

Author: Chen VL, Avci FY, Kasper DL

Publication date: 2013

Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

This article, published in Clinical Microbiology Reviews, discusses early-onset sepsis in neonates, particularly in pre-term infants. It notes that group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause and outlines current efforts to combat GBS, …

Author: Simonsen KA, Anderson-Berry AL, Delair SF, Davies HD

Publication date: 2014

Prevention of Group B Streptococcal Disease in the First 3 Months of Life: Would Routine Maternal Immunization During Pregnancy Be Cost-Effective?

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a study that evaluated the potential cost-effectiveness of a trivalent group B streptococcal (GBS) vaccine candidate with a decision-analytic model. The authors found that the addition of a …

Author: Oster G, Edelsberg J, Hennegan K, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Review on the Association of Group B Streptococcus Capsular Antibody and Protection Against Invasive Disease in Infants

Establishing sero-correlates of protection against invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease in infants could expedite the licensure pathway of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines. This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, …

Author: Dangor Z, Kwatra G, Izu A, Lala SG, Madhi SA

Publication date: 2015

Group B Streptococcus Vaccine: State of the Art

This article, published in Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines, provides an overview of the burden of invasive disease caused by group B Streptococcus (GBS) in infants and adults, and highlights strategies for the development of an effective vaccine …

Author: Nuccitelli A, Rinaudo CD, Maione D

Publication date: 2015

WHO Consultation on Group B Streptococcus Vaccine Development: Report From a Meeting Held on 27-28 April 2016

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the outcome of a World Health Organization technical consultation that considered development pathways for group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccines. The meeting discussed numerous topics, including disease …

Author: Kobayashi M, Schrag SJ, Alderson MR, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Opsonic Specificity of Human Antibody to the Type III Polysaccharide of Group B Streptocccus

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, examines the functional significance of vaccine-induced or naturally acquired antibody to the capsular polysaccharide of type III group B Streptococcus. ABSTRACT ONLY. (Learn how users …

Author: Edwards MS, Baker CJ, Kasper DL

Publication date: 1979

Immune Response to Type III Group B Streptococcal Polysaccharide-Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine

This article, published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation, reports the results of a study that examined a capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine against group B Streptococccus. The authors found that the vaccine candidate was …

Author: Kasper DL, Paoletti LC, Wessels MR, et al.

Publication date: 1996

Safety and Immunogenicity of Capsular Polysaccharide—Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccines for Group B Streptococcal Types Ia and Ib

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a study to evaluate the safety, immounogenicity, and optimal dose in healthy women of group B Streptococcus (GBS) type Ia- and type Ib-tetanus toxoid (TT) …

Author: Baker CJ, Paoletti LC, Wessels MR, et al.

Publication date: 1999

Potency of Clinical Group B Streptococcal Conjugate Vaccines

This article, published in Vaccine, discusses the potency of clinical group B streptococcal (GBS) capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines. It examines liquid versus lyophilized preparations, and the author suggests that lyophilization in …

Author: Paoletti LC

Publication date: 2001

Group B Streptococcal Conjugate Vaccines

This article, published in Archives of Disease in Childhood, provides an update on the status of group B Streptococcus (GBS) polysaccharide-protein conjuate vaccines. It presents the rationale for the development of GBS conjugate vaccines, the …

Author: Baker CJ, Edwards MS

Publication date: 2003

Group B Strep Support: Preventing Life-Threatening GBS Infection in Newborn Babies

This website provides up-to-date and evidence-based information on group B Streptococcus (GBS) to families and their health care professionals, and support to affected families. The organization also advocates for the elimination of GBS in infants …

Author: Group B Strep Support

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Bivalent Group B Streptococcal Conjugate Vaccine for Serotypes II and III

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a study to determine whether two monovalent group B Streptococcus (GBS) serotype II or III capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccines combined in a …

Author: Baker CJ, Rench MA, Fernandez M, Paoletti LC, Kasper DL, Edwards MS

Publication date: 2003

Immune Response of Healthy Women to 2 Different Group B Streptococcal Type V Capsular Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccines

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a study to examine the safety and immunogenicity of two group B Streptococcus (GBS) type V capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines. The authors found …

Author: Baker CJ, Paoletti LC, Rench MA, Guttormsen H-K, Edwards MS, Kasper DL

Publication date: 2004

Systems Analysis of Protective Immune Responses to RTS,S Malaria Vaccination in Humans

RTS,S/AS01 is the most advanced malaria vaccine candidate in development, however very little is understood about how it induces immunity. This article, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, uses a systems biology approach to …

Author: Kazmin D, Nakaya HI, Lee EK, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Immunization Financing: A Resource Guide for Advocates, Policymakers, and Program Managers

This resource guide contains a series of briefs and country case studies on topics related to the cost and financing of national immunization programs in low- and middle-income countries. Specific topics including strategic purchasing and …

Author: Results for Development

Publication date: 2017

The Evidence Base for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCVs): Data for Decision-Making Around PCV Use in Childhood

This report provides the latest information on pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) and their use in routine immunization programs around the world. It includes key background on the burden of pneumococcal disease in children and the impact of PCVs …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Publication date: 2017

Vial Usage, Device Dead Space, Vaccine Wastage, and Dose Accuracy of Intradermal Delivery Devices for Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV)

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a study to assess different intradermal delivery devices for inactivated polio vaccine. Results showed wide variability between the devices in dead space, dose accuracy, overall wastage, and …

Author: Jarrahian C, Rein-Weston A, Saxon G, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Technical Information for National-Level Rotavirus Vaccine Policy Recommendations: Summary of Available Evidence to Guide Decision-Making

This document provides high-level summaries of the best available evidence around the use of rotavirus vaccines in low- and middle-income countries. Designed for vaccine decision-makers, it synthesizes the evidence required to formulate decisions …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Publication date: 2017

Technical Information for National-Level PCV Policy Recommendations: Summary of Available Evidence to Guide Decision-Making

This document provides high-level summaries of the best available evidence around the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in low- and middle-income countries. Designed for vaccine decision-makers, it synthesizes the evidence required to …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Publication date: 2017

Joint Vaccine Education Resource Center

This website provides resources in the field of immunization, including an extensive selection of peer-reviewed articles from the literature as well as links to valuable resources for scientists, clinicians, and patients focused on the most commonly …

Author: American Journal of Preventative Medicine; Vaccine

Stability of Live Attenuated Rotavirus Vaccine With Selected Preservatives and Primary Containers

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a study to evaluate the feasibility of using preservatives to develop a liquid multi-dose formulation and primary packaging alternatives for orally delivered, liquid rotavirus vaccines. The …

Author: Lal M, Jarrahian C, Zhu C, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Vax Talk

This podcast discusses the latest news about vaccines and the impact they have on communities, families, and friendships. Specific topics for the episodes vary but all have a focus on the positive impact of vaccines.

Author: Voices for Vaccines

Connecting the Dots: How to Get Vaccines to More Kids

This website explains the importance of supply chains to ensure that vaccines get to those who need them. It focuses on four ways to improve immunization supply chains: strengthening management, keeping vaccines at the correct temperatures, …

Author: PATH

Efficacy of a Low-Cost, Heat-Stable Oral Rotavirus Vaccine in Niger

This article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, reports the results of a Phase 3 trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a heat-stable, live, oral bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV) against severe rotavirus …

Author: Isanaka S, Guindo O, Langendorf C, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Global Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination on Childhood Hospitalizations and Mortality From Diarrhea

This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, summarizes the impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospitalizations and deaths from rotavirus and all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) during the first ten years since vaccine licensure, …

Author: Burnett E, Jonesteller CL, Tate JE, Yen C, Parashar UD

Publication date: 2017

Effectiveness of a Live Oral Human Rotavirus Vaccine After Programmatic Introduction in Bangladesh: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

This article, published in PLoS Medicine, evaluated the efficacy of the two-dose human rotavirus vaccine program on the schedule currently recommended by the World Health Organization in a low-resource population in Bangladesh, the first such …

Author: Zaman K, Sack DA, Neuzil KM, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Parenteral P2-VP8-P[8] Subunit Rotavirus Vaccine in Toddlers and Infants in South Africa: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Low-income countries in Africa and Asia have the highest burden of rotavirus disease, but live oral rotavirus vaccines have shown reduced efficacy in these countries compared with high-income countries. This article, published in the Lancet …

Author: Groome MJ, Koen A, Fix A, et al.

Publication date: 2017

The Unrecognized Burden of Typhoid Fever

This article, published in Expert Review of Vaccines, provides an overview of the gaps in current estimates of typhoid fever disease burden and offers suggestions for addressing them so that affected communities can receive the full potential of …

Author: Obaro SK, Iroh Tam PY, Mintz ED

Publication date: 2017

Typhoid Fever and Paratyphoid Fever: Systematic Review to Estimate Global Morbidity and Mortality for 2010

This article, published in the Journal of Global Health, summarizes the findings of a systematic literature review of population-based studies and country disease surveillance reports with typhoid and paratyphoid fever incidence data published …

Author: Buckle GC, Fischer Walker CL, Black RE

Publication date: 2012

Rethinking Typhoid Fever Vaccines: Implications for Travelers and People Living in Highly Endemic Areas

This article, published in the Journal of Travel Medicine, summarizes evidence about the efficacy, delivery, and impact of current typhoid vaccines and the potential for new typhoid conjugate vaccines or improved live oral vaccines to protect young …

Author: Whitaker JA, Franco-Paredes C, Del Rio C, Edupuganti S

Publication date: 2009

Coalition Against Typhoid

This website houses all resources, information, and advocacy materials from the Coalition against Typhoid (CaT), a global forum connecting researchers, advocates, and policymakers to raise awareness of typhoid, paratyphoid, and non-typhoidal …

Author: Sabin Vaccine Institute

Typhoid

This web page provides information and links to resources about typhoid disease and vaccines, including World Health Organization position papers, prequalified vaccines, and technical resources.

Author: World Health Organization

The Burden of Typhoid Fever in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Meta-Regression Approach

This article, published in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, provides an updated model-based estimate of the global burden of typhoid in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Model-based estimates were used to offer insights for decision-makers …

Author: Antillón M, Warren JL, Crawford FW, et al.

Publication date: 2017

The Global Burden of Typhoid Fever

This article, published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, summarizes the findings of a literature search of population-based studies using confirmation by blood culture of typhoid fever cases. The authors estimated that, in the year …

Author: Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED

Publication date: 2004

Revisiting Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Low and Middle Income Countries: Lessons From Systematic Literature Review of Population-Based Longitudinal Studies

This article, published in BMC Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a systematic literature review of longitudinal population-based blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever studies from low- and middle-income countries. The reported incidence …

Author: Mogasale V, Mogasale VV, Ramani E, et al.

Publication date: 2016

Typhoid Vaccine Introduction: An Evidence-Based Pilot Implementation Project in Nepal and Pakistan

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a pilot program to assess the feasibility of school-based typhoid vaccination in two districts in Kathmandu, Nepal, and two towns in Karachi, Pakistan. Vaccination campaigns were conducted …

Author: Khan MI, Pach A 3rd, Khan GM, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Typhoid Fever Vaccination Strategies

This article, published in Vaccine, reviews experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently availabile typhoid vaccines—injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine (ViPS), oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine …

Author: Date KA, Bentsi-Enchill A, Marks F, Fox K

Publication date: 2015

Typhoid Vaccines: WHO Position Paper

This report, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, provides the World Health Organization’s current recommendation on the use of typhoid vaccines in a global context. It summarizes essential background information on typhoid disease and …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2008

Typhoid Fever

This web page provides information and resources on typhoid. Topics include general information about the disease, symptoms and treatment, prevention methods, vaccination, and disease surveillance.

Author: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Accelerating Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Introduction

This fact sheet describes the work and approach of the Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC), a partnership between the Center for Vaccine Development at the University of Maryland, the Oxford Vaccine Group at Oxford University, and PATH. …

Author: Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium

Publication date: 2017

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Vi Polysaccharide–Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine (Typbar-TCV) in Healthy Infants, Children, and Adults in Typhoid Endemic Areas: A Multicenter, 2-Cohort, Open-Label, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Phase 3 Study

This article, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, reports the results of a study examining the safety and efficacy of a typhoid conjugate vaccine in people aged 6 months to 24 years conducted at eight trial sites in India. The results showed …

Author: Mohan VK, Varanasi V, Singh A, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Burden of Typhoid Fever in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic, Literature-Based Update With Risk-Factor Adjustment

This article, published in The Lancet Global Health, reports the results of a study that aimed to estimate the burden of typhoid in low- and middle-income countries. The authors found that after adjusting for water-related risk, there was an …

Author: Mogasale V, Maskery B, Ochiai RL, et al.

Publication date: 2014

Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP)

This supplement issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases provides a collection of articles about typhoid disease burden in Africa. Previous research has focused on typhoid's burden in Asia, and little was known about the burden in Africa. The …

Author: Marks F, ed.

Publication date: 2016

Vaccines for Preventing Typhoid Fever

This article, published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, evaluates the safety and efficacy of vaccines used to prevent typhoid. The review includes information on the two licensed and globally available typhoid vaccines—the oral …

Author: Anwar E, Goldberg E, Fraser A, Acosta CJ, Paul M, Leibovici L

Publication date: 2014

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines in Five Endemic Low- and Middle-Income Settings

Typhoid fever remains endemic in low- and middle-income countries, yet programmatic use of existing vaccines is limited. This article, published in Vaccine, evaluates the cost-effectiveness of five typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) delivery strategies …

Author: Antillón M, Bilcke J, Paltiel AD, Pitzer VE

Publication date: 2017

Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, 30 November – 1 December 2016: Safety of Typhoid Vaccines

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, reports the outcome of a meeting of the World Health Organization’s independent vaccine safety committee where they reviewed the current safety data of three generations of typhoid …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

Incidence of Invasive Salmonella Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multicentre Population-Based Surveillance Study

This article, published in The Lancet Global Health, reports the results of a study that aimed to measure incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from 13 African …

Author: Marks F, von Kalckreuth V, Aaby P, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Post-Marketing Safety Surveillance for Inactivated and Live-Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines in China, 2008–2013

This article, published in Vaccine, presents the results of passive post-marketing safety surveillance for an inactivated Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine and a live-attenuated JE vaccine in China from 2008 to 2013. Passive surveillance of …

Author: Wu W, Liu D, Li K, et al.

Publication date: 2017

The Cost Structure of Routine Infant Immunization Services: A Systematic Analysis of Six Countries

This article, published in Health Policy and Planning, describes the results of an analysis of routine infant immunization program cost structures in six low- and middle-income countries. Using a unique dataset of routine infant immunization costs …

Author: Geng F, Suharlim C, Brenzel L, Resch SC, Menzies NA

Publication date: 2017

Lessons Learnt From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination in 45 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

This article, published in PLoS ONE, synthesizes lessons learned and determinants of success from human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine demonstration projects and national programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The authors conducted …

Author: Gallagher KE, Howard N, Kabakama S, et al.

Publication date: 2017

A Multi-Laboratory Study of Diverse RSV Neutralization Assays Indicates Feasibility for Harmonization With an International Standard

This article, published in Vaccine, assesses the current level of agreement between 12 virus neutralization assay formats used in the evaluation of vaccine candidates for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a leading cause of lower respiratory tract …

Author: Hosken N, Plikaytis B, Trujillo C, Mahmood K, Higgins D, the Participating Laboratories Working Group

Publication date: 2017

Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccination in Bangladesh

This article, published in Vaccine, evaluates the impact and cost-effectiveness of a routine infant rotavirus vaccination program in Bangladesh, a country that has applied for Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance support with a plan to introduce rotavirus …

Author: Pecenka C, Parashar U, Tate JE, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Challenges of Vaccine Presentation and Delivery: How Can We Design Vaccines to Have Optimal Programmatic Impact?

This article, published in Vaccine, presents three cases studies of novel approaches to immunization program delivery that represent the potential for improving vaccine accessibility in resource-constrained environments. The case studies feature …

Author: Giersing BK, Kahn A-L, Jarrahian C, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Impact of the Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination on Pneumonia in The Gambia: Population-Based Surveillance and Case-Control Studies

This article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, assessed the impact and effectiveness of routine infant vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) on pneumonia in children in The Gambia, a low-income country with a high burden …

Author: Mackenzie GA, Hill PC, Sahito SM, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Human Papillomavirus Vaccines: WHO Position Paper, May 2017

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes the World Health Organization's recommendations on the inclusion of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in national immunization programs. This update replaces their earlier …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

Vaccines for Africa (VACFA)

This website provides information on the Vaccines for Africa Initiative (VACFA), a partnership that aims to increase awareness and promote uptake of vaccines on the African continent. VACFA's website provides a forum for the exchange of accurate, …

Author: University of Cape Town

Roadmap for Implementing the Addis Declaration on Immunization: Advocacy, Action, and Accountability

In January 2017, Heads of State from across Africa endorsed the Addis Declaration on Immunization (ADI), a historic pledge to ensure that everyone in Africa receives the full benefits of Immunization. This report provides a roadmap for countries in …

Author: African Member States, World Health Organization, African Union Commission

Publication date: 2017

Development of a Candidate Stabilizing Formulation for Bulk Storage of a Double Mutant Heat Labile Toxin (dmLT) Protein Based Adjuvant

Systematic formulation development studies are critical to minimizing instability and maintaining or augmenting the potency of adjuvants. This article, published in Vaccine, describes the formulation design and development of a double mutant heat …

Author: Toprani VM, Sahni N, Hickey JM, et al.

Publication date: 2017

How to Calculate Vaccine Volumes and Cold Chain Capacity Requirements

This module provides guidance on calculating vaccine volumes; evaluating cold chain storage capacity and requirements; and calculating cold chain storage needs for coolant-packs and the dry-storage capacity required for immunization-related …

Author: World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2017

How to Develop a Repair and Maintenance System for Cold Chain Equipment

Intended for Expanded Programme on Immunization managers, logisticians, cold chain managers, and decision-makers at national and subnational levels, this training module introduces the recommended components of a national cold chain equipment …

Author: World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund

Publication date: 2017

Progress in HPV Vaccination in Low- and Lower-Middle-Income Countries

This article, published in the International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, examines the experiences of low- and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs) with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine introduction, and presents Senegal's experience …

Author: LaMontagne DS, Bloem PJN, Brotherton JML, Gallagher KE, Badiane O, Ndiaye C.

Publication date: 2017

Polio Endgame & Legacy—Implementation, Best Practices, and Lessons Learned

This supplement issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases contains 50 articles that together cover efforts by global partners to successfully launch polio endgame activities in alignment with the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan, …

Author: Patel M, Cochi S, eds.

Publication date: 2017

The Immunogenicity of Fractional Intradermal Doses of the Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine is Associated With the Size of the Intradermal Fluid Bleb

In response to the global shortage of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), the World Health Organization now recommends the use of fractional (one-fifth) intradermal doses of IPV (ID fIPV), both in campaigns and routine immunization schedules. This …

Author: Bibby J, Saidu Y, Umesi A, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Vaccine Vial Stopper Performance for Fractional Dose Delivery of Vaccines

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, examines the performance of three types of vaccine vial stopper used in World Health Organization (WHO)-prequalified inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and yellow fever vaccine …

Author: Jarrahian C, Myers D, Creelman B, Saxon E, Zehrung D

Publication date: 2017

High Rates of Enteric Fever Diagnosis and Lower Burden of Culture-Confirmed Disease in Peri-Urban and Rural Nepal

Existing data on enteric fever in South Asia is mostly derived from urban areas. This article, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, characterizes enteric disease diagnosis, treatment practices, and the true burden of enteric fever among …

Author: Andrews JR, Vaidya K, Bern C, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Optimizing Direct Membrane and Direct Skin Feeding Assays for Plasmodium falciparum Transmission-Blocking Vaccine Trials in Bancoumana, Mali

This article, published in The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, reports the results of a study conducted in Mali that identified and optimized parameters that contribute to successful mosquito feeding outcomes in both direct skin …

Author: Coulibaly MB, Gabriel EE, Sinaba Y, et al.

Publication date: 2017

A Forecast of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Introduction and Demand in Typhoid Endemic Low- and Middle-Income Countries to Support Vaccine Introduction Policy and Decisions

This article, published in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, describes the results of a demand forecast for the typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) that includes introduction dates for countries based on specific criteria and estimated vaccine …

Author: Mogasale V, Ramani E, Park IY, Lee JS

Publication date: 2017

Predicting RTS,S Vaccine-Mediated Protection From Transcriptomes in a Malaria-Challenge Clinical Trial

While the RTS,S malaria vaccine can protect against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI), little is known about how it induces an immune response. This article, published in Frontiers in Immunology, reports the results of a study that examined …

Author: van den Berg RA, Coccia M, Ballou WR, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Epidemiologic Survey of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Tibet, China, 2015

This article, published in Emerging Infectious Diseases, summarizes the findings of an epidemiologic survey of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus prevalence in high-altitude regions of Tibet, China. Researchers used standard assays to test mosquitoes, …

Author: Zhang H, Rehman MU, Li K, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Japanese Encephalitis: Surveillance and Immunization in Asia and the Western Pacific, 2016

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, provides a summary of current Japanese encephalitis (JE) surveillance and immunization programs in Asia and the Western Pacific. Since 2012, funding for JE immunization has become …

Author: Heffelfinger JD, Li X, Batmunkh N, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Social and Economic Burden Associated With Typhoid Fever in Kathmandu and Surrounding Areas: A Qualitative Study

Typhoid fever is highly endemic in Nepal, but data is limited regarding the social and economic burdens of the disease on affected households or challenges faced at the local level in terms of disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. This …

Author: Kaljee LM, Pach A, Garrett D, Bajracharya D, Karki K, Khan I

Publication date: 2017

Effect of Jet Injection on Infectivity of Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine in a Bench Model

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a study that examined the effect of jet injection on the integrity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), a live attenuated viral vaccine. The authors evaluated vaccine delivery via …

Author: Coughlin MM, Collins M, Saxon G, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Needle-Free Jet Injector Intradermal Delivery of Fractional Dose Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine: Association Between Injection Quality and Immunogenicity

The polio end-game strategy recommends the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in all countries currently using only oral poliovirus vaccine. Administration of fractional dose IPV (fIPV) by intradermal injection may reduce the costs …

Author: Resik S, Tejeda A, Mach O, et al.

Publication date: 2015

Skin Vaccination Summit 2013

This special issue of Vaccine contains ten articles that feature innovative research around cutaneous immunization, as presented at the 2013 Skin Vaccination Summit in Seattle, Washington. The issue highlights the various technologies and strategies …

Author: Teunissen MBM, Zehrung D, eds.

Publication date: 2015

State of Equity: Childhood Immunization in the World Health Organization African Region

This article, published in The Pan African Medical Journal, reports the results of a study that analyzed recent trends in national and subnational coverage of childhood immunizations in the World Health Organization-defined African Region. The …

Author: Casey RM, Hampton LM, Anya BM, Gacic-Dobo M, Diallo MS, Wallace AS

Publication date: 2017

VoICE, the Value of Immunization Compendium of Evidence

This interactive online database provides information on the broad benefits and value of immunization and costs of vaccine-preventable disease. The Value of Immunization Compendium of Evidence (VoICE) tool contains more than 100 policy-focused …

Author: International Vaccine Access Center

Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the United States During the 2015–2016 Season

This article, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, reports the results of a study to examine the effectiveness of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) formulations used in the 2015–2016 …

Author: Jackson ML, Chung JR, Jackson LA, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Vaccines Against Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza and the Implications of Changes in Substrates for Virus Production

This article, published in Clincial Infectious Diseases, examines the challenges of producing influenza vaccines. Influenza virus changes contantly, which means vaccines must change to keep up—a complex collaboration between surveillance …

Author: Plotkin S, Minor PD

Publication date: 2010

Evaluation of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness: A Guide to the Design and Interpretation of Observational Studies

This report provides guidance on the evaluation of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies, primarily for researchers and public health scientsts. It is divided into nine sections and illustrates critical considerations in the design, analysis, …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

Cost-Effectiveness of Maternal Influenza Immunization in Bamako, Mali: A Decision Analysis

Maternal immunization is a well-established strategy to diminish maternal and neonatal mortality, however it requires a substantial investment, especially in developing countries, to be effective. This article, published in PLoS ONE, reports the …

Author: Orenstein EW, Orenstein LAV, Diarra K, et al.

Publication date: 2017

WHO Preferred Product Characteristics for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Vaccines

This report provides guidance on vaccine development strategies and targets for RSV vaccines. It includes key clinical research and development considerations as well as preferred product characteristics such as indication, target population, …

Author: World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

Global, Regional, and National Disease Burden Estimates of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections Due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Young Children in 2015: A Systematic Review and Modelling Study

This article, published in The Lancet, reports the results of a study estimating the global burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in young children, incorporating substantial new data from developing countries. The authors estimated that in …

Author: Shi T, McAllister DA, O’Brien KL, et al.

Publication date: 2017

The Advancing Maternal Immunization Collaboration

This fact sheet outlines the work of the Advancing Maternal Immunization (AMI) collaboration, which brings together diverse stakeholders to improve infant health and survival through maternal immunization. Currently focused on respiratory syncytial …

Author: PATH; World Health Organization

Publication date: 2017

African and World Health Leaders Step Up to Close the Immunization Gap

This video highlights the commitment of African leaders to close the immunization gap. It underscores the importance and need to invest in immunization supply chains to ensure that every child in Africa can receive lifesaving vaccines.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2016

Serial Vaccination and the Antigenic Distance Hypothesis: Effects on Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness During A(H3N2) Epidemics in Canada, 2010–2011 to 2014–2015

This article, published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, examines the antigenic distance hypothesis (AHD) in the context of serial influenza vaccination in Canada. The study found that the effects of repeat influenza vaccination varied …

Author: Skowronski DM, Chambers C, De Serres G, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Estimated Economic Impact of Vaccinations in 73 Low- and Middle-Income Countries, 2001-2020

This article, published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, discusses the economic benefits of the vaccinations given in low- and middle-income countries supported by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, since Gavi’s establishment in 2001. …

Author: Ozawa S, Clark S, Portnoy A, et al.

Publication date: 2017

The Economic Impact of Childhood Acute Gastroenteritis on Malawian Families and the Healthcare System

This article, published in BMJ Open, reports on a study that found significant financial burden from childhood diarrheal disease to the healthcare system and to households in Malawi. The latter face the risk of consequent impoverishment, as the …

Author: Hendrix N, Bar-Zeev N, Atherly D, et al.

Publication date: 2017

The PATH Innovation Pipeline for Malaria

Defeating malaria will require a range of innovative strategies and solutions. This report explains PATH's strategy and approach to fighting malaria. It includes several examples of PATH's work in malaria vaccines, diagnostics, drugs, and system …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

Accelerating US Progress in Combating Malaria Worldwide: Recommendations for Maximizing Investments Toward a World Free From Malaria

This policy paper provides PATH's recommendations for the US Administration and Congress to accelerate progress toward a malaria-free world. By fully funding malaria programs, intensifying support for research and development, and leveraging US …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

Researching and Addressing Community Perceptions of Vaccines and Malaria

This fact sheet describes PATH's work to assess community perceptions of vaccines and malaria in four African countries—Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, and Mozambique—from 2009 through 2014. The findings have guided the development of …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

Preparing for Malaria Vaccines in Africa: A Tool for Malaria Vaccine Decision-Making

This fact sheet describes the development of a tool—known as the Malaria Vaccine Decision-Making Framework—to help African countries plan for decisions on the appropriate role of an eventual malaria vaccine within their health systems. The tool …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

RTS,S Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

This fact sheet provides answers to commonly asked questions about the RTS,S malaria vaccine, its safety and efficacy, and the World Health Organization-coordinated Malaria Vaccine Implementation Programme expected to begin vaccinations in 2018.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

Impact of Rotavirus Vaccine on All-Cause Diarrhea and Rotavirus Hospitalizations in Madagascar

This article, published in Vaccine, reports on an observational study which found that after implementation of rotavirus vaccine introduction in Madagascar in 2014, diarrhea hospitalizations in children younger than five years of age decreased by 36 …

Author: Rahajamanana VL, Raboba JL, Rakotozanany A, et al.

Publication date: 2017

The RTS,S Malaria Vaccine Candidate

This fact sheet provides information on the RTS,S malaria vaccine candidate and the potential role of a malaria vaccine as a complementary tool in the fight against malaria. It summarizes the development history of RTS,S, the Phase 3 clinical study …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

Action and Investment to Defeat Malaria 2016–2030

This report, intended to be an advocacy tool, positions malaria as a wider issue for international development and builds the case for additional investment in malaria. It also identifies actions that governments, civil society, the health sector, …

Author: World Health Organization; Roll Back Malaria Partnership

Publication date: 2015

Strengthening Routine Immunization Systems to Improve Global Vaccination Coverage

This article, published in the British Medical Bulletin, outlines the components of a successful routine immunization system, the path towards improving existing immunization program infrastructure, and the socioeconomic effects of incomplete …

Author: Sodha SV, Dietz V

Publication date: 2015

Estimating Global, Regional and National Rotavirus Deaths in Children Aged <5 Years: Current Approaches, New Analyses and Proposed Improvements

This article, published in PLoS ONE, reports figures for global, regional, and national rotavirus-related deaths in children under five years of age, and discusses updated methodologies for data analysis. In order to reduce delays in …

Author: Clark A, Black R, Tate J, et al.

Publication date: 2017

National Estimates of Reductions in Acute Gastroenteritis–Related Hospitalizations and Associated Costs in US Children After Implementation of Rotavirus Vaccines

This article, published in the Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, compares acute gastroenteritis-related (AGE) hospitalization rates in children under five years of age during pre- and post-rotavirus vaccine introduction …

Author: Leshem E, Tate JE, Steiner CA, Curns AT, Lopman BA, Parashar UD

Publication date: 2017

A Global Vision for Meningitis by 2030 and an Action Plan to Get There

In May 2017, the Meningitis Research Foundation and the World Health Organization brought together over 50 global experts for a three-day meeting to shape a vision towards defeating meningitis and septicaemia by 2030. This report, building upon the …

Author: Meningitis Research Foundation

Publication date: 2017

Make Your Injection a Safe Injection

This infographic provides basic information about what makes an injection unsafe and who is at risk. It also provides guidance for health care workers on giving safe injections, and how patients can ensure that they receive safe injections.

Author: World Health Organization

Efficacy and Immunogenicity of a Vi-Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine in the Prevention of Typhoid Fever Using a Controlled Human Infection Model of Salmonella Typhi: A Randomised Controlled, Phase 2b Trial

This article, published in The Lancet, reports the results of a study to assess the efficacy of a Vi-tetanus toxoid typhoid conjugate vaccine using a human challenge model of typhoid fever. The authors found the vaccine to be well tolerated, highly …

Author: Jin C, Gibani MM, Moore M, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Resources Required for Cervical Cancer Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

This article, published in PLoS ONE, discusses the estimated economic impact of implementing comprehensive human papillomavirus (HPV) screening and prevention programs in low- and middle-income countries. The authors performed a modeling analysis …

Author: Campos NG, Sharma M, Clark A, Kim JJ, Resch SC

Publication date: 2016

Two-Dose Schedules for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a study comparing the effects of a two-dose versus a three-dose immunization schedule for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. According to the evidence systematically reviewed in this study, …

Author: D'Addario M, Redmond S, Scott P, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Current Global Status and Impact of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: Implications for India

This article, published in the Indian Journal of Medical Research, discusses the efficacy and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, the current status of their introduction in National Immunization Programmes (NIPs), and the relevance of …

Author: Sankaranarayanan R, Bhatla N, Basu P

Publication date: 2016

Changes in the Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Following a National Bivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programme in Scotland: A 7-Year Cross-Sectional Study

This article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, reports on a cross-sectional study that examined effectiveness of the bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, and other high-risk types, after the …

Author: Kavanagh K, Pollock KG, Cuschieri K, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Coverage Achievements in Low and Middle-Income Countries 2007–2016

This article, published in Papillomavirus Research, provides an analysis of HPV vaccine dose coverage in 41 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) between 2007 and 2016. According to the authors, final coverage estimates were all above 50 percent, …

Author: Gallagher KE, Howard N, Kabakama S, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Advancing Novel Oral Polio Vaccines: Planning for Long-Term Protection Against Polio Resurgence

This fact sheet provides an overview of the novel oral polio vaccine program, a consortium of PATH and partners that are working to advance novel vaccine candidates that will enable complete eradication and minimize the risk of polio making a …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

An N-terminal Pfs230 Domain Produced in Baculovirus as a Biological Active Transmission-Blocking Vaccine Candidate

This article, published in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, reports on the immunogenic potential of the N-terminal Plasmodium falciparum sexual-stage antigen (Pfs230C1) as a component of an effective transmission-blocking vaccine. According to the …

Author: Lee SM, Wu CK, Plieskatt JL, Miura K, Hickey JM, King CR

Publication date: 2017

BID Initiative Briefs: Recommendations and Lessons Learned

In partnership with the governments of Tanzania and Zambia, the Better Immunization Data (BID) Initiative developed, tested, and rolled out interventions that address the most pressing routine immunization service delivery challenges, such as poor …

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

Potential Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccination in Afghanistan

This article, published in Vaccine, reports the results of a study that estimated the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of a national rotavirus vaccination program in Afghanistan. The authors examined the use of Rotarix® administered in a …

Author: Anwari P, Debellut F, Pecenka C, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Early Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination in Children Less Than Five Years of Age in Mozambique

This article, published in Vaccine, describes a study that aimed to evaluate the early impact of rotavirus vaccine in reducing all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus-specific hopsitalizations among children under five years of age in Mozambique following …

Author: de Deus N, Chilaule JJ, Cassocera M, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Estimating the Full Public Health Value of Vaccination

This conference report, published in Vaccine, builds upon a discussion in the public health community on how to assess and incorporate, in addition to safety and measures of protective efficacy, the full public health value (FPHV) of preventive …

Author: Gessner BD, Kaslow D, Louis J, et al.

Publication date: 2017

The Cost of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Low- and Lower-Middle-Income Countries

This briefing paper discusses estimates of the cost and health impact of cervical cancer prevention (including human papillomavirus vaccination, screening, and preventive treatment) in countries with a per capita gross domestic product less than …

Author: Cervical Cancer Action

Publication date: 2017

Manufacturing Costs of HPV Vaccines for Developing Countries

This article, published in Vaccine, details an analysis designed to estimate the manufacturing costs (including annualized capital costs, vaccine yield, raw materials, manufacturing personnel, factory/administrative overheads, and filling/packaging) …

Author: Clendinen C, Zhang Y, Warburton RN, Light DW

Publication date: 2016

Progress With the Implementation of Rotavirus Surveillance and Vaccines in Countries of the WHO African Region, 2007–2016

This article, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record, summarizes progress made in rotavirus vaccine implementation in Africa following the World Health Organization's (WHO's) 2009 recommendation for routine childhood rotavirus vaccination …

Author: Mwenda JM, Burke RM, Shaba K, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Uptake of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Kenya: Testing the Health Belief Model Through Pathway Modeling on Cohort Data

This article, published in Globalization and Health, reports the results of a study that investigated the utility of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in Kenya. The data demonstrated that …

Author: Vermandere H, van Stam M-A, Naanyu V, Michielsen K, Degomme O, Oort F

Publication date: 2016

Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Willingness to Vaccinate in Preparation for the Introduction of HPV Vaccines in Bamako, Mali

This article, published in PLoS ONE, analyzed the individual knowledge, beliefs, perceptions of vaccine effectiveness, and family perspectives related to cervical cancer and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among adults and adolescents living …

Author: De Groot AS, Tounkara K, Rochas M, et al.

Publication date: 2017

Potential of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines: Country Fact Sheets

This set of nine country-specific fact sheets outlines the health and economic burden of typhoid as well as potential benefits of new typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) for each country. They also highlight the 2017 recommendation from the World …

Author: Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium

Publication date: 2017

The 2016 Vaccines Against Shigella and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VASE) Conference

This special issue of Vaccine reports on the proceedings of PATH's inaugural VASE Conference, which brought together more than 250 experts in Washington, DC, in June 2016 to discuss topics related to Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli …

Author: Walker RI, Oaks EV, eds.

Publication date: 2017

Considerations for Using ETEC and Shigella Disease Burden Estimates to Guide Vaccine Development Strategy

This article, published in Vaccine, summarizes various enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Shigella disease burden estimates, based on a review of current literature and informal consultations with leading stakeholders in enteric disease …

Author: Hosangadi D, Smith PG, Giersing BK

Publication date: 2017

The Global Respiratory Syncytial Virus Burden

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in infants and children across the globe. This fact sheet summarizes the latest RSV ALRI burden estimates at global, regional, and national levels.

Author: PATH

Publication date: 2017

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